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in accordance with the ideas of Madame Pel. | (half-a-crown) a day for travelling expenses let de la Lozère, that ladies should be in. when on his circuit; and one franc for

every duced to form communal committees for the school visited. Altogether from 3.200 to superintendence of female and infant schools, 3500 fr. (L. 130 to L.140) per annum.* similar to those of the other sex for boys; For the purpose of affording a more enbut the plan has entirely failed.

larged course of instruction to artizans, We come now to consider the amount of manufacturers, and master-workmen, it was instruction afforded to boys in the primary originally intended that, in all communes schools. It comprehends reading, writing, containing above 6000 inhabitants, there a little arithmetic, and geography. Though should be a public secondary school, intermeit was M. Guizot's wish that moral and reli- diate between the elementary ones and the gious instruction should be the most promi. Royal Colleges, of which there are twentynent part of the education given in these four in France. These have, however, never schools, we were sorry to learn, from a come into operation, the necessity of them zealous agent of that minister in the south of having been in some measure obviated by France, that “l'instruction morale et reli- the opening of a short course, called a cours gieuse y est nulle.”

A curé may have six, spécial, in the royal colleges, a course of and a Protestant pasteur as many as eight, study which lasts only three, instead of eight communes in his parish, so that some cannot, years, the time required to pass through the and others will not, instruct the children in regular college education. This course of these subjects; while such is the incompe. secondary instruction comprises modern lantence of the masters to supply the deficiency, guages, history, and geography, grammar, that it has been forbidden them to attempt to and composition, book-keeping, drawing, explain the selections from the Bible which chemistry applied to the arts, elementary geothe children read, but which there can be metry and mensuration, and the elements of little hope that they understand.

natural history. It was the intention of government that Such are the beginnings which have been the mutual or monitorial system of instruction made in France towards a general system of should be employed in these primary schools, national education for the whole people. but the irregularity of attendance has in many That it presents considerable deficiencies, cases prevented this, by rendering it impossi. will be allowed by all who have formed a due ble to form a competent body of monitors. estimate of the magnitude of the object which They are consequently taught simultaneous. it is proposed to effect, particularly in the ably in classes. There appears also to exist scence of moral and religious instruction, some jealousy on the part of the Catholics to in the impossibility hitherto experienced in this system, which is never adopted in the establishing the mutual or monitorial method schools under the direction of the Frères de of teaching, -and in the total want, in many la Doctrine Chrélienne.

places, of public education for females and For the purpose of obtaining a unity of infants. Neither can we consider any syssystem in these schools, and to superintend tem perfect which does not embrace the edu. the conduct of the communal committees and cation of the ear and voice, and ihe cultiva. of the masters, the minister of public instruc- tion of the taste, by affording instruction in tion appoints cighty inspectors, making about singing. Sufficient acquaintance with music, one for each of the eighty-six departments. to be able to sing together correctly in chorus, These inspectors are immediatelysubordinate may be acquired by at least three-fourths of to the préfetof the department in all that regards a given number of individuals during the pe. finance, and to one of the twenty-four rectors riod of their ordinary schooling, as is proved of academies for what regards education. in Germany and Switzerland. A faculty is Their duty is to visit each school in their thus acquired which conduces essentially to department at least once a year, and to ex. the morality of places where it is generally amine the children and every thing connect. exercised, by affording an innocent, tasteful, ed with its concerns, pointing out in writing and economical amusement on Sundays and to the communal committee any defects which holidays, which replaces the less improving require to be remedied, of which document indulgences of the beer-shop. At the same a copy is retained by the inspector to be re. time, by furnishing the children's memory ferred to on the next yearly visit. They with moral and patriotic songs, many exalted have the power to assemble the conseil municipal, to receive complaints of the master, * It is proposed in the budget of this year to inand to report him to the comité d'arron- crease the funds allowed for inspection from dissement, by whom he may be dismissed. 240,000 to 430,000 so as to enable the inspec

tors to employ the services of sub-inspectors, their An inspec' or has a fixed salary of 2000 fr. duties being found too arduous to be performed (L.80) a year; and, in addition, three fra without assistance.

feelings may be inspired into them, which dry The population of this country amounted didactic teaching might have failed to pro. in 1835 to 2,455,539, comprised in 2233 duce. That singing forms a delightful part comuni, forming nine provinces. The gene. of the religious exercises of all Christians, ral introduction of elementary schools in should also surely cause the cultivation of Lombardy commenced in 1822. Two ob. this talent to occupy a more conspicuous jects are proposed in their establishment: the place in the education, not only of the lower, first being to afford to the humblest class, but of all classes, than it now does in Eng- both agricultural and manufucturing, instrucland. How mortified have we often felt on tion adapted to their condition ; and the se. entering the English chapel after leaving a cond, to furnish the youth of the middle class. church in Switzerland, where the children es with an education which shall fit them for assembled to be catechized had, with no other pursuing commerce, agriculture, or the use. music than their own voices, under the lead-ful arts. ing of a clerk, offered a melodious tribute of For the first object are designed the lesser praise to their Creator! In our own con elementary schools (called scuole minori,) in gregation a dull organ was going through the which are received separately children of notes of a psalm, all the congregation stand. each sex between the ages of six and twelve.* ing in sol

nn silence, not a single voice an. The instruction which they here receive com. swering to the invitation, "Let us sing to the prises religion, reading, writing, arithmetic, praise and the glory of God.”

the first rudiments of grammar; and for the But, to return to the French schools, the girls, needle work and knitting. They are indifference in seconding the views of go. divided into two classes, and the course of vernment, which has made the introduction instruction is complete in three years at of general education in France difficult and most. imperfect, seems to be traceable to that bane For the children of those above the low. ful system of centralization which prevails in est classes there are higher schools, (called that country, and which, by taking all inde. scuole maggiori,) some of which are divided pendent authority out of the hands of indi- into three classes, and some into four. The viduals or corporations, and vesting the di- first are for both sexes, the latter only for rection of all local interests in the agents of boys. In the two first classes of all these government, has tended to deprive her citi- schools the instruction is the same as that in zens of the habit of concerning themselves the lesser schools ; in the third class is taught about their local affairs. It constantly obli- caligraphy, composition, the higher parts of ges them to expect from government, and arithmetic applied practically to the necessi. not from their own energies, the supply of ties of life ; and in the female schools, fine every want; so that where the zealous con. and embroidery. In the boy's currence of the public is required for the schools, which have four classes, the preced. success of any measure, little aid from this ing branches of instruction are followed by a quarter is to be expected ; and, indeed, an course which lasis two years, in which are actual spirit of resistance is often excited by taught the elements of geometry, natural histhe attempt to force on the people benefits of tory, and mechanics, and the drawing of which they have not learned, by discussion ornaments, machines, maps, and architec. among themselves, to feel the necessity. It ture; the manner of teaching being hoth is to be hoped, therefore, that, whenever we theoretical and practical. Some of these in. adopt a plan of general education, it may be stitutions are at the expense of the central one which shall call into operation that wil

. government-some are provided for by the lingness to discharge a public duty, that different communes. The higher schools of strong public spirit, which a long habit of in. three classes for boys, as well as the lesser dependently directing our own local affairs elementary schools for both sexes, are enhas widely spread over our country. We tirely at the expense of the comuni; where. must combine the advantages of a general as the four-class schools, and those of three surveillance, and a central directing power, classes for girls, are provided by the govern. with a freedom of local action, so that the ment.7 One of each of these last kinds is administration of the means of education established in the principal town of each of may be left as much as possible in the direc. tion of the population for whose benefit they families are compelled to send their children to

* By art lxiii, of the law of 1822, all fathers of are intended. Another direction in which the German where,) under pain of a fine for every month's

these schools, (unless they are educated elsesystem of popular education has extended it. neglect. -- Annali di Statistica, vol. xxxix. p. 80. self is Italy, where the Austrian government

+ Every commune containing above fifty chilhas the credit of having introduced it into dren of both sexes between the ages of six and Lombardy fourteen years ago.

twelve, is bound to maintain an elementary school.

the nine provinces, as well as one for girls in a fair provision. Another important feaCrema and Casalmaggiore.

ture in the education afforded in Lombardy Here we may observe three points in is, that it recognizes the great deficiency of which the Austrian system of popular edu- any system of which religious instruction cation is superior to that as yet established forms no part. The grand evil of the sysin France: first, girls have equal advanta- tem is, that the instruction imparted is liges with boys as far as elementary educa. mited and moulded to suit the views of the tion is necessary for them, and the comuni government, and any independent exercise are found able to support the whole ex. of the knowledge thus acquired is jealously pense; secondly, the superior schools, prevented. which have failed in France, are here in We will now observe the increase of vigor, being supported by the government; these various kinds of schools during the and nine such, distributed amongst a popu- ten years since their establishment, ending lation of only two millions and a half, seems with 1832:

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Besides these government schools, in the number of children, chiefly between the which children from six to twelve years ages of six and twelve, who were in 1832 old, are gratuitously instructed, there were receiving elementary instruction in Lom. in 1832, 228 schools for Sundays and holi bardy, at the considerable number of 188,days (called scuole festive,) where 4566 879, i. e. one-thirteenth of the inhabitants. children above the age of twelve are taught At that date there were only ninety-eight the duties of religion, and perfected in the comuni without a school, and most of kuowledge which they had acquired at the these contained a population below that public schools. These are opened gratui- which the law obliges to maintain one. The iously, by parish priests and schoolmasters, readiness of the people to avail themselves in conformity with the following sentence of the benefits of education for their chil. in the instructions to the clergy, attached to dren may be judged of from the fact that,in the government regulations for elementary 1832, there were, in the 2233 comuni of schools: "The prescribed period of atten. Lombardy, 3443 public school-rooms, of dance at the public schools being often in which 473 were gratuitously erected by sufficient for the necessary education of the private beneficence, the rest being entirely children; in those places where there exists at the expense of the comuni. none but elementary schools, the priest will The yearly expense of public elementary be required to give instruction in religion, instruction in Lombardy is estimated* at and the schoolmaster in other subjects, on 2,550,000 Austrian lire, to the government the afternoons of holidays, to those above (about £85,000,) and 1,275,000 to the cothe age at which attendance at the public muni (£42,000.) school ceases to he obligatory,

The plans of government will not be In some large towns charitable indivi. complete will two institutions of still higher duals instruct the shopboys and apprentices instruction, for merchants and manufactu. every evening in all that is most suitable to rers (scuole tecniche), shall be established, their condition.

one at Milan, and the other at Venice. All the asylums for foundlings and or. They will teach history, particularly of arts phans have an elementary school attached and commerce, the science of commerce, to them. There are also in Lombardy foreign languages, chemistry applied to the thirty-six charitable boarding schools (con- arts, architecture, mechanics, and hydrauvilli); twenty for 702 boys, and sixteen con- lics. taining 732 girls.

The government appoint provincial and The elementary schools kept by private district inspectors of public schools, on individuals, in which the scholars pay for whose efficiency much of the success of the their education, amounted in 1832 to 241; system depends. containing about 5119 boys, and 459 with Of the whole number of children between 8631 girls.

the ages of six and twelve years in LomThe private superior schools, or colleges, contain 721 boys and 1641 girls.

* Saggio Statistico sull' Italia, by Colonel Ser. Altogether, iherefore, we may cstimate ristori.

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bardy, the proportion which frequent the operation. The government schools receive schools differs in the various provinces. It the child at six years old—but in what sort of appears that, on an average of the whole, training has he passed the important years 680 1-3 in every thousand boys of the pro, which have preceded? On the answer to per age frequent the public schools, and this question depends much of the success 428 in every thousand girls The defi- of the subsequent efforts made for his im. ciency in the attendance of the girls is in provement, nor can any system be complete part accounted for by the more numerous which does not secure a good education from private establishments for their education. the earliest childhood. It is but recently that

To secure a supply of proper persons to this great truth has been plainly perceived assume the important office of schoolmaster and cordially acted upon. must be a principal consideration in every Infant schools owe their invention to Ro. system of general education. The means bert Owen, who established the first in Scot. adopted for training young men for this land in 1824. Five years after this (in employment in Lorbardy appear rather 1829,) the Abate Ferranti Aporti, the foun. deficient. A six months' course in the der of a school for the deaf and dumb at science of teaching (methodica) is given in Cremona, had the honor of first introducing the higher schools of Milan and Mantua, and infant schools into Italy by the formation of three months in the other schools of four one in the same town.

This first attempt, classes.' After this course, the aspirant to which was confined to those whose parents the office of master must pass a year as as. could afford to pay for the instruction given, sistant in the prac:ice of teaching at some was followed in March of the next year by public school. Instruction in the science of the establishment, by the aid of some chariteaching is also given to those intended for table persons, of a second, in which poor holy orders in the episcopal seminaries. boys were received for the whole day and

Such is a sketch of the government system their food given to them gratis. In January, of popular instruction in Lombardy, which 1833, the same individual, indefatigable in must be contemplated with satisfaction by offices of charity, opened a similar one for every one who is interested in the improve- poor girls, at his own expense. In the four ment of the human race, and which invites last years these excellent institutions have the attention and imitation of all civilized na- been very much extended in Lombardy, be. tions.

ing encouraged by an Aulic decree of Feb. Yet, much as has been done by the go- ruary, 1832, in which the Austrian governvernment, the energy and charity of indivi, ment expresses its satisfaction at the creation duals have still great scope for beneficial of such schools, and its permission to extend

them in all the provinces by means of chariIn the following table a comparison is made table associations.* between the number of children who frequent elementary schools and the whole population in

The importance of infant schools, an in. different countries :

vention which forms an era in the moral proLombardy

I to 13

gress of mankind, may be considered, with Bohemia

reference to their effects upon public econo. Tyrol

10 Moravia and Silesia

13 my, and upon public and private morals. Styria and Carinthia

18 By accurate statistical inquiries, it appears Lower Austria (exclusive of

that the hardships to which the infants of the Vienna)

16 Upper Austria

poor are exposed reduce the total number of

20 Mean of the whole Austrian

those born to one.fourth at the end of the monarchy the same as

three first years of their existence.t This in Lombardy

13 small surviving portion is frequen:ly reduced England and Scotland


by accidents or carelessness to a state of in. Holland

14 Denmark


firmity ; a degeneration in health and bodily Bavaria

strength has been caused; and thus herediCity of Naples

119 tary infirmities are propagated, which affect, Russian Empire


not only families, but whole districts. These Northern France

24 Southern do.

40 This was the proportion previously to the in * For the progress of infant schools in Lomtroduction of the recent system of popular in- bardy, see vols. xxiii. xxvii. xxix. and xxxii. of struction in France. It now is in all France as the Annali Universali di Statistica ; and for those 1 to about 27.

of Cremona, the Memoir of the Abate Raffaele Tuscany

1 to 60 Lambruschini, in no cvi. of the Nuovo RicogliCorsica

20 Duchy of Parma

1 48 + Vid. Statistical Tables of Mortality published Do, of Lucca

29 by Cagnazzi of Naples, and an abstract vol. Canton of Geneva

1" 7 xxviii. Annali di Statistica..


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physical evils which affect the surviving chil. indecent, provincialisms; to telling them dren are much corrected by the cleanliness, stories of witches, fairies, and apparitions the security from bodily injury, the whole of ghosts and goblins, fit only to fill their some diet, and the gymnastic, exercises, afforded to the intellectual faculties; no

minds with vain terrors; no development which they enjoy in an infant school. The direction adapted to form their young scrofulous affections and rachitis, under which judgment; so that, in short, the whole systhey are often suffering when first received tem of education given to their virgin into the schools, are corapletely eradicated, minds seems rather adapted to corrupt or greatly mitigated by the wholesome life them in their first exertion and in their they lead. A Hattering testimony to the im. earliest development. 3. In reference to portance of these advantages was borne by chiefs arise, whether from the practice of

their physical faculties: innumerable misthe physicians of Florence, when the ap. condemning children to sit for many hours proach of the cholera to that city, in 1835, a-day without stirring in baby-chairs, or threatened it with a visitation. Upon that from allowing them to indulge without occasion the medical faculty, being consulted check their naturally immoderate spirits. as to the propriety of closing the infant Excessive restraint causes weakness of schools of that city, in case the disease should body and every deformity which alters its make its appearance there, gave it as their proportions, and which often renders them opinion, that the danger arising from a num. der of their days. From the contrary ex

wretched and useless through the remainber of children being collected together in treme serious accidents often occur, which these schools would be counter-balanced by leave behind them permanent injuries, or the advantages to their general health which lameness and mutilations, which render they enjoyed whilst frequenting them. The them a burden to society. From these mothers often express their delight that they causes result injury to their bodily health can now go about their work with light and strength, a moral corruption not easihearts, knowing that their children are not y remedied, and false ideas of things, and only in safety but also improving in good. are implanted in the tender 'minds of the

habits of forming erroneous judgments ness; whereas, before the establishment of children. These two last evils are the these schools, they were compelled to leave more worthy of attention inasmuch as them the whole day to the care of some daily experience proves how indelible are neighbor more wretched than themselves, the early impressions and first ideas which where their health and their morals suffered we receive in tender infancy. It is a false equally.

opinion that at an early age children are Indeed, the moral benefits resulting from ble. Children are apt to learn as soon as

incapable of learning any thing reasonathese institutions are still more important they can speak, and it is a sad waste of than their effect upon the health of the chil. the most precious time of life to allow them dren,

to occupy their first years in trifles. Nor In order to give an idea of the principles is it more correct to suppose that they do upon which these schools are conducted in not at that age employ their reason; any Italy, we will quote the words of the Abate one who will observe their little sports,

and listen to their conversation, will be Ferranti Aporii , of whom we have before

convinced of it. It must not, however, be made honorable mention as the father of

supposed from this that we think it right these institutions in that country. It is ex to extend widely the sphere of instructions tracted from a paper by him communicated which we consider useful to infancy. Hato the Imperial and Royal Academy of Geor. ving established the possibility of instrucgofili of Florence.

tion and education, we select only those The Abate first enumerates the evils of subjects adapted to the nature of infants, the education received by infants abandoned and such as are suggested by the exercises to the care of their parents, as observed at without the direction of guide or master.

which they practise when left to themselves, Cremona.

For instance, we observe that children “1. In the moral habits, obstinacy and (even of a tender age) at the sight of a caprice often manifest themselves, origi- new object immediately ask its name. nating in the over-indulgence of their pa- Now why may we not profitably excite rents; the spirit of revenge, taught them their curiosity, either by offering to their by the practice of satisfying the child for consideration objects necessary or useful any pain which he endures, by guiding to be known, or by asking them the names his hand to strike the real or supposed which they do not yet know of objects alauthor of the injury ; shyness and awk- ready familiar to them? In this way is wardness, caused by living only with their obtained the advantage of teaching them families; no habit of order; no practice the pure Italian, (the patois of all Lomof moral or religious duties. '2. As to their bardy is detestable,) and this not by dry intellectual culture: all teaching confined grammatical rules, but by actual example, to that of some uncouth, and sometimes (per via di fatto,) the most efficient method



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