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Dr. Lassen considers that three paths / suspect that still more probably it was a are necessary to this field of investigation : more polished and classical form of the palæography; the records of languages ; latter." That these inscriptions are to open and history. But we would say that the to us a new language of which we have no two latter inust be more closely studied, with specimens extant, seems to us, therefore, this object in view than appears to have both gratuitous and chimerical. been the case hitherto; and we must be al Professor Grotefend had proceeded so far lowed to suggest, that will the more ample as to frame almost an alphabet of these chagrounds he is expecting from Asiatic re- racters, and had actually made out the names search shall be discovered and examined, of Xerxes and Darius at Persepolis. This it will not be amiss to look closely, during first important and satisfactory discovery led the interval, into the authorities and sources naturally to others; and with the names of of information which we actually possess; Xerxes, and Darius Hystaspes, we find, and which, though familiariz d to us under says Lassen, two words, one of which must one impression, (we mean the classic his- mean king, the other, countries, though the torical,) may and will afford us much of grammatical form differs from the Zend and novelty as regards mooted points; provided Sanscrit
. The errors of copyists, too, inthat, in opening the volumes for this end, crease the difficullies of the undertaking. we also open our own minds to a wider Dr. Lassen's system, improving on the forrange of inpressions than the classical re- mer professor's, offers great facility; but we ferences themselves have supplied to us. think sone of his conjectural arguments in
The tract of land lying between the deduction incorr-ct. Euphrates and the great Persian desert, Dr. Latoun concedeo tho accuracy of tho and reaching from the gu'f of Ormuz to names discovered as regards the general the Caucasian range, was the seat of the value of the characters at least : though not early monarchies of Assyria and Babylon, always as to the precise sound of the characof the Medes and their conquerors; ii con- ter, and in this last he follows the system of tains consequently the remains of that un- MM. Rask, Bopp, and Burnouf. We think, known species of writing to which, for however, that the difference is not so great want of a better, has been given the appel. as it appears to be, and are satisfied ibat, in lation of the cuneiform, or arrow-headed some points referring to the Zend, Rask characters. They are found on ancient and his followers are at least as much in monuments from the lake Van, near Ham- error as Anquetil du Perron, whose alphaadan and E balana, at Babylon, and amongst bet they condemned. Rask, indeed, accuthe ruins of Persepolis; but sometimes as ses Du Perron of imitating too closely the forms of single letters, sometimes syllabic. modern Persian sounds; but he himself They accompany everywhere the progress derives his own information, as he tells us, of that conquering race, the Achæmenides; from Parsi priests in India. Now it does and their proper geographical position is surely seem more natural that the modern between the Semitic alphabets of the West Persian descendants of the Fireworshippers and the Indian characters of Eastern Asia. should retain the correct sounds of their anNo other alphabetic character appears to cient tongue in its native land, than that it have been known to ancient Asia, according should exist and be found in a purer state to Dr. Lassen : an assertion we must be amongst their fugitive descendants abroad; permitted to question hereafter. It is pro- the earlier portion, 100, of whom had lost bable, however, as he states, that the inscrip- the sacred sources of their language. The tions left by Darius after his Seythian cam- temporary conquest of the Arabs, with paign, were in this form-as seen by Hero-whom the conquered and broken but still dotus, and by him called Assyrian; but unbending Guebres sternly refused to mix this with modifications : for as we know at home, (as history and their known muthat the Assyrians used the Syriac language, tual abhorrence show,*) could not affect the unless Dr. Lassen can show that the inscrip- native pronunciation so much as residence for tions he introduces to us are Syriac also, we ages in a different country: and that the new can only admit his inference so far as the system resembles the Sanscrit, its assumed form, or charaeter, is concerned, and not derivative the Greek, and the Armenian, necessarily the language: that of the inscrip with all its corruptions of foreign wars and tions being, according to him as to Rask, in intercourse, is little evidence, in our opinion, all probability, old Persian, and not Median in favour of the system, but, on the contrary,
—a hazardous conjecture, which we doubt very much against it. The cloth worn by entirely, and which we think requires good proof to support it.
We consider that the Zend was probably the old Median ; but * See No. XXXV.
the priests over the mouth, as he relates, the notice of these laborious and accomwould operate equally against the hearer plished scholars. We take but one instance in either case. It is certain, however, that, out of many: the word maogho, or Mongul. in some sounds, the system of Du Perron The n, like the faint French m, is here alloapproaches nearer the ancient as well as gether dropped, or else supplied by the very modern derivatives; and also that our im form objected to both by Rask and Lassen, perfect knowledge of that ancient tongue and which, by an odd coincidence, very far, and its sister, the Pazend, prevents us from we are convinced, from accidental, finds a deciding with accuracy whether one letter perfect modern parallel in both Indian and might not sometimes have had two approxi- Portuguese; as nao used indifferently for mate sounds. We shall rezur to this here. nam. In fact, by the rapid pronunciation after.
of ao it becomes the nasal mor n, by a kind Dr. Lassen contends that, though some of physical necessity. There is a little exportion of Grotefend's discoveries are cor-travagance, too, in the last illustration rect, yet he had not hit upon the true me where we observe that various words of the dium for prosecuting them. He considers Spanish Peninsula are pure Zend; nearer the means to be, the shape of the character; than the Latin forms to which they have the language; and the rejection of doubtful been attributed, and consequently as old as inferences.
the Goths, at IEAST -probably very much As to the shape, we must ourselves pre- older. mise, for the satisfaction of the general We must also observe upon the second rwader, that the characters in question may head above quoted, of language, that since be divided into two classes: the arrow-Strabo found that Ariana, Media, and Perheaded, and the wedge: the former is sia, spoke dialects of the same language, as angular, or like the second part of the capi. Bactria, and Sogdiana a passage which tal K: the wedge is narrowed to a single in a former paper we held slight authority stroke: this last is either perpendicular, for the very ancient period we then referred horizontal, or aslant; and is also large, to, but to which we freely grant all the small, and minute, according as it is used weight it fairly deserves as an authority for in combination.
the time when it was written :-.
-- when 1st. Shape. If the angular, says our further consider that Nearchus* identified author, represents an aspiration, or the per- the Persian and Median tongues of his day pendicular wedge a sibilant, their applica- with the Karmanian, as only a dialectical tion would be obvious : but they both variety—it is clear that but one language become sibilants in the name of Hystaspes, prevailed throughout Persia at the time as s, &c.
The cuneiforın, in the shape of when thesetwo writers flourished. But the its letters, approaches no alphabet but the Zend, as we have formerly shownt by reaZend; and this one so very slightly that soning, history, and analogy, existed early no assistance is derivable thence.
in Aderbijian, and therefore we cannot un2nd. LANGUAGE. This is the old Per- derstand why Dr. Lassen should restrict sian ; it is unknown, and the modern Per- this, the sacred tongue, to Sogdiana and sian gives us lille aid here. The Zend Bactria, and the ancient Persie to Media was the old East-Persian, or Sogdio-Bac and Persia. We prefer Rask and Wahl trian; the old Persian, the Medo-Persic; and common sense on this head. Again, and probably one of these two tongues was as far as our own inquiries have gone we a dialect of the other.
are satisfied that the most ancient form of 3. OF DOUBTFUL Forms. Dr. Lassen, the Persiar differed widely from the Zend following Rask, points out an instance of Media. where the mistake of the character itself Dr. Lassen seems generally ignorant of, produces the mistake of a grammatical ter- or indiffereni to, English laborers. He mination, which they affirm is certainly not refers to St. Martin as making the first seriZend. We would ourselves point attention ous progress in deciphering, though confuto this error, if such it be; for the ao of sed by the vowels; and mentions Rask with Grotefend is the am of Lassen; and this deserved praise, though, from the reason nasal form and suppression is less, we think, assigned, we consider it slightly overrated. an error, than an indication of the equiva- To him, however, the discovery of two chalence and interchange of certain signs and racters is due. Of Chardin and Kämpfer their respective sounds in the ancient Persian. It is singular that an illustration of this kind, though not certainly in a genitive Τήν διάλεκτων την Κης ανιδδν Περσινή π χ Μηδι α case, though this, we conceive, makes no sipnat." difference whatever,- should have escaped † See No. XXXV. pp. 134, 138, 140.
he makes little account as copyists. Porter, termination, would suffice; but ive our. Le Brun, and Niebuhr fare better, e pe selves can hardly consent to ibis. Herodo. cially the last, who receives a neiled iri- tus supports our opinion, for he illustrates bute, in the folloving lively picture, from the naine, not by epšeins, as Dr. Lassen obfrom his hands:-"Nothing that he saw in serves, but hy špíïos, a fact we consider deciAsia," he observes, "struck Niebuhr so sive: but here we must make some remarks much as these inscriptions; he could not on that bislorian. rest till he had reached Persepolis: and he Dr. Lassen holds the correctness of the staid above three weeks in the desert, inces passage he has quoted, (Bk. vi. 98 ) and we santly copying and measuring the frag- cannot concei7; why commentators, like ments. The height of the inscriptions, en Beloe, should itempt to alter it. Herodograved on walls of old, black, and polished tus affirms, that the name of Xerxes signimarble, legible only when the sun was fies in Greek a Warrior, that of Artaxerxes shining, brought on a dangerous inflamma- a Greek Warrior: and some critics would tion of the eyes, and this, and the death of fain persuade us that by Greek he meant his Armenian servant, compelled him re- Persian! It is just possible that Herodotus luctantly to quit the Persian holy ground, knew his own meaning and language as before he had drained its archæological well as even his commentators : aperos, is simsources : the last night of his stay found ply the name of Mars, whom no one doubts the enthusiastic traveller sleepless; and to to be a warrior, we imagine; and apri, is, in his latest day the forms of these ruins re- composition, sufficiently near to Excelling mained ineffacably impressed upon his or Great for the Greeks and their historian mind, as the gem of all he had ever beheld.” to use it in this sense. The MSS. there.
We now remark on two or three points fore, may well contain the obnoxious word, of Dr. Lassen's researches, which appear as Dr. Lassen observes they do: but we to us erroneous, and illustrative of how far differ in toto from his assumption that Hethe exercise of learned ingenuity, on some rodotus uuderstood the Persian sepse also. questions, blinds the eye and the mind of So far as it appears from the succeeding even the ablest scholars to obvious facts sentence it is clear, indeed, that he did not; and conclusions. Dr. Lassen tells us that, and we affirm that arta is, like the Armefrom what Herodotus states, the name of nian varta, in the ancient l'ersian but Xerxes and of the warrior caste, Ksatra, another form of atar, fire; and that the must have begun with the same letter. compound Arta-Xerxes, or Art-Ashirashe, This (first) he takes from the old Persian is an epithet of pre-excellence, applied only form of shah (k,sah), and he tries the latter to the Great King,—the Pure or Glorious, portion by the Zend arsan, or eye, making as Fire. the compound term Lord eye (!) an epithet, In the word Darius," I lay aside," says we hope, intelligible in China at least. But the Doctor, the idea of Darhawus being a we do not mean our readers to go so far for patronymic, since neither in the Zendan elucidation. Why Dr. Lassen should Avosla, nor in these inscriptions, can I find have rejected what he admits to be the most a patronymic." He might have recollected, probable equivalent of the name, as furnish- we subnit
, that throughout the East paed by Geseniu., namely Ahasuerus fortronymics are unknown and therefore it Xerxes, we cannot imagine. The Thesau- was needless to seek them. We should be rus of the latter writer referred to perhaps inclined to derive it from the Zend neverdoes not give a solution; and, as it is not theless; as an epithet or title of the Preat hand, we offer our own. We suggest, server, or the Preserved. And when we that the aspirations strongly sounded be recollect that he was the restorer or introcome sibilant, and that the name Xerxes, or ducer of the preservation of fire, according Ashirashe ( Ahasuerus), is only a different to Persian writers, we may find thence one orthography of Ahoeroe, the Zend epithet source of the title; while the strange preof Oromuzd. The ahoeroe, with its fival servation of his descendant Darius, as iold aspirate, would supply the sibilant sâ, which also by Ferdousi, would he!p us to a second, Dr. Lassen finds in his way: or, if it is re- passive meaning, quired, to r dice ihis word to its compo.
of the word wairyo conjoined with nents, ahuro, hence arah, the ancient royn!! Qoluhro, or king, the Persian Shahrivar, name, being merely Aur, Ur, or Fire, and Rask confessed his ignorance. That great signifying its attribute bright or pure, (this scholar overlooked its synonym, the Scyword is a remarkable derivation of nup, or thian oiro, the Tartar oira, the Latin rar ; rather its Zend precursor peor,) and not in Man par excellence, as Great or important. the first instance holy, as Rask infers ; and It is probably, if Dr. Lassen will permit us, sa, the adjectival-possessive or attributive the cognate of his wozrok; the form of y and
of ç, being in the Zend character expressed
Le Brun's INSCRIPTION. by a double sign in both cases, and nol more dissiinuar than u and cc in our writ dârhawus. ksahih. wozork. ksåhqiah. ten band, which, in truth, when reversed ksáhqihânâm. ksâhgian.dañg hunâm. vistactowards the left, they resemble. This word påñghå. put. âkâmánisiah. ah. imam. tiram. may not impossibly be the ouro of Egypt, àônus. and the wuzeer of Turkey, as the y or theç predominates.
“Darius, rex magnus, rex regum, rex We are by no means satisfied with the terrarum, Vistaspis filius, Achæmenius. learned Doctor's reasons for preferring the
Is hanc portam construendam curavit.”— Sancrit form of Hystaspes, as master of the horse. The difficulty between g, h, and v Niebuhr's INSCRIPTION, (I.) in the modern Persian Gustasp, the Greek Hystaspes, and the Vistaçpa, is simply re [Line 1 to 7.1—"adom. darba wus. kaâhsolvable by recalling the use of the digam 3ah. wazark. ksâhiah. ksáh2ihânám. ksah
And since the Zend name, which is žjah. dañghunân. tesâm. psunâm. vistâg. most likely the correct one, goes absolutely pañzhà put. âkâm“nisjah. Zatiah. dârhowus. to confirm, and still more by its genitive k sah2iah. wasnâ auromazdañga. imâ. denform, the well known story of a kingdom ghawa. thâ. gained through a horse, it seems a strange mixture of scepticism and credulity to reject "Posui Darius, rex magnus, rex regum, an etymon from its native term and tradi- rex populorum horum bonorum, Vistaspis tion, and to imagine an Indian language filius, Achæmenius nobili genere. Darius supplying the first, and thus overthrowing
rex voluntate Auramazdis. Hi populi the latter. We do not, in fact, see that Dr.
illi.”—p. 146. Lassen has anywhere gained much assistthe ; .
[Lines 7 to 10.]—“âdam. adarsiah, ada. and though he notices, and it is a singular ána. a. paraca. kara. tha. ayam. atasç. monâ. circumstance, that the aforesaid alphabetic
bagian. abar. system reseinbles the Devanagari, ihis is by
"Posui debellator. Heic hi Persæ mino means a conclusive evidence, or even nistri.
Isti (popu i) adorationem igni, indication ; for this last resembles at least mihi tributa attulerunt.”—p. 120. as closely other alphabets hitherto unnoticed. "Is it," the Doctor asks, "that the [Lines 10 to 18.]—“Choana, Media, BaDevanagari is a completion or perfected bylon, Arbela, Assyria, Gudraha, Armenia, state of other ancient defective alphabets ??| Cappadocia, Capardia, Hunæ; tum hi UsWe answer distinctly in the affirmative : cangæ ; porro hi Drangæ; porro regiones for we conceive the proofs are before us, hæ; Parutes, Agaxartia, Parthæ, Zarangæ, though we cannot go at length into the Areiæ, Bactria, Cugdia, Chorazmia, Zalaquestions in this place. Nor does the Doc. gadus, Arachosia, India, Godar, Cacæ, Ma. lor himseil find room in his present work ci.”—p. 152. for replying to two other questions, which he puts, and which he accordingly leaves to [Lines 18, 19.1—" ?atioh. dârhowus. ksahtime to answer. We offer the questions zieh. haki“h. themselves nevertheless to our readers :
“Nobilis Darius rex domitor.”—p. 153. “How is it that no traces of these alphabets (previous to the Sanscrit) are NienbuHR's INSCRIPTION, (H). found to the eastward of the great Persian desert, in lands which Ormuzd first [Lines 1 to 51—"Aur'm'zda. w'zark. created? And will time bring us an ex. ah. mist". buganam. a4": darbarum. planation soon ?" “Is this cuneiform alphabet simplified ksahgilam. adada
. aus"dah.'ksim. fralar from other and more complicated sources,
wasna. Quran"zdàñgha. darhawus. kzahor are they deduced from it ?"
24h. Sati“h. We cannot answerthese difficulties here. “ Auramazdes magnus. Is maximarus
We must content ourselves with giving felicitatum, existentia donavit regem Dathe reader the result of the learned profes auxit ex voluntate Auramazdis Darius,
Intelligentia præditus regnum adsor's investigations, intre inscriptions Whose meanings he has unravelled-though some
regia piogenies."—p. 158. portions are, as will be seen, still unex [Lines 5 to 7.[-—"darhewus, ksah2iah. plained.
iha. dahaus .par°C. thâm. mona. Auromoz Xerxes, rex magnus, ille sego] mihi da. frabar.
palatium posui. Tum hoc ibi alterum pa
latium meridiem spectans. ex voluntate Darius, rex hujus terræ Pericae. Eam Auramazdis.”—p. 170. per me evexit Auramazdes.”—p. 159.
“aonwam. mam. auramamzda. patoq4. ada. [Lines 7 to 11.]—“añgha. niba. upota. bøgibis. utamiha, kstom. uta. Lahmıha karm. uma rtiba. wagnâ. auramzd ñgå. mouya.
“ Conditorem me, o Auramazdes, tuere darhawaus. ksah2ihangha. ayà. annihonaâ.
heic felicitate, tum hoc regnum, tum hoc
palatium.”—p. 171. “Ei sit cultus propitio. Ex voluntate Auramazdis ex mente Darii regis, (sint preces).”-p. 160.
LE BRUN'S INSCRIPTION. [Lines 13 to 16.]—"mona. auramazdâ.
[Lines 1 to 5.]—“baga wazurk. aurdamazupagtâm. bartaya. ada. vifibis. bagibis. uta. da. ah. imam. buvam. ada. ah. a uvoza. açmaimâm. dunghaum, aur mazda. pål"q". nam. ada. ab. martibim. ada. ah. sihatim.
ada. martihangha- ah. ksharsam. nobom. “A me accipe, o Auramazdes, cultum àônus. aiwam. psunam. nahom. aiwem. psuheic felicibus palatiis : et tuere, o Aura
nam. fiamnataram. mazdes, hanc terram.”—p. 152. Note-- Lines 11, 12, 16 to 18, &c. of this hanc terram creavit
, is cælum excelsum
"Felicitate magnus Auramazdes. Is inscription are not explainable.
creavit, is mortales creavit, is fata mor-
bonorum rectorem.”—p. 172.
[Lines 6 to 10.]—"adam. ksharsa. nh
wazark. nah, nahanam. nah. daññbunam. Niebuhr's INSCRIPTION, (G.)
sunaznanam. nab. a`nghaha. bumiha. - ksharsa. ksah2ioh. wazurk. ksahşiha- gha. put. akamonisiah. Zatiah. ksharsa. noa.
wazurka ha. duriah. apyah. darha waus. nahannam dat vaus. AsahihoẼgha. put akano zork. wasna. aurongla, mozzanga. nisiah.
“Posui Xerxes, rex magnus, rex re“Xerxes, rex magnus, rex regum, Da- gum, rex populorum, benè parentium, rex rii regis filius Achæmenius.”—p. 105.
existentis orbis terrarum magni sustenta
tor, auctor, Darii regis filius, Achæmenia
luntate Auramazdis.”—p. 174.
[Dines 11 to 15.14"m. akis. darhawus. zihem. aonus. aiwám. psunam. ksahļihom. nav. âònus, ah, mona. pita mam. am*mozda. aiwam. psunam. främataram.
pataqa. ada. bagibis. uta. tamiha. kartam. uta.
lamiha pit. darha waus. nohangha. kariam. "Is (Ormuzdes) Xerxes (Xerxem ?) awasiyah. auromozda. pat"q". ada. bagibis. regem constituit, felicem bonorum regem, felicem bonorium rectorem."-p. 166.
“[Palatium] domitor Darius rex con
stituit. “adam. ksharsi. ksah siah. wazirk. ksah
Is meus pat. r. Memet tuere, Au
ramazdes, heic felicitate ; tum hoc ibi pa2iah. ksah?ıhanam. ksah2iah. dúñ hunam.
latium, tum hoc patris Darii regis palatipsuwazoatiam. ksahaiah. aaibaba. bumiha. um, excelse Auramazdes, tuere heic feliwazarkaha. duriah. apyah. darbuiaus, ksah citate.” 2ih'ogha. put. akamuisi.h. Zatih.
For the age that has found the key of “ Posui Xerxes, rex magnum, rex re- Egyptian hjeroglyphics and cuneiforin chagum, rex populorum, benè parentium, rex
racters one point at least is gained; namely, existentis orbis terrarum magni sustenta- that the Zend is now, even more ihan after tor, auctor, Darii regis filius, Achæmenia
the triumphant arguments of the Rask, proprogenies.”—167.
ved to have existed in its widest pretended “ksharsa. ksah2i^h. 1v@zork. xah. inona extension, against the opinion of some of the kertom. dada. uta. tamiha. aptaroin. kartam. most learned of sceptics. awa dicam. wesna. auram“zdañgh(a).
We have noticed lately in the proceed