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fully. He was very expert at all bodily ate niece, she is surrounded by a select cirexercises, and spoke French extremely cle of friends, among whom are some of well and with the greatest fluency. His about her own standing; the heroes of the was the most refined elegance, and a man empire and the favorites of the Restoration, nificence which was carried to prodigali- all are glad to be admitted, and hear her still parture that I painted the portrait of the delightful conversation. She has even paintPrince of Wales; it was nearly a whole ed the portrait of M. Poujoulat since she length, and in uniform."

passed her eightieth year, and the signs of old

age have not sunk deeper than the exIt would appear that more jealousy was ternal wrinkles which years will bring with felt against Madame Lebrun in England them. than any where else, and this portrait of the We trust that we have now interested our Prince of Wales heightened it so much, that readers for Madame Lebrun as much as we her rivals attacked not only the artist, but could desire, and we cannot do better than the lady and all her compatriots of the pen- recommend them to read the volumes of cil, which occasioned a spirited letter on the which we have given but an imperfect sketch. part of Madame Lebrun, but which has too We cannot, however, close it, without menmuch of the woman in it; and we think it tioning some separate sketches of character, was scarcely worth the while of one so strong drawn by Madame Lebrun, and placed at in her own fame and excellence to notice the the end of the first volume. Some of them production to which it alludes. We were are inefficient, and she certainly sees every glad to read her remarks” concerning the thing en beau, but as she confines herself to general feeling evinced in England at the what she herself knew of the parties, we murder of the Duke d'Enghien; his unhap. may rely on the correctness of the statements. py father went to see her about a month af. From them we offer one specimen, with terwards, so altered that she scarcely knew which we shall take our farewell of the him. At first he could not speak, but, seat- gifted Madame Lebrun. ing himself in a chair, covered his face with his hands, burst into tears, and then exclaim "Jacques Delille was a child during his ed, “ Non, je ne m'en consolerai jamais !” — whole life, but one of the best, the most and in fact he never recovered his former amiable and spirituel of all children. He vivacity.

was called 'chose légère,' and I have been Madame Lebrun visited many

places in thet, for no man ever fluttered through life

always struck with the aptness of the epiEngland, such as Brighton, Tunbridge more lightly, without being strongly atWells, Matlock, Bath, Warwick Castle, of tached to any thing in this world. Enjoyall of which she speaks in raptures; and, ing the present without thinking of the fuafter three years passed in this country, she ture, he rarely concentrated his mind into hastened back to Paris by way of Holland, deep thought. Nothing was more easy to meet her daughter, who had arrived there than to acquire a complete influence over from Russia, and where she remained till marriage is a strong proof of this. He had

him, to guide him, or to lead him; and his she died; her husband and she having be complained to every one of the heavy come so indifferent to each other, as to be chain which he wore, while it was yet time perfectly happy apart

. Madame Lebrun to break it. At last a friend persuaded made one journey more in order to see Swit- him to set himself free, and offered him an zerland, and at her return bought a country- asylum in his house. "Delille accepted the house at Louveciennes, on the banks of the offer, was delighted, determined, and only Seine in sight of the beautiful woods of his things together. In the evening, his

asked for an hour in order to get some of Marly, and close to the spot to which the fa- friend, finding that he did not come, went mous Madame Dubarry retired on the death to seek him. Well, well,' answered Deof Louis XV. She resumed all her former lille, 'I am going to marry her, my friend, habits, renewed her musical soirées, at which I hope you will be kind enough to serve as Catalani often sang, and where she intro- a witness.' duced the famous tragie actress, Mademoi

"The Count de Choiseul-Gouffier, with selle Duchesnois, to public notice. In 1815,

whom he was very intimate, and who was she was plundered at Louveciennes by the going to Greece, repeatedly asked him to

go with him. Nothing, however, had been allied troops; in 1818 her only child and agreed on, nothing was settled for this her husband quitted this world, and in voyage. On the day of departure, the 1820 she lost her only brother, to whom she Count went to the Abbé and said, 'I start was fondly attached. In order to recover immediately; come along, the carriage is her spirits, she went to Bordeaux, and now ready.' Thé Abbé complied, without hashe passes her time between Louveciennes M. &e Choiseul had provided every thing.

ving made any, preparation, and in fact and Paris; she is cherished by an affection

" When they reached Marseilles, Delille

walked upon the shore, and looking at the Itality of the Soul. He read it to Chausea, a deep melancholy came over him. '1 mette, and when he came to the verse never can,' said he, put this immense ele. which ends thus, ment between my friends and myself; no ! I will go no further.' He then secretly • Tremble! for you are immortal,' quitted M. de Choiseul, and hid himself in an obscure inn, where he thought he could be stopped, looked round the court, and not be found; but, after much search, M. in a strong and steady voice repeated, de Choiseul discovered him, brought him You also tremble-you are immortal. back, and they embarked together. Although Chaumette was confused, he

" When separated from his friends, he murmured some threats. 'I am quite reanever forgot them, and wrote often to them. dy,' answered Delille ; “I have just read He sent me several letters from Athens, you my will. For this once, the courage where he said he had inscribed my name of the good man was successful, for Chauin the temple of Minerva, and from Na- mette told his friends that it was not yet ples I, in my turn, wrote to him that I had, time to put Delille to death, and protected with much more reason, inscribed his on him from that moment. The poet, howthe tomb of Virgil.

ever, thought it prudent to emigrate; he “The Abbé Delille passed his life in high went to England, where he was received society, of which he formed one of the and sought after by all distinguished most brilliant ornaments. He not only persons. repeated his verses in the most delightful “ The powers of his muse were always manner, but his refined wit, bis natural reserved for his legitimate sovereigns. gaiety, gave an unspeakable charm to his Under the reign of the usurper, who made conversation. No one could tell a story the whole world tremble, he published his like him, and he delighted all circles by a poem of 'La Pitié,' and returned to France. thousand recitals, a thousand anecdotes, He was courageous enough also to resist without ever mingling scandal or satire the deceitful caresses of absolute power. with them, therefore it may be said, that He did not fear to incur misfortune, proevery one loved him, and he loved every vided that he preserved his self-esteem, body. The latter good quality, if it be one, the esteem of his friends, and the general I think proceeded from the weakness of admiration, all of which he enjoyed to his character of which I have already spoken. last hour.” He knew not how to hate or to resist; if he had promised to dine with you, even at the moment of coming, any one else who came to seek him, might take him in another direction, and you might expect him in vain. I recollect that we one day re- ART. II.-1. Geschichte von Böhmen, grösproached him for not having kept his word with us, and he had an answer rea

stentheils nach Urkunden und Hand. dy. 'I always persuade myself,' said he,

schriften, (History of Bohemia, for the that he who comes to seek me is more most part from MSS. and original Docueager to have me than he who expects me.' ments.) Von Franz Palacky. Prag. 1836.

“Some instances of his simplicity Vol. I. strongly remind me of La Fontaine. One 2. Starozitnosti Slovanske. (Slavonian An. evening, when he came to supper at my

tiquities.) Pred P. I. Szafarik, w Praze. house, I said to him, 'It is very late; you live so far off, that I am uneasy at seeing A CRITICAL study of the language of a

1836. In Numbers. Nos. I. and II. you return at such an hour, driving your cabriolet yourself.'--'I always take the country, traciag its development from its precaution of putting a night-cap in my most ancient forms and structures, affords pocket,' said he. I then proposed making perhaps the surest basis for the labors of the up a bed for him in the saloon. 'No! no! historian. In this department, the exertions said he ; 'I have a friend who lives in of the Slavonian learned world were emiyour street, and I often sleep there; it is nently successful in the latter half of the not the least inconvenience to him, and I last, ånd in the beginning of the present can go there at any time. And in fact he slept at his friend's.

century; so much so, that they not only got No one ever more enjoyed life. Al the start of their studious neighbors, the ways ready to laugh, and to be amused, Germans, but may be said to have given the Delille's happiness resembled that of a impulse to, and even to have pointed out the child. Nevertheless, this man displayed true course of, grammatical and etymological the greatest energy during the revolution research, which the industry and acumen of His courageous refusal to compose an Ode to the Goddess of Reason, when a Grimm was destined to bring to a climax. Chaumette demanded it of him in 1793, is

The Abbé Dobrowsky, whose name is well known. He was aware that his re- immortalized in the Slavonian half of Eufusal was a sentence of death, and he then rope, as the patriarch of those whose labors wrote his fine dithyrambic on the Immor. have thrown light upon the rich mine of

1

Slavonic philology, rendered we suspect, a part of conquerors for so long a period togreater service to succeeding linguists, by wards Bohemia; little disposition can be exthe publication of his many philological pected in authors of either nation to appretracts, but especially of his " Lehrgebäude ciate or display the good qualities of their der Slavischen Sprache" (1809). than they rivals. Those distinguishing shades of chahave been willing to allow. The establish-racter which the reflecting mind loves to ment, too, of the Bohemian Academy of trace in different nations, and which, while Sciences, which formed a rallying point for they afford the true standard by which to unconnected contributions of men of science judge of actions and events, form at the saine in all departments, and tended to awaken a time the poetical element of bistory, are too spirit of inquiry into historical matters in delicate to retain their freshness when the all classes, was productive of the greatest painter is influenced by low passions or na. service. The archieves of the powerful tional prejudice. In the case of the Franks families, which had long been closed to the and Bohemians, the contrast between the researches of the learned, were gradually national characters was not only rendered opened, and many distinguished individuals more striking by differing political intercame forward and made voluntary offerings ests, but was also inflamed by religious of valuable paleographic an 1 historical docu- zeal. ments to the National Museum at Prague. The traditional descriptions of the primi

The epoch has thus been gradually ush- tive state of society in most nations repreered in when a critical and satisfactory his- sent the development and exercise of power tory of this interesting people might be at- in scenes of war and rapine, in the oppres. lernpted with some prospect of success; and sion of weak neighbours, and resistance to among the various candidates for the repu-those which are more formidable. Natation arising from the undertaking, none tions like children, learn to appreciate their show fairer claims to the attention of the power by its effects in destroying. But no public than M. Palacky. A series of small-legends, describing a social state scarcely er tracts, on subjects connected with the his- emerged from nomadism, possess a higher tory of his country, especially, however, and purer poetical charm than those whose his prize essay, “ Würdigung der alten Böh-scenery lies in the valleys of the Moldau, mischen Geschichtschreiber," had sufficient. the Eger, and the Mies. Destitute of all ly displayed the extent and solidity of his ostensible historical support, except the name studies in the sphere of national history; of the forest, the mountain, or the castle, to - and, when the Estates of Bohemia declared which M. Palacky seems to think many of

it desirable to have the history of the coun- them owed their origin, a stranger can only try treated by a man properly qualified for look on them as mythological conceptions the task, M. Palacky was appointed their of the simple and unalterable dictates of nahistoriographer. But the solid advantages ture, such as are met with among many nathat ought to have followed this charge, we tions of a poetical turn, but which nowhere mean unlimited access to the archives and have preserved themselves freer from the sources under the control of government, as degrading leaven which the flatterers of lawell as the full liberty of treating at least ter despots have so often mixed up with the most ancient disputed topics according them in their versions of these first and hoto his conviction, were, as we shall see, not liest effusions of the muse. The less enincluded in that nomination.

lightened among the Bohemians, however, But, before we proceed to enumerate the cling to them as true historical accounts of difficulties with which the historian at the the patriarchs of the nation, while even the present day has to contend, it may not be critical scholar fondly renews his often failamiss to state why the history of Bohemia ed attempt to extract history from thein, must possesses a peculiar interest when treated by be regarded as proofs, not only of their high a native, and considered from the Slavonian antiquity, but of their being deeply founded point of view; as many of our readers may in the national character. Some of these think the most interesting parts of the an- legends which have given full employment nals of that nation so closely interwoven to poets and romancers, may be known to with the history of Germany, as to be equal- our readers from Musæus' work, “Volks- , ly well understood from the accounts of the mährchen der Deutschen," the prettiest tales German historians.

in which are of Slavonian and not of Ger. From the hostile position in which, from man origin. Many of them are found again, the earliest times, the two great families of sometimes with variations, among the Poles, Germans and Slavonians have stood with and the same names even occur in the two regard to one another; more especially, countries, but both nations have names and however, from the former having played the legends peculiar to themselves, as for in

stance, the Czech of the Bohemians and I wisdom, and justice, had raised him to Piast

among the Poles. In the “Würdi- be judge over the whole nation. He gave gung der alten Böhmischen Geschichtschrei- his name to the castle of Krakow* in Bober, M. Palacky alludes to the legend of hemia, which had, however, fallen into the Patriarch Czech, from whom the coun. grown with trees. Krok was most proba

ruin in the 11th century, and was overtry takes its name (Czechy.)

bly a descendant of Samo, perhaps even

his son, as he must have lived before the “It is curious to see, that even in Cos- conclusion of the 7th century. mas's time (1125), no remembrance had “Krok left behind him no son, but three been preserved of the Ante-Slavonian in- daughters, Kasa, Teta, Libusa, whose rehabitants of Bohemia. Cosmas had not markable qualities of mind he had chethe least notion of such a thing ; he ima rished and formed. Kasa distinguished gined Czech's arrival in the remotest times herself by her skill in the powers of nafancifully enough, in a land surrounded ture, in medicine, and technical invention; with mountains as with a wall, covered she was considered to possess magical with forests which teemed with swarms of power, and her lofty sepulchral barrow, bees, with wild beasts, and birds of the air; on the banks of the Mies, was long rewith rivers and brooks full of fish, in a membered and respected by the people. land which the plough had never touched, Teta was more taken up with matters of nor human foot had trodden. The ances- religious observance; she explained to the tor of the Czechs, his household gods people the nature of the gods they adored, upon his shoulders, ascended the moun. and regulated the religious ceremonies. tain Rzip, saw the wide-spreading lovely. The castle of Tetin, not far from Beraun, land before him, recognized the goal of on the banks of the Mies, recalls her me his toilsome journey, sacrificed in grate- mory at the present day. ful emotion to the gods, taught his follow “But the youngest, Libusa, excelled both ers to call the land after his own name, her sisters, not only in qualities of mind, kissed the earth of his new home, and but in excellence of heart. She seemed prayed for the blessing of Heaven upon to have inherited all her father's virtues, his race in all future generations." and the people called her to govern the

country in his stead. She looked with Of the successors of Czech, Samo is dam- penetrating and unerring eye into the ed by the Burgundian chronicler Fredegar. necessities of the present as well as of the He is said to have ireed Buhemia and future, and guided with judgment the pubMoravia from the intolerable yoke of the and just on the judgment-seat, firm in re

lic affairs of the Bohemians. She was wise Avars in 627, and to have reigned till 662. solve, chaste in her manners, and mild and From this period to the reign of Charle- amiable in her social relations. In the magne, no light of history breaks upon Bo- Wyssehrad, her father's castle, she kept hemia, and in the interval, the chroniclers a princely court, and distributed justice to bave fixed the epoch of the legends to which the people. In important cases, the three we alluded above, and which M. Palacky sisters came together, and lent each other calls “scanty reminiscences among the peo-support,

" Libusa sat once in judgment on two ple, out of times of old, bound up with names which have an undeniable historical foun- were contesting their patrimonial inheri

powerful brothers, the sons of Klen, who dation; but this tissue of facts must be ad- tance, and was scoffed at for her sex by mitted into history with so much the more the disputants, who refused obedience to caution and sifting, the oft ner it has chang- her commands. After this mortification, ed its form in the progress of time.

she abdicated the supreme power, and deWe subjoin the historian's short sketch sired the people to choose a duke. The

choice was left to herself, inasmuch as they of this legendary period.

promised to acknowledge as their duke

whomsoever she should choose for her "After the father of the race, Czech, who husband. She sent, therefore, a solemn first came with his followers in remote an embassy to Przemysl, the master of Statiquity across three rivers into this land of ditz, to offer him her hand and the dignity bliss, Krok is the oldest mortal whose of duke in Bohemia. The messengers memory has been preserved by Bohemian found him with the plough in his hand, tradition. According to the oldest legends, tilling the field, which, up to the present he had his golden seat in the castle of day, retains the name of the King's Field. Wyssehrad,* and ruled with mighty, al- He obeyed the summons with pleasure, though not unlimited power, over the put on the signs of his new dignity which greater part of Bohemia. Later tradi- they offered, and mounted the horse which tion saw, however, in him nothing but a conveyed him amidst the train to the soverich landed proprietor, whose virtues, reign in the Wyssehrad.”

* Literally, "The High Castle,” still existing at Prague.

* In the cirele of Rakonitz.

The word ' Libusa would probably be Slavonian as “false and fair,''* one of those translated by an English amatory poet—the instances of national injustice which are so lovely one. Przemysl signifies, literally. prevalent. But the Bohemian turns with "forethought;" and thns the legend, whe-confidence to his history, which shows his ther it possesses historical value or not, be country to have been a steady supporter of comes interesting as one of those beautiful true civilization, and a firm champion of the allegories invented in the infancy of nations, dignity of human nature, in contests in which or at least before poets were infected by the his opponents have mostly been the very vices and affectation of the learned in the Germans who pretend to look down upon schools. The Polish legends have their him. Wanda, also the daughter of a Duke Cra We must not omit another legend, howcus, the founder of Cracow; but in a war-ever, in which the ladies of Bohemia of a like nation her story assumes more resem- | later date are represented as not being quite blance to that of Jemiramis ; her fame is so gentle in their natures as Libusa. founded on martial deeds, and like the Assyrian heroine, she puts an end voluntarily

" The most remarkable tradition of Boto her existence, by jumping into the Vistu- / bemian antiquity, is that of a war which la. We do not know if it be fair to state an the male and female sexes.

broke out upon Libusa's death, between isolated fact as an instance of difference of seems, upon the death of this princess,

The latter, it national character, but the lower classes arrogated to themselves the sovereignty among the neighbouring Germans seem to of Bohemia, and, under the guidance of be little satisfied with the domestic and the high-minded Wlasla, a friend of Libu.. peacable character attributed to Libusa, and sa's, endeavoured for years, by force of a suit of armour is actually exhibited as

arms and artifice, to carry their point.-her's in the arsenal at Vienna, where the At length, however, the men succeeded in guide calls particular attention to the long tle, Dziewin (maiden's tower), whose lofty

capturing and destroying their strong cassharp-pointed covering of the feet, with towers and battlements proudly rose at which he asserts the Bohemian queen, when the opposite side of the river to the Wysmounted, used to pierce the hearts of the sehrad." men whom she encountered in battle.

The Bohemian national character, as it The ruins of these old castles, or rather at present displays itself to the traveller who their sites, which are still shown, together looks a little deeper than the surface, cor- with other spots connected with Bohemian responds perfectly with the tone which pre traditions, throw an irresistible romantic vails in these ancient legends. The inhabit. charm round Prague and its neighbourhood, ants are lovers of peace without being faint- to which the heart of every stranger, exhearted; they are studious and thoughtful cept that perhaps of an Austrian employé, without sinking into unproductive abstrac- must yield. And yet, strange enough, it is tion; their love of music, which is more to the nation which, from its position with universal than in any other land, is accom. respect to the Bohemians, can have the fewpanied by a lively and poetical fancy; but est points of sympathy with them, that we all these, and other remarkable traits, are have hitherto had to look for the history of shrouded from the other polished nations that people. of Europe by their using an unknown and The lately discovered Königinhofen MS., difficult language.

This very language, part of which has been communicated to the however, although, to judge from its or- British public by Dr. Bowring's translation, thography, one expects to find it harsh and together with the gleanings to be obtained guttural, is a most faithful interpreter of the from the German ehronielers, Ditmar, Adam character of the nation, and is so rich in of Bremen, Helmold, Saxo-Gramaticus, and mild, conciliating, sympathising, and endear. others, enable the historian to give the foling expressions, that the Bohemian would lowing restoration of the Wyssehrah at find it difficult to substitute any foreign dia- Prague. lect for his own. Our readers will have anticipated the re

“The Wyssehrad was, undoubtedly, to mark, that a character of this description is the inhabitants of Bohemia what Ancona likely, under oppression, to assume an ab- and Rhetra were to the Slavonians of the

north, the chief seat of their pagan worject appearance, and to offer the resistance of calculation or cunning to the outrages of superior force; accordingly, a proverb ex

• The proverb is interesting for craniologists: ists among the Germans, stigmatizing the “Der Slawe hat es faust-dick hinter den Ohren,"

which may be translated, “The Slavonian has bumps as thick as a fist behind his ears,"

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