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flamed fancies a second-rate dramatist loom- | be stated, Professor at Aarau, but Professor ed a Cæsar or a Napoleon, were thrown at a school, we believe, rather than at a into prison, and variously, although not university. severely punished. But we must add to the tale of boyish absurdities a few words of “As I was one day hastening to the their yet more a bsurd sister.patrits.

Canton-school, a large packet of corrected

and uncorrected tasks in my hand, I heard " That women took part in our exertions

the voice of my friend St. calling upon me is already known from the report of the to stop and look round. To my astonishjudicial proceedings. One of these lady ment, I beheld a whole train of male and patriots was the mistress of a school for female figures in the old German costume. young girls, who often so tormented Pfis- First walked a maiden of middle height, tern, that he would, with emphatic politeness, slenderly and elegantly made, with a face threaten to teach the German “ Maid of upon which health was distinctly legible, Orleans' respect for the constituted authori- whilst the loveliest white contended with ties. The other was a beautiful, a lovely, the brightest red. Her simple black dress, woman, the grand-daughter of an eminent tastefully puffed, and laid in a few plain deceased statesman, married to a nobleman folds; her corset, adorned with a pretty of high family. But the union had not

cross; her chestnut hair, partly hanging been made in heaven, and her domestic life low in two gracefully braided tresses, was so disturbed and strange, that it would partly wound round her head under a net, have afforded many a novel in the Hoffman after the fashion of the Bernese Oberland style. Her youthful imagination had been girls; the appropriate leathern pocket, with too early emancipated, and, at an age when its silver points and chains, hanging from the rod might have been used to good puro her girdle; all, in short, deliciously became pose, she reigned despotically over her the thoughtfully-sweet girl, who reminded parents, over all who came near her. The me of a print of the Virgin that I had reways of her castle much resembled those cently purchased. Steadily she led the way. ascribed to the middle ages. To all this was Next came a younger sister, of twelve now superadded the whim of Germanizing. or fourteen, with full, broad, cherry cheeks, Days were passed in fashioning costumes, running unsteadily, treading down her and a regular court was arranged, at which shoes, ungraceful in her movements, eviGerman youths kissed hands, whilst song and dently prompt to do battle with the first chiming of bells, racket and uproar, over- saucy boy she should meet, jesting incespowered the sound of duns. The fair dame, santly, and laughing immoderately. Then one of the most delicately formed and cap. followed a man of staid years, in a worn, tivating creatures I ever beheld, and whom old German coat, carelessly buttoned, the dress became to admiration, actually and through which peeped a crumpled, snuffgravely bestowed the honors of knighthood stained frill, with hair rather red than yelupon one of my friends, an honest Swabian ; low, that, in the full enjoyment of dithyand he still wore her colors, when, in the rambic freedom, stood or lay in all direcyear 1822, he was impaled by the Turks at tions, giving his arm to a very plainly but Pera, after having had his hands cut off. So nicely dressed lady, of strong make and fearfully did tragedy and comedy, inter- full health, with the remains of former mingle. I myself for years carried on a beauty; the whole offering a vivid picture sentimental correspondence with her, in of the 'old-German patriarchal life. We which we reciprocally complimented each made acquaintance immediately, and very other upon our patriotism, our liberality, and soon became intimate, as I almost daily our superiority. But a dark lot fell upon her accompanied my friend to visit the family. latter days. Her romance ended sadly, fear- Hardly could any other man have made

The other patriotess subse- so deep an impression upon me as did quently atoned for the errors of her imagina. Görres, much as we differed upon many tion by the faithful discharge of all the duties points in more of apprehension, in order of a wife and mother."

of ideas, in views and principles, in life These extracts may suffice to show that and manners. The name of Görres was our autobiographer's condemnation of the then one of the most celebrated, and he

came to Aarau with the double crown of Belgians and phrases of their rejected king his early acknowledged scientific and paare not the result of early prejudice, and triotic merits, and of his recent political should, therefore, be received as the fruit of martyrdom. His Germany and the Reripened judgment and experience. But, volution' had appeared not long before, having the volume open before us, we will, and flashed like lightning through the ere closing it, extract the account of the clouds that darkened the political horizon. writer's introduction to almost the only two The most opposite emotions were called living literary celebrities hitherto mentioned forth by this work, and, by the singular

hieroglyphics veiling an open secret, the by him ; of these, the one is in the autumn, vital question of the times was brought the other in the spring or early summer, of under discussion. Görres had, with the his fame ; they are Görres, and Wolfgang skill of a philosophic physician, appreMenzel. Münch was, at this time, it should hended, described, and marked the ma

fully. *


lady of the times; had evoked the spirits gend of Menzel's early achievements; of in, and out of, the abyss, and, with Jean- his feuds with the Breslau Menzel, chrisPaulish fancy, united to the inspiration of tened Karl Adolf, with whom he is not unthe jest of olden days, had unveiled the frequently confounded, whilst he disowns story of the nation's heart. **** His all kindred with him; of bis dissensions heart, which had for years embraced all with his parents, who opposed his learned Germany, throbbed with especial warmth career ; of the hard fate of his youth, for his beloved Rhenish provinces. Their whence the harshness of his manly mind; traditions, tales, and lays, were ever pre- of his audacious attacks upon Göthe's sent to his fancy, as fountains of living lofty aristocratic supremacy at Weinar, waters above which the eagles of olden &c. I soon discovered that Menzel was, times soared, the birds of paradise sang, indeed, an overbearing companion, with the feats of legendary heroes, the love- whom it was not every one that could ditties of an Ofterdingen, an Eschilbach, live; but richly endowed with intellect, resounded. And this classic land he now and of a very decided character; in short, beheld subjected to Prussia; a thought that he really was of the wood, out of that infuriated him, whenever that bureau- which, if they themselves mar it not, illuscratic government, which he had carica- trious men are carved.” tured with such virulent irony, recurred to his imagination. When we read his unjust attacks upon Prince Hardenberg, cal Studies, amongst which, as we have said,

We now turn to the Biographico-Histori. should we most pity the statesman thus the Life of Sir Walter Raleigh is most like unmercifully assailed, or the censurer who could be insensible to the extraordinary a finished production. But our object, in forbearance and kindness which the de- our abstracts and extracts, being both 10 ex. ceased Prince-Chancellor opposed to the hibit novelty of style in composition as well stormy passions of the wrathful patriot. as in thought and language, and to afford Hardenberg's letters to Görres and his the reader as much new, or at least unfami. wife, during their voluntary exile, breathe liar, information as may be, we prefer ma. this spirit; showing him ever ready for a

king our selection from the foreign frag. reconciliation, and the way home ever

ments. open to Görres, so he would satisfy the

We shall, therefore, dismiss our violated laws.

renowned countryman, wiih ihe single re. “The witticisms of the fugitive upon mark, that Münch, notwithstanding his abun. fashionable liberalism might be termed dant references 10 English authors, does not classical. Often would he exclaim, with appear to be a more thorough Englishman indescribable expression and accent, 'The than other German writers whom we have devil also is a liberal.'

heretofore reviewed. In addition to such “It was upon another fine summer's mis-spelling as “ British Worthirs,'' Bitz day that, going to invite my friend Stein- Morris, for Fitzmorris, Townskend, for gass to a walk, I saw an unknown figure Townshend, and the like, we find the often. seated at his study table. This was a noticed blunder of attaching the title “Sir,' powerful young man, of slender form, and to the surname, and writing indiscriminately, swarthy complexion, with a pair of keenly Sir Walter, or Sir Raleigh. penetrating eyes ; his stiff, long, black hair, divided on the forehead and cut after volumes, the studies which most attract us

In turning over the pages of these two the fashion of the Black Forest; his beard long, according to Turner*.custom, and are, “ King Christiern II., the Amsterdam clad in the very shortest, black, old-Ger- Dove and Mother Sigbrit,” (in which prefer. man coat I had ever seen. Long did the ence, we beg to say, we are actuated by no young man sit before me, uttering only the gossipping love of scandal, but by the sin. most indispensable answers, and absorbed gularity of the influence acquired by a hide. in the map of Switzerland. Presently my ous old woman over the Danish tyrant,) and friend appeared and presented me to Herr the comparison between the elder and the Wolfgang Menzel, of Waldenburg, near Breslau, formerly Vorturner* at Jena, then now living Belgians, with a sketch of Wil. Bursch at Bonn, who had esteemed it wise liam I.'s early life. We begin with the to withdraw himself from the inquisition former. of Berlin society into the patriotic criticism As some little apology for Christiern's of the old-Germanizers, and seek personal many offences, we are told that his royal safety in that classic land of liberty,' father commitied his education to low per. Switzerland. “I now learned much of the sacred le. sons, who, remote from the court and his

own eye, flattered the young prince's faults These words, Turner and Vorturner, were into vices, encouraging his disposition 10 adopted when, on the conclusion of the war, an every kind of gross excess as well as to vio. attempt was made to revive the old-German lence and cruelty ; whilst his appointed insports and gymnastic exercises, as well as costume, and are derived from the tourney or tour structors managed in disgust him with learn. nament.

ing. Thus fitted for the ruler's task, Prince





Christiern was appointed Viceroy of Norlin order to judge for himself without being way, wi:h the assistance of an eccle: iastical in any way commited, he gave an enter. chancellor. Archbishop Erik Valkendorf, an tainment to the citizens, 10 which he desired able administrator, but an ambitious man, thai Sigbrit and her daughier shcuid be in. who courted his future sovereign by un. vited. He found Düveke's charms fully worthy acis of complaisance. Under such adequate to the archbishop's panegyric, and circumstances, it is more remarkable that forthwith opened and concluded a criminal the young viceroy should have quelled in. negotiation with her mercenary parent. surrections both in Sweden and in Norway, Düveke presently acquired and long re. than that he should have engaged in an illi. tained unbounded power over her lover's cit amour. But the origin of this attach heart; whilst her mother, frightful as she ment is worth recording. The archiepisco. has been depicied, acquired and retained pal cancellor had repaired to Bergen, to similar power over his mind. We are told appease some tumulis excited by the imposi- that tion of new taxes. Here, as Münch tells us, he walked through the market-place, glanc. understanding, uncommon knowledge of

Sigbrit possessed a singularly keen ing inquiringly at the crowd :

human passions, and an immoderate pro“When he was astonished by the sight pensity to intrigue, with a cruel, crafty, of a woman of extraordinary stature and and revengeful sense of injuries." corpulence, who, as her baskets showed, dealt in fruits, sugar-plums, and other

She rendered all these qualities of such dainties. Her cheeks, strangely distended, avail in her intercourse with Christjern, that and deep-dyed with such a red as he had she became his chief adviser in the concerns never before seen on woman's face, hung of his viceroyalty. And when, in 1510, he down nearly to her bosom. Her eyes was summoned to Copenhagen by the in. flashed a dark, almost unnatural fire, and creasing illness of King John, he directed a savage scorn played about her strongly her secretly to follow him with her daughter. curled lips. stood a maiden of such gracious loveli- The connection did not, however, long re. ness as must have disarmed the severest

main a secret.

In 1514, Christiern ascended the throne,

and the states of the kingdom pressed him But, as the daughter's beauty is a less ori. to marry. To this he made no objection, ginal part of our story than the mother's ug- provided he could obtain the hand of the liness, we omit its description and pass on 10 Princess Isabel of Spain, who, to great the hag's answer to the chancellor's inquiry beauty, talent, and piety, added an ample as to what and whence they were.

portion. Christiern's unlawful amour was " The giantess replied, "We are natives urged as a cause of refu sal by Isabel's guar. of Amsterdam in Holland, my dread lord: dians; it was at once, in appearance, broken my name is Sigbrit Wylms, my daughter off, and the marriage solemnized. But the Düveke. We are indigent, but of good young queen could no more weaken Dü. repute, and earn our livelihood honestly. veke's hold upon Christiern's heart by her Many a lordly, earl and knight, many a personal charms, than by her mental endow. lewd priest and monk, has gazed wistfully ments she could break the shackles in which at this tender blossom of mine; but I have Sigbrit had enthralled his mind; and in a managed, by strict discipline and constant vigilance, to guard it from wild brambles, very few weeks after her marriage, the and venomous worms.

I have mother and daughter resumed their former been warned in a dream that a lot, far dif- station, even more openly than before. The ferent from that of her station, awaits my decisions of the council

, and even those of child. But even if she is not to be a queen, the states of the kingdom, were submitted to she is already, look at her yourself, dread the old Dutchwoman's approbation, and the lord, a queen amongst her equals. her envy is silenced, and pays her a re- prosperity of the nation depended entirely luctant homage. Her girlish play fellows, upon her caprices. all who knew her, call her the Dove.'»

Uncomplainingly as the newly wedded

queen seems to have submitted to neglect, The Chancellor was so impressed by the such a state of affairs soon became intolera. beauty of the daughter, and perhaps by the ble to the Danish nation, and especially to strarige language of the mother, that upon the grandees, who held themselves to be the rejoining the prince at Opslo, he hastened to proper advisers of lheir sovereign.

But report his discovery of so much loveliness those who were most indignant, at least and purity in a low.born foreigner. Chris. whose indignation carried them the greatest tiern, fired by the description, betook him. length, appear, naturally enough, to have self without loss of time to Bergen, where, mistaken the source of the influence which

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they reprobated. They imagined that werequently visited the boy in the Castle of Cothere no beautiful daughter, there could be penhagen, even against the will of his pa. no power to harm or thwart them in a re- rents, or took him home with her, to give

him lessons in the science of government; pulsive old crone. Düveke suddenly sicken.

which surprise us the more from the difficulty ed and died; and, frequent as are the of conceiving how the old Amsterdam fruitgroundless accusations of poisoning in the hawker, or alewife, could have acquired such history of past times, the charge cannot, we knowledge as she imparted. fear, upon the occasion in question, be thus easily disposed of. But the crime proved as “ But the magic by which Sigbrit ruled the unavailing as it was atrocious.

king's spirit consisted chiefly in the readi

ness with which she entered into bis ruling “ The heart of the king seemed to have passion, his desire to strengthen the monardied with his mistress. Ï he wild passions chical element in the constitution, intolerably which had hitherto been curbed by one yet narrowed by the popular representative prin. more potent, love, now ruled him with unmi- ciple, and to break the arrogance of the pritigated, arbitrary sway. Hatred, suspicion, vileged classes, the nobility and the priestcruelty, and contempt for mankind, were now hood; or, according to the better opinion, the denizens of the royal bosom, and the main ob- skill with which she instilled those ideas into ject for which the death of Düveke, or Colum- his mind, encouraging him to carry them bula, as the Latin author calls her, had been into effect, by reference 10 the success of wrought or desired, the destruction of Sig. several of his co-sovereigns, as Louis XI., brit's influence, was not attained; on the Charles V., and Henry VIII.

Her contrary, she seemed to have inherited, as a friends and spies had vividly depicted to her legacy, the two-fold regard of the king; and the injustice, the arbitrary crueltics, often revenge for the annihilation of his love-para- perpetrated by the great landed proprietors, dise, and a passionate longing to inflict retri- lay and clerical: and she herself had been a bution for wrongs endured, governed the con- sufferer by them of old. Hence her pasduct of the bereaved lover and mother."

sionate hatred for the nobility, which she

found little difficulty in grafting upon the That the revenge taken by Christiern upon king's jealousy of his own authority. She the supposed or convicted murderers of his had in pay numerous spies, selected from paramour was fearful, will readily be con. the populace, who daily supplied her with ceived by all who are acquainted with the news.

These tales, tricked out according to cruelties he perpetrated or commanded in her own views, highly seasoned and exagSweden. We omit the painful and super. held most objects through spectacles, the

gerated, she repeated to Christiern, who be. fluous detail, to end our account of this study glasses of which she fashioned. The highest with an extract or two on the point for which Officers of state attended upon her, and waitwe selected it; to wit, the increased and ed for hours together at her door, often in increasing influence of Mother Sigbrit, when storm and tempest, whilst she was chatting destitute of any stay beyond her own talents with the meanest men upon common-place and address; or, in the opinion of the vulgar, matters. Happy were the ministers, if her high and low, of the black art.

door at length unclosed, and a gracious look

rewarded their patience. “Sigbrit's former influence daily increased, “ One topic, frequently discussed when the such power has habit; such witchery did she king visited her in her own house, was the exercise over many minds, that Queen Isa. trade with the Hanse towns. These last were, bel herself lived upon friendly terms with as may well be imagined, not upon the best her, and the proudest nobles no longer blush- footing with the Netherlands, and Sigbrit, ed io attain their objects through her media- cherishing a patriotic spirit of revenge against tion.

them, encouraged Christiern in his purpose Upon occasion of the queen's confine- of repressing, as much as possible, their trade ments, Sigbrit undertook the offices of mid- with his three kingdoms, and regulating all wife and nurse; she even waited upon the his internal commercial relations according royal children, and carried them from place to the plan adopted in the Netherlands. to place with a tenderness that could hardly “ To her may be ascribed the expedition spring from the heart, but which established equipped to explore the Frozen Ocean for her in Isabel's favor. At times, however, her islands, and a passage to the East Indies; as diabolic nature overpowered the dissimula- also, the prohibition to Hanseatic and other tion with which she affected such feelings. German vessels to fish, as before, in the Thus, upon the birth of a third son, she Danish seas, &c. She induced the king to spitefully exclaimed, Why so many prin- bestow many important rights and commerces ! Where shall we find kingdoms for cial privileges upon the Danish towns, to pro. them all! Get yo gone! To the devil with tect the third estate against the pretensions the princes !”

of the great, to convert the ecclesiastical pre

bends into foundations for the sick poor. " Yet did Sigbrit display the utmost zeal Finally, she secured all practicable advanin educating and forming Christiern's youth- tages io Dutch sailors in the northern realms. ful heir, his only surviving son. She fre.


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All Christiern's relations and treaties with whilst the bad overawed them. In no other foreign states were governed by sound policy, history do we find so early and so unbounded and, like some of his internal regulations, a degree of individual liberty, and in none so show Mother Sigbrit's influence not disadvan-immoderate, so untameable a misuse of liber. tageous to Denmark. But she disgraced her ty; so that the annals of the Flemish and merits by shameful rapacity, usury, private Walloon times may exemplify how little the speculations carried on with the public funds, sway of well-understood freedom, legal order, and by her vindictive persecution of indivi- and a steady state of cultivation can be produals and corporations opposed to her. moted by the triumph of pure democracy."

* The Swedish tragedy was mainly owing Of the Netherlands, at the close of the to the violent councils of Sigbrit. The un- Burgundian era, Münch thus speaks: scrupulous Schlaghök was sent thither upon her recommendation. The extermination of “ They confirmed by oath, and then broke, the Swedish nobility was one of the thoughts one compact after another, always complainthat by day and by night occupied her soul. ing of encroachments upon their liberties.

The privileged orders were gradual. The fundamental idea, bias, and tempera. ly driven to resistance by desperation, and an ment of the Belgians of that day are embodied imprudent expression of Sigbrit's, that the in the arrogant Philip of Cleves, the especial Danish nobility must be tried collectively for favorite of the democracy, but whose precise high treason,'' proved the signal for revolt. object in his eager exertions was never ascer. The insurgents chose Frederick, Duke of tained. Thus did the country forfeit its peace Holstein-Schleswig, for the King of Denmark, and quiet, with the enjoyment of its freedom; and, arming against Christiern, triumphed. and, as a consequence of this degenerate sysIn 1523 the King was obliged to fly from tem, the most flourishing towns in Europe, Copenhagen, and before he attended to his which then were still marts for the whole own safety, he took means to insure Sigbrit's. world's trade, sank deeper and deeper into The infurated populace would have torn her moral abominations and disorders, into finan. to pieces, and she was therefore conveyed on cial embarrassments and debts, and at last ship-board in a cask. She is said to have into complete insignificance and actual po. consoled the King of Denmark upon his re- verty. If we would conscientiously underverses, by promising to procure for him the stand the condition of those times, we must more exalted post of Burgomaster of Amster. not read tbe partial French memoirs, which dam. From this moment she disappears always represent the Flemings as runaway from the stage, and must probably have died subjects, and every evil us a consequence of upon the voyage, or soon after landing in her the Burgundo. Austrian sovereignty; but native country, Holland, where the dethroned study and compare their own printed and monarch resided for some time.”

MS. country chronicles, their charters and

other official documents, and we shall be for. Proceed now to Münch's Belgian cibly struck with the arrogance of a people, views, entreating the reader, whilst he

who neither could nor would be content with

pe: ruses the following extracts, to bear in mind such ruler3, with such unbounded liberties,

with so happy and prosperous a condition. the author's original democratic bias. “The Belgians, like the Dutch, have pass

“ As, after the re. establishment of Nether. ed through a series of historical changes land independence under the Orange dynas. without having ever constituted a nation. ty, King William I. was represented to the

Until the Burgundian era, we people as a bypocrite, and an oppressor alike find only unconnected duchies, counties, of Belgian freedom and the Catholic faith, so lordships, towns, with innumerable rights in the 16th century was William the Taci. and privileges, pretensions, and claims, ad- turn industriously and similarly calumniated. vanced and enforced now amongst themselves That great man, who first breathed into the and against each other, now by subjects and nobility the idea and the spirit of royal revassals against their lords, now by lords and sistance to a foreign yoke, whose example in. vassals aguinst the Emperor and the imperial cited to the first and weightiest enterprises, federation, to which they all belonged." Un- whose advice had proved the only sure guide til the close of the 15th century, we no where in moments of danger, was represented as a find the collective idea of a Belgian people pupil of Machiavel's, whose sole object was expressed; the idea of a Belgian nation does to bring the nation, now delivered from Spanot exist. This was equally the case in the nish thraldom, under a more disgracefultyran. northern provinces; but there, earlier than ny. The verbose declamatory harangues of in Belgium, arose the feelings that they ought Messrs. Vilain XIV., Rodenbach, and Co. in to constitute a brotherly federation against our days, may be read in many a Flemish, foreigners; and the glorious recollections of Brabant, and Hainault pamphlet of the 16th Batavian wars and enterprises early produc-century. ed a sort of nationality. Writers of all ages agree in painting the Belgians as the most Ghent pamphlet, we read: Neyer restless, unruly, tumult-loving mortals in ex. were the much-to-be-pitied Netherlanders so istence; and it is observable that they have barbarously treated (not even by the Spaalways treated their best rulers the worst, niards) as now, by their own countrymen.


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