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ings of the Oriental Society, a statement! shall call Median, bring of the age of Dain its learned President of the doub s ibat rius-Hysia-pes and Xerxes, whereas that of by England at least, affirmed by English the Zend-Avosta was, admitting its purity, Oiientalists in general to be a mere jargon long after the reign of Alexander, and not and utierly factitious; whilst, on the con- improbably affected in some degree by the trary, Continental scholars uniformly sup- introduction and intermixture of Greek, port is pretensions to reality. We must at during the troubled times of his successors. once acquit a portion at any rate of our Since ihe fugitive Guebres of India receivcountryman from the charge of this increed their sacred Books, as it is asserted, dulily, as some members, then present, im- from Persia, long after their separation, it mediately avowed their conviction of its is clear that, to read it, they must have regenuineness. It would be hard to deter- tained their native language: but since mine to what extent a system of doubt might they had not the written volumes of their not be carried, if, because we see imperfec- ancient tongue till then, is it not probable tions and irregularities in the only wrecks that their speech and pronunciation became that are left to us of a language, we were linctured with those of Hindostan ? at liberty to determine that, since we It is not to be wondered at if some doubts cannot explain what we see, it has conse- have occurred in the minds of the eminent quently no existence? We imagine that scholars we have mentioned above, as to the fact of the publication of Dr. Lassen's the precise nature of the language in which volume has escaped notice in England: but the luscriptions are writien, and that differsince the ingenuity of Professor Grotefend ences of opinion have existed as to the value first caught the clue, the labors of St. Mar- of its characters or letters. The more caretin, Lissen, and Burnouf, upon the Conti- fully we examine the subject by a comparinent, have woven the web into a consistent son of several Inscriptions, some of them, texture with the relics of the tongue preserv. as M. Burnouf remarks, similar, if not ed till now only in the Zend-Avosta a and identical, the more thoroughly shall we be few other fragments. Whether, therefore, convinced that the slight differences which the language of the Inscriptions is or is not alone prevent their absolute identity, springs precisely the same with that of those Parsi trom the substitution of one form of orthogvolumes, the difference being only, at most, raphy for another, and from positive chana dialectical variety, such as ancient wri- ges of letters. These varieties do not apters affirmed of the speech of the old Per- pear accidental, though they have given sian tribes, we know not how to escape the rise to great consusion. On the contrary, conclusion that the above opinion of some they appear to have been based upon esof our countrymen is decidedly erroneous, tablished rules, framed with a nicely that since the very rocks bear the evidence of a argues in favor of a highly cultivated state living language against them.

of grammatical science in a very remote But what is the language? it is asked. age of Persian history, and forming, we do We answer on our own responsibility, not hesitate to say, a prototype of the SanMedian. That some scholars, amongst scrit. We are strongly inclined to espouse them Dr. Lassen as we have seen, doubt several letters of Grote fend's system ; some this, and proceeds so far as to point out from the general admission of their valueconjecturally the exact location of the some that differ from Dr. Lassen's arrangespeech of the Inscriptions, is by no means ment—but that support and bear out beconclusive, we submit

, in the state of un- yond all contradiction the facts we have certainty to which the blanks of History just stated, so important for the history of and Philology have reduced us. On the language. other hand, St. Martin, Bopp, and Profes As instances we wouid compare the sor Burnouí, hold an opinion nearly simi- mode of spelling the word bumiha in Dr. lar to ours. But even they, it seems, are Lassen's (Niebuhr's) inscription A. with the somewhat embarrassed by the apparent dif- orthography of the same word on the slabin ference of termination between the lan-the British Museum. In the last line of anoguage of the Inscriptions and that of the ther inscriprion in the Museum, we find the Parsi Books.

i or a of Grotefend performing the duty of While we utterly, and from the most per- m : in other places the m is substituted by fect conviction, deny the proposition ihat n, or uh—and continually the initial a is the former is Old Persian, we think the so-exchanged for the guttural a or o after a lution of the second difficully simple. Th. word terminating with a vowel, or even language does differ from the Zend, but perhaps an aspirate. Hence the different merely because their is a difference in their opinions respecting the value of particular date. That of the Inscriptions, which wel letters are easily reconcileable; and we

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would point out the remarkable instance of | peculiarities aparently strengthening our the Ghain, which, ofien used as ng, nh, n conjecture. li is here that the cuneifuim and m, is also repeatedly put in the place of characters come in to our assiztanick, mututhe initial a, precisely as sounded in the ally reflecting and receiving light with their modero Persian word' Atar, and evidently originais, the Hebrew. The 7, » Kaph, to avoid the elision of the Final.

has many varieties of aspiration or guttural A language fenced with such extraordi- force, K, Kh, Khh, Q, Qu, &c. The cormary care from corruption musi, in all responding Cuneiform alphabetic character probability, have adhere to the system presenis us first with iwo angular forms, in speaking as in writing; and thus we d-noting, as every maere else in our opin conceive ourselves fully borne out in the ion, (Dr. Lassen will excuse us,) a double opinion, that the alphabetical estimations of or very strong aspiration; to accompany Rask are not invariably to be received, and the utterance of the fixed, or consonantal, that his corrections of Anquetil du Perron sound, determined, we do not hesitate to are noi in all cases correct. We rather say, by the two perpendicular wedges that should be tempted to admit the double value follow them. of various letters of the Zend alphabet as The 2, o, Mem; so strongly consonantal given by those two writers, corroborated, at times, at times so perfecıly faint and nasal, not merely by the

&c. is fixed by ihe elongated shape to the forbut by the unquestionable testimony of the mer sound as a Final. Our knowledge of Cuneiform Inscriptions.

the Zend or Median cunciforın value of this We would for a moment digress, if it is let:er is a point that may be disputed at predigressing, here, to utter a few remarks sent, and therefore we do not adduce ii in upon a not immaterial nor irreleuant ques- illustration hare, though our own conviction tion.

is that it fully bears out the argument. It With regard to the Finals of ancient, if is also clear that in some languages it was, not of modern, oriental speech, we think it as a Final, both consonantal and nasal, for almost a certainty that these, in many in the Latin, which we deduce from the Zend, stances, materially differed from the value uses the elision of it before a vowel: in poof the same character in other situations, i. etry at least this is demonstrable, and here e. from Initials or Medials. We cannot be first we find the reason for this rule. satisfied to consider them merely as marks The

1, .,

Nun, we find either consonantal of the termination of a word in writing, be- or nasal'; and in various languages the cause the same necessity would exist in same rule applies to it as 10 the M, for words terminrting with other letters. Since which it is so frequently substituted; as, the Hebrew or Chaldaic, the oldest gene for instance, in the Arabic, the nearest affrally admitted language, has various termi- nity to Hebrew. The double horizontal nations of words, therefore it is that we wedge, in parallel before the angle (or se would examine the grounds of their having cond part of a K) gives, we consider, a defionly a fe iv Finals; that is to say, of a dif- nite sound before an aspirate in the cuneiferent shape from the usual form of the form character; and this legitimizes its gecharacter.' They would not want only a neral sound as preserved in Hindostan and partial distinctness; but when we notice France; while the placing another angle that these Finals are the 7, Kaph-the-, before the parallel wedge (i hereby inclosing Mem—the 7, Nunthe 1, Pe-the P, them) gives that sound which is especially Tsaddi--we feel ourselves irresistibly preserved in the Portuguese nh. drawn to two conclusions.

Hebrew and Turkish &c. also, this Ghain In the first place, by comparing these Fi- is also Oin, the very guttural A we refer to nal letters with their cognate Initials or Me- in a preceding paragraph, and settling the dials respectively, », ?, , B, , we find that double value of this letter. the former are simple elongations of the lat The D, 9, Pe, is nearly every where in ter;—that is to say, a simple and obvious the East confounded with B, and this last indication to the eye that the voice or sound with bh or v. The two small double anwas to be also elongated. And this propo gles of the cuneiform alphabet preceding a sition of ours would hold trne whether the long perpendicular wedge, give the soit or letter, as we have here supposed, was the aspirated sound of B (which, reversed, it so first indication of the sound, or merely an closely resembles) to this character, and asimitation of it, and representation of an ex- similate it with the ancient Slavonic, both in isting usage in speech.

value and shape. The Hebrew Final, In the second place, if we notice the value therefore, in all probability guarded the of the characters thus selected for a varia- pure sound of p tion of form in the Final, we observe some The Tsaddi, is also notorious for

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its corruptions, as d, dz, dj, j, zhe, &c. The Sogdio-Bactrian, that raises, we submit, this
double angles of the Cuneiform, each mark conjectural difficulty at all.
ing an aspiration, and placed under an hori To bis second question, whether the cune-
zontal wedge defining a consonantal sound, form alphabet is simplified from others more
show, we conceive unquestionably, that the complex, or whether they are derived from
aspirate thus becomes sibilant. The elon. it?-we should be tempted to answer, that it
gated form of the Hebrew Final confines is probably not derived from any that we
the terminal to a precise sound, by elonga- know; and that only an occasional letter of
ting the utterance.

any
other
system

is derived from it: such as If this opinion of ours is correct, all ma- the cuneiform a, consisting of one horizontal terial confusion was probably avoided in above three perpendicular lines, which is Hebrew letters; since the Finals, for one clearly the Zend a also, and the Armenian class or portion only, were sufficient for dis-e ; and which in the Egyptian hieroglyphic tinction from the remainder, and advantage writing repeatedly occurs with the value of ous for simplicity also. That the Arabs ex- both, and, if we in common with others are tended this principle is only in keeping with not grievously mistaken, at times with the the other complications of their elaborate value of other vowels also; facts which suf grammatical system They may have done ficiently vindicate Professor Grotefend's esit merely for uniformity, but more probably timation of the character. for the sake of attaching a peculiar value to We must also object to Dr. Lassen's transthe terminal.

lation of m a m in all instances by the Latin It will be seen that, considering the per-me. We feel satisfied that it is only the pendicular wedge to bestow a consonantal elision of the initial in some cases, and that sound, and the horizontal as confirming it, in these it is simply the word imam. The we are giving cognate uses to forms that dif- regular insertion of the same Inscription fer only as to the direction in which they found in different places into the same numare drawn; also that, by our estimation of ber of lines, which M. Bournouf remarks, the vowel '{, we consider it, with some wri- is not more singular, perhaps not so much ters, a consonant. We do so consider it so as the fact, that the orthography of these, and all other long vowels in the East, and otherwise identical, Inscriptions varies withhave also a strong suspicion that this is the out any assignable cause, so far as our knowreal sense of the ancient passage of Plato, ledge extends—whether from some unknown that letters first in Syrian invention repre. rule, some carelessness of the writer or sented syllables. We hold this confirmed sculptor, some difference of different schools, by the Cuneiform Inscriptions, which, enor merely dialectical variations, it were vain larging on the Hebrew, add, we think, vo- to conjecture. cality or aspiration to every letter; and, as The subject is one of the deepest interest one striking instance to illustrate and fami- to philology, but we are sorry to find it treatliarize this supposition, we find the 19x, ed with such indifference or scepticism in A-U-R, of the Hebrew expanded into the England. Whether from this last

, or any Zend A-hU Ro. We farther suspect that other cause, we know not, nor desire to the European and general modes of pro- know, but we cannot refrain from pointing nouncing Hebrew are WRONG: and that the attention to the circumstance that, of the Sanscrit will help us to its proper enuncia- works from which we would have fain elution. Further reasons for this opinion we cidated our researches, scarcely one was to cannot detail here.

be found when we sought it in the Library To return to our author.

of the British Museum. Notwithstanding To the question of Dr. Lassen, why no the intercourse with Germany, neither the traces of alphabets previous to the Sanscrit Vienna Jahrbucher, nor the Halle Litteratur appeared eastward of the Persian desert-Zeitung appeared in its Catalogue, nor even though not perfectly certain of the sense he the Magasin Encyclopedique of France. To attaches to the phrase "in lands which Or- the labors of Millin and the remarks of De muzd first created''-—we shall attempt a re- Sacy we have therefore no means of referply by observing, that since the Brahmins ence. But will it be credited that Profesmay be fairly suspected of abolishing all sor Burnouf of Paris, on the deserved celehistory not their own, and the Jainas openly brity of whose researches into this particular charge them with this, they are also open to tongue, the Zend, we should think we need the farther suspicion of abolishing any mo- not remark, will it be credited that his Comnuments of foreign literature, if they ever mentary on the Yacna, and his volume on existed, in those places which is questiona- the Cuneiform Characters, though sufficientble:—and it is only the learned writer's as- ly long published, are not to be found there, sumption of what we should call Median, or any more than his treatise on the Pali lan

15

VOL.

XX.

guage !-and that the only work out of several by this accomplished and eminent Art. XIII.-Grundriss der Pflanzengeoscholar in the pages of the Catalogue, is a graphie, mit ausführlichen UntersuchunSupplemental Pamphlet containing a cor gen über das Vaterland, den Anbau, und rection of some of the errors of the Pali den Nützen der vorzüglichsten Cultur. treatise.

pflanzen welche den Wohlstand der Völ. To these instances of omissions how ma ker begründen. Von F. J. F. Meyen. ny more might be added ! We ourselves (Essay on Botanical Geography, with recollect, out of a list of sixteen Spanish detailed Inquiries respecting the Native historical writers some years since, obtain Country, the Cultivation, and the Utility, ing but three from the Museum Library, of the principal cultivated Plants which and nearly all the remainder from the constitute the Basis of the Welfare of King's! The private collection, therefore, Nations. By Dr. F. J. F. Meyen.) 1 was richer than the National in this im vol. 8vo. Berlin, 1830. portant branch of Foreign Literature; and but for that munificent gift, the PÚBLIC The reputation of Dr. Meyen as a diligent LIBRARY OF THE Nation would proba- and judicious observer, already established bly be devoid of them to this day. There by his interesting narrative of his voyage is a book, it is true, where readers may put round the world, * must be not only susdown what is not, but ought to be, in the tained, but much increased by this new Library: and thanks to the zeal and acti. work; a great portion of the materials for vity of the Librarians, such works are which are the fruits of his own personal promptly supplied. The fault is not with experience and observation, which enabled them. But surely it would be no disgrace him to improve and extend what had been if our Legislature, which deprives every, done by the few writers who had preceded even the poorest, author or bookseller of him in this interesting, but hitherto comeleven copies of every edition of every work, paratively neglected, branch of botanical to relieve the poverty of the richest Univer. inquiry, in which, though the harvest is so sities and the richest People in the world, ample, the laborers have been but few. At were to provide something like a proper the head of the list is A. v. Humboldt, return, by purchasing from happier foreign whose " Essai sur la Geographie des ers the works it cannot obtain gratis, per Plantes," 1 vol. 4to. was published at Pa. force, from them: and this, too, promptly, ris, in 1803; his " Ansichten der Natur" instead of waiting till it can drive a gratis in 1807, in which there is a short Essay bargain of its duplicates, many of them, on the Physiognomy of Plants, and his doubtless, procured in the liberal manner Essay “ De Distributione Geographica we have just referred to, in order to divide Plantarum," 8vo. Paris, 1817. A late very the Credit of this National Disgrace, by estimable work is that of M. J. Schow, of making Strangers participators in the spo- Copenhagen, published in Danish and liation of its own subjects. There is but a German in 1823. To these may be added, few pounds difference between economy Wahlenberg's works, on the Flora of Lapand meanness; a trifle between respectabi- land, the vegetation and climate of Switlity and shame. Could not one person be zerland, and the Flora of the Carpathian found, at home or abroad, to point out what Mountains ; and Mr. Robert Brown's Geis most essential in the literature of other neral Remarks on the Botany of Terra countries, and to see it procured ? Every Australis. book entered, as now, in the Procuranda of Though this work is highly important the Museum is an opportunity lost for the to botanists, one of whom told us that he student, a reproach gained for supineness diligently studied it by day and meditated and neglect! Would not £1000 per annum on it by night, and though it contains a vaeffect all that is wanted on this head, or riety of information interesting to the genemust we wait to enlarge our minds till the ral reader, who takes delight in the beauwalls of the Museum itself are enlarged, ties of the vegetable world without professfor fear our intellects should exceed its li- edly studying them, our circumscribed mits!

limits will not allow of more than a few extracts.

“The entire mass of species of plants is in a certain proportion to the several

* Reviewed in our XXIXth Number.

zones of the earth's surface; it increases title of “Enumeratio Plantarum quas in as we approach the Equator, and dimi- Novæ Hollandiæ ora Austro-Occidentaly, nishes as we recede from it. Lapland ad fluvium Cygnorum, et in sinu regis has 509 phanerogamous and 600 crypto- Georgii collegit Carolus liber Baro de Husmaller but situated more to the south, gel." From this work it appears that in has 1034 phanerogamous and 2000 cryp

the short

space of three weeks Baron Hutogamous plants. According to De Can- gel collected on the Swan River and in dolle, France has 3500 phanerogamous King George's Sound above 300 plants, of and 2300 cryptogamous; latterly, how- which nearly two-thirds are new. We ever, above 6000 phanerogamous plants may judge from this what we may expect have become known, only from the East from his collection in the Himmalaya, the Indies, by means of the Herbaria of the vale of Cashmere, and the dominion of the English East India Company; and it is highly probable that more than twice that Seiks. In connection with this subject Dr. number of plants of this kind belong to Meyen has a very interesting chapter on that country. The whole of Europe, on Botanical Statistics (Statistik der Gewäthe contrary, though so much more ex- chse). tensive than India, has only a little more than 7090 phanerogamous plants:

“If we range through this immense va“It would be highly interesting, and riety of plants we shall soon find that naeven now most important to botanical geo:ture, in similar circumstances of climate, graphy, to be acquainted with the total has produced similar forms, nay often the number of speceis of plants that clothe same form. Banks and Solander, as well the earth's surface. For many years past as the two Forsters and Sparmann, who there have been calculations and conjec-were with Captain Cook in two of his voytures on this subject; which, however, ages round the world, were not a little have been always proved to be defective surprised on finding about Cape Horn a by the discoveries of recent travellers. vegetation resembling that of our northern At the death of Linneus 8000 species were zone. If we examine the vegetation of known, and now more perhaps than the plains from the high northern latitudes 66,000 have been described. The number to the torrid zone, we shall find with the of those in the Herbaria of different na change of latitude a constant change in tions not yet described may amount to the physiognomy of the vegetable world; many thousands, so that the sum total of and the same change, often more or less plants hitherto discovered may be 80,000. perceptible, will be recognized, if in those But if we consider what immense tracts torrid regions we ascend from the level of of country, as well in America, as in Asia, the sea to the summit of the highest mounAustralia, and the South Sea Íslands, are tains, which there so frequently rise above still entirely unexplored; if we reflect on the line of eternal snow. There we shall the vast continent of Africa, which, within a short time traverse all the climates the exception of some totally sterile sandy which correspond with those of sultry Afdeserts, is as rich in various species of rica, of the beautiful countries of Southern plants as Europe and Asia are known to Europe, and those of frozen Spitzbergen; be, we may at the least double the num- and in the same proportion as the variaber of plants already known, so that we tions of climate occur on those mounshall have 160,000 species. It is also no- tains, with the increasing elevation does torious that many recent travellers, who the vegetation likewise change. The have explored countries long since visit- magnificent palm and the nutritious banaed, have found such a quantity of new

na are no longer to be seen at the eleva plants, that the above number of 160,000 tion of 7 or 8000 feet, but in the vicinity of may

be very fairly increased by one-the eternal snow of those mountains we fourth, and we may thus assume at least find grasses, cyperoidæ, gentianæ, cruci200,000 kinds of plants as a number per- feræ, and other plants entirely resembling haps pretty near the truth. If the interior those of our northern Europe.'' of Africa should be one day opened to us, and the mountainous parts of Australia explored, some of the most important which may occasion such peculiar distribu

If we more closely investigate the causes points in botanical geography will be elucidated.”

tion of plants, we shall find that they are

sometimes such as appear perceptible to our In confirmation of the above, we may observation, but often such as depend on the mention that the Austrian traveller, Baron most mysterious laws of nature, the effects von Hugel, who was lately in London on of which we can trace but by no means achis return from six years travel in Asia, count for. If a plant brought from hot New Holland, and the Cape, has brought countries flourishes also among us, as soon with him a very rich Herbarium, contain as we give it in our hothouses a climate like ing a very great number of new plants, and that from which it came, we have certainly has just published a small work under the found the proximate cause why this plant

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