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in the foreground ; and the expression of evidently for her offspring alone, with whom savage ferocity, which the artist has impress- she is hurrying to take refuge near the brazen ed on the countenance, forcibly suggest the serpent. The next group is that of a mother idea of the blaspheming Capanev, as de- supporting the head of her dying son, who is scribed by Dante in the 14th canto of the In- lying on a fragment of rock. Deep affliction ferno:
manifests itself in her features and attitude,
yet subdued in some degree by resignation ; 'Gridò, quale fui vivo, tal son morto ;'&c.
for she appears to exclaim, The Lord hath One of the serpents which have obtained a given—the Lord hath taken away' Passing mastery over his prodigious strength, is al. to the extreme left of the picture, in the foreready eager for fresh prey, and preparing to ground, we behold a man in the prime of life dart upon another group close by that of the and strength, supporting his aged blind father, maiden and her lover. This group consists whom he is anxiously conducting towards the of three figures, of which the one nearest to brazen serpent, as to the only asylum from the serpent is a young man seated on the destruction. He is followed by his wife, who ground, but who, perceiving his scaly assail- assists him in helping the old man along, ant, is in the act of springing up in order to while their little boy clings to his father's make his escape. The figure next to this is girdle. In the background, on this side of an old woman, who is also sitting on the the picture, is seen the brazen serpent eleground, she holds a young child on her vated upon a pole, at the foot of which are a knees, and raises her face upwards, looking number of females, whose varied attitudes at the serpents descending through the air. and gestures are all expressive of joy and Behind the female, belonging to the first de gratitude at being protected by the saving scribed group, is seen one considerably symbol. In the centre of the picture, and younger-quite a girl, who is shrieking out towards the background, stands Moses himwith alarm, and endeavoring to shelter her- self, a majestic figure, marked by that auself beneath her mother's veil, imagining thoritative and awful dignity becoming the herself to be pursued by one of the serpents, Jewish lawgiver ; while the surrounding instead of which her pursuer is her little throng reverently make way for him, flingbrother, who is trying to overtake her. In ing themselves on the ground before him, this boy, the artist has expressed all the indi- and hailing him as their conductor and procations of extreme fear with most astonishing tector." truth; he stops short, as if suddenly petrified and riveted to the ground, on beholding a ser
Thus much must suffice of Signor Filippo pent hissing at him, immediately behind the Mercuri's description of the picture, our space old woman just mentioned. The mother her- not allowing us io give the whole of it, and self is an admirable figure: she is evidently even now we have been obliged to omit some influenced by two contrary impulses, the one parts in what we have extracted. Still, enough urging her to attempt to save her children, has been quoted to enable the reader to form the other, to implore for them that aid from Heaven which she despairs of affording them a tolerable notion of the general composi. herself. We see that the last has prevailed, tion, and of the manner in which the Rus. and she accordingly casts an imploring look sian artist has treated the subject. Of the of supplication upon the symbolic brazen critic's subsequent remarks we shall give no serpent.
inore than a general summary, namely, that “Behind this group, and in the distance, the execution of this picture manifests a se. are seen a number of the Israelites running vere and pure style, and proves the artist to about franticly, while a shower of serpents be an attentive studier of both Raffaelle and descends upon them. Some have already taken to flight; others hope to fence them. Michelagnolo, yet not a mere imitator of their selves by wrapping their garments closely manner, but gifted with originality of conaround them; while those upon whom the ception and feeling,-conscious of his own serpents have actually fastened are vainly powers, and ambitious of exerting them struggling, and endeavoring to shake them worthily. There is likewise a description by off. By way of relief to this part of his pic- the same writer, of three smaller pictures by ture, where he vividly represents to us va- Bruni executed by him for a Russo. Greek rious degrees of distress and horror, the artist church; viz. a Virgin and Infant Christ, both now introduces some images of a less painful character. Close by the group of the mother represented standing on clouds, the former and children, is a man supporting a female holding the latter by the hand; the Savior, wrapped up in white drapery, who has been also shown in the same manner; and Christ wounded by one of the serpents. Her coun- praying in the garden. The first two are tenance expresses bodily anguish, but at the painted on a gold ground, as being a suitable same time cheering confidence and hope, as manner of treating religious subjects of this she gazes upon the brazen serpent, whose kind, which are purely symbolic. Of another salutary influence she already begins to feel. To these figures succeeds that of another of Bruni's performances, representing one woman accompanied by her two young
of the Horatii slaying his sister, there is an children, one of whom she holds by the hand, outline engraving, which shows it to be a while the other follows her. Her concern is work of great ability in regard to composi.
tion, and also as respects attention to cos, results. In 1836 it tried the experiment of tume. Beyond this we can offer no opinion, a lottery of works of art, which so far exbecause it would be exceedingly hazardous ceeded is expectations, that, although the to pretend to speak of its other qualities upon number of tickets was limited to one thou. no better authority than a mere outline copy sand, upwards of seven times that number on a very reduced scale, and unaccompanied could have been disposed of.
In conseby any description. The picture itself is in quence of this, the Society have resolved to the Academy of Arts at St. Petersburg. apply to government for permission to esta.
From what has just been said it will be blish a regular series of such lotteries, with concluded, that graphic illustrations form part the view of not only being enabled thereby of the plan of the Gazela ;” they do not, to give frequent commissions to native artists, however, appear regularly in each number of or to purchase works which they may have the publication, those which we have as yet upon hand, but also of ihus diffusing various received for the present year containing only productions of art among all classes of the two, the other being from a picture by a public. How far a speculation of this na. young artist named Ivanov, representing iure is compatible with a regard to the higher Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen in the interests of art, admits of very great doubt. garden. More however are promised, and Many plausible arguments may be urged re. among them one or two architectural sub. lative to it both pro and con: ihe immediate jects, including the design of the Church of consequences are no doubt obviously benefi. St. Catherine Velikomuzhenitza, or ihe Mar. cial, by opening a market to artists for their tyr,which has lately been erected at St. Peters. productions, and creating an increasing de. burg, and which, it seems, is greatly admired mand for them. The danger is, that, in order by the public of that capital for the Byzan- to adapt itself to such patronage, and 10 contine character of its style. This we learn ciliate popular taste, art will descend to the from an article in the third number of the level of the public, instead of seeking to lift Gazett, which gives a recapitulation of the up the latter to its own. All that we can principal structures that have been erected at say is, that such a system accords well St. Petersburg within about the last ten years, enough with the spirit of the present age, together with mention of a few at Moscow. when even taste is required to co-operate for Great praise in particular is bestowed upon the service of the many, though it should Ton, the architect of the above-mentioned thereby forfeit some of its higher prerogachurch and several other edifices. We have tives. We are anxious to have short crits to never happened to meet with the name any. every thing; so, as it is a tedious and lawhere before, neither does it appear to us at borious task to educate the public to art, art all like a Russian one ; while, if foreign, it must perforce lend itself to be trained to has probably been much metamorphosed, as please the public, upon whose favor, it is told, is generally the case when such names are its yery existence depends; nor can we cen. translated into Russian characters, so that sure the Russian 66 Society ” for following unless, as is frequently done-and ought in the example previously set by Germany, variably to be so—the name be also printed where Kunstvereine and picture-lotteries are, in Roman type according to its genuine or. we will not exactly say among the fashions of thography, it is hardly possible to recognize the day, but among the plans recurred to for or to decipher it. This, therefore, must be promoting art, and securing to it patronage accepted as an excuse for the uncertainty we and support on the broadest basis.' The in. feel in the present instance. After all, we tention itself is most excellent, and, as far as should be glad to discover, that, notwithstand. mere appearances go, the experiment will ing his stumbling.block of a surname, Con- succeed; yet we should do well not to be too stantine Andreevitch can fairly be claimed by sanguine : the first shoots and green leaves Russia as her own, and that it is native talent may look quite vigorous and thriving, but the which is here eulogized.
fruit may nevertheless turn out to be alto. We had written thus far when some addi- geiher worthless and insipid. tional sheets—sixteen pages being the ave. We have not yet done with the Report, rage complement of each number—reached for, among the information that it supplies us, one of which contains the last annual re. as to what is actually going on in Russia, port made to the Committee of the Society we learn from it that Bruni is now engaged for the encouragement of the Arts. Unless upon a series of historical subjects taken it sets things in a far more favorable light from the annals of the empire, which he has than the reality warrants, this document af. undertaken at the solicitation of the Society. fords grounds for concluding that the exer These, we are told, are now in the course of tions on the part of the Society are now be. being engraved by the artist himself on cop. ginning to be productive of very successful per, and therefore conclude them to be out.
line compositions etched by him, in which | Report, are Raev, Shapovalov, and Ivanov. supposition we are confirmed by its being The first of these is a young artist, who has stated, "that upwards of thirty are already distinguished himself by his talent in landcompleted. In what form they will be pub- scape and perspective painting, especially by lished, whether in livraisons or the entire four panoramic views of St. Petersburg, series together, we are not informed, it being which obtained for him, as a mark of the only stated in addition that the descriptive emperor's approbation, a gratuity of three letter-press will be written by Rezvoy, one thousand rubles. He is now engaged in of the members of the Society, whose know. making views of the scenery of Nizhmeiledge of art, not less than his familiar ac- Taghil for M. Demidov. Respecting Shaquaintance with the history of his country, polov, we learn that he is quite a youth, who, well qualifies for such a task. Submitted to having accompanied bis master, Lieut. Kapthe world in this shape, these compositions of nist, to Naples, was left there by him about Bruni's will either greatly extend his fame, two years ago, and taken into the service of or else diminish it, by showing, that however a painter, named Doria. The talent which high a rank the partiality or the patriotism of he displayed for drawing recommended him his countrymen may award him, he must be so strongly 10 his new master, that he was content with their suffrages, and not seek soon treated by him entirely as his pupil, and those of a European public. We trust, through the medium of Count Matushevitch, however, that, although other nations cannot a pension of one hundred dollars has been fully enter into all the interests of the sub- obtained for him from the Society, to enable jects themselves, they will see no cause for him, after studying two years longer in the withholding their approbation from them as Museum at Naples, to proceed to Rome. productions of art, but be able to recognise Alexander Ivanov, who was another of the in them the manifestations of superior ta- Society's protegēs, is already well known to lent-power of mind as well as skill of the public of St. Petersburg by his picture hand—and readily welcome them accord- of Joseph interpreting Pharaoh's dream, ingly.
which gained the gold medal of the first Another publication, of whose speedy ap- class in the Academy of Arts; and still pearance promise is held out by the Report, more advantageously by that of Christ apis to consist of the works of the late Profes. pearing to Mary Magdalen in the garden, sor Ivan Petrovitch Martos, whose fame as a which not only obtained for him the honor sculptor is not even now confined to Russia. of being elected a member of the Academy, What will be its extent we have not the but has since been placed in the imperial means of judging; yet as it is said that sixty gallery of the Hermitage, as a production of the plates were then finished, and conside- highly creditable to Russian talent. This rable progress made with the rest, except last-mentioned production is spoken of more those of such works were in different at length in the sixth number of the Gazeta, parts of the country, and the drawings of which contains an outline of it. Ivanov is which had not then reached St. Petersburg, at present at Rome, where he has been coin. we may presume that the whole number will missioned by the Society to make copies of amount to about a hundred. This artist of the three figures of Strength, Prudence, whom some slight mention was made by us, and Temperance, painted by Raffaelle in in our paper on Russian Annuals, (No. the third of the Vatican stanze, and held XXXII.) has been complimented by his by connoisseurs among the chefs-d'auvre country men with the title of their Canova, of that great master's pencil. Of the larger and, although not equal to the Italian, is well and more celebrated productions of Raffaelle entitled to a distinguished rank among mo- in the Vatican, the Imperial Academy of dern sculptors. To assert that his produc- Arts already possesses the following cotion will stand the test of a comparison with pies, viz: The School of Athens, by Bru. those of the latter, or of Thorwaldsen, would lov; Heliodorus driven out of the Temple, probably be raising expectation much too by Bruni; St. Peter delivered from Prison; high; it will be enough for his fame and and the Miracle at Bolsena, by Basin. In that of his country if they are found to ap. addition to these and several smaller copies, proach tiem at no very great interval; and Markov, whose picture from Krilov's admiwe hope that the engravings from them will rable fable, Fortune and the Beggar, was do justice to their merits, and form a work lately purchased by the Academy for three deserving to be placed beside that of the thousand rubles, has been commissioned to illustrious Italian, and that of the no less paint one of the Incendio del Borgo. We illustrious Dare.
are further told that the Russian
engraver, Among those of whom more particular Jordan, bas, during his stay at Rome, made and very honorable mention is made in the I considerable progress with a plate after the
Transfiguration,--a rather bold undertaking, | Tzvati, as being, though not the best in all considering that the same subject has been other respects, the most correct in point of already engraved twice by Morghen, to say likeness. There are also small whole-length nothing of various other copies by eminent figures of him and of those other two popu. artists. The editor of the Gazeta himself lar poets Krilov and Zhokovsky, which are remarks that no one has yet completely suc. in great request with the public. Ho!berg ceeded in doing justice to all the beauties of is spoken of in exceedingly warm-we hope the original, yet does not consider this fresh not very exaggerated_terms of praise, for attempt by his countryman to be at all a his ability as a scupltor, and the feeling which presumptuous one. Perhaps he will consi. he infuses into whatever he executes. Great der his expectations fully realised, should the commendation, too, is bestowed upon Bruwork turn out not at all interior to some of lov's portraits ; and his large picture of the the former copies of the same picture. Last Days of Pompeii
, which attracted so Hardly should we anticipate a much greater much notice by its powerful effect, has, we degree of success, when we are told, in are here informed, been copied for the pur: this very journal, that in no one branch pose of being engraved at Paris. Bruni is of art have the Russians made so little ad. again mentioned in this letter, which speaks vance as in that of engraving.
of his having just finished a copy of Raf. Not the least interesting article is that faelle's Madonna d'Alba, for which a com. in the form of a letter from the editor to mission was given him by the Emperor, and a friend at Paris, wherein he gives him which is said to bear a most happy reseman account of the chief novelties connected blance to the original. Basin likewise comes with art at St. Petersburg, prefacing it by in for some share of notice, as being emthe advice that his countrymen should pro- ployed, during his convalescence fro:n a disceed straight to Rome by sea, and not order which attacked his cyes, in making permit themselves to form any acquaint. studies of heads, &c. for two large pictures, ance with the modern schools either of to be executed by him for the church of the France or Germany, until their taste shall Academy at St. Petersburg; one reprehave been matured and well disciplined by ! senting the Descent of the Holy Ghost, the an attentive study of the acknowledged other the Nativity. As Lazhetznikov's master-works of the pencil. At Paris, he name is introduced in speaking of Tæroobserves, a man is in a good school for nov's portrait of him, we may as well avail learning to talk about art; but it is at ourselves of it in order to remark that, alRome that he will feel what art really is. though he made his debut in authorship only
Our limited space forbids our attempting three or four years ago, he is one of the most to go through this letter paragraph by para- able and popular novel writers that Russia posgraph ; and therefore we shall confine our sesses. It must be admitted that, where the selves to a few of its topics, one of which ranks are so exceedingly thin, it is not very in regard to some improvements contem- difficult to earn distinction; yeteven Russia has plated for the Gazeta itself, in another vo within the exceeding brief space of time just lume, with which view the writer purposes to mentioned, seen that class of its writers inillustrate it with wood engravings, to the crease at least threefold, and can reckon number of one hundied in the course of among them such fresh and original talent the year. He speaks at some length of the as that of Odejevsky, Gogol, and Pavlov; various portraits of the late Alexander Push. names which until very lately, had never kin,* and gives the preference to that which reached us. Lazhetnikov's happiest proappeared in the annual entitled Severnic duction, the Last of the Norik's, the scene
of which is laid in the time of Peter the Great, * This exceedingly popular poet was killed in and which introduces to us both that mo: a duel, at the beginning of the present year narch and his sister Sophia among its histo: (1837), and thus cut off at the early age of thirty- rical personages, is quite in the Walter Scott seven,-a period of life when he might have manner, but far superior to the ordinary imi: looked forward to establishing his fame by some finished literary performance, worthy of his ta- tation of it, and has many exceedingly well. lents. Since his death, a complete edition of his drawn scenes and descriptions. works has been announced, in six volumes, oc Brief as it is in itself, the above literary tavo, for the benefit of his widow and family. It digression prevents our proceeding with reHistory of Pugatcher's Insurrection, which will capitulating the other notices contained in the occupy the whole of the fifth volume. In the editor's letier to his friend at Paris,-further last will be given a biographical memoir of him. than saying that the landscape-painter, RaFor an account of his Poltava and some other of bus, is making an artistical tour through the his poems, we refer the reader to an article in Crin.ea and Greece, during which he purpoour Eighteenth Number, which gives some translated extracts from that production.
ses making views of the most striking scene.
ry in those countries. Neither have we left speculating upon these subjects, in company ourselves room to speak of any of the other with our learned professor. articles, otherwise we should be disposed to It is, perhaps, not very easy to collect from give some account of that on the history of the title of this Essay, or even from the work scene-painting in Russia, or rather on the dif- itself, a precise notion of Heeren's object, in ficulty of obtaining any materials for one-as proposing the questions which he thus enu. difficulty, by the by, not confined to Russia merates, alone. The scenery by Phedorov and
“ How the spirit of inquiry, with regard to others, in the modern operas and pieces of distinctions in the forms of government, first spectacle, is spoken as having contributed in arose in modern Europe? How this became no small degree to their popularity, particu. the source of political reasoning? How this larly the scenes executed by Phelorov for again formed the base of abstract theories ? the Bronze Horse. A publication consisting What practical influence the latter executed of the plans and details of the Alexander generally, and what in particular, upon the Column, would also claim more attention other, and that of the highest practical impor.
late revolutions! With these (he says) an. from us than we can now bestow upon it. tance, becomes naturally associated, vizIt will consist of forty-eight lithograph plates, What is necessary for the preservation of thiriy-seven of which will be expressly devo. monarchical principles of constitutional goted to showing all the previous operations of vernments? In this case the inquiry is to be quarrying, transporting, and finally erecting, directedonly to the constitution, not to the ad. that immense granite monolith.
ministration, of power in the different states." Should our readers at all participate in the p. 116. interest we take in whatever relates to the pro The professor nowhere states precisely what gress of the arts in Russia, they will thank us he means by the preservation of the monarevenfor the above slight and desultory sketch. chical principle, but we collect from the whole Many of them will, no doubt, be very scepti. that he intends us to consider, how far it may cal both as to our general report and that 10 be possible to carry into effect the theoretical which we are indebted for much of what we principles, and the prevailing sentiments, have stated. Yet, without laying claim to which assign to the people a large share in the gift of prophecy, we may venture to as the government without converting every sert that the time is approaching when fo- state into a republic, in form or substance. reigners who shall visit Russia will direct The habits of philosophical inquiry arose their attention to those productions of native and perfected themselves, according to our talent which may be understood without a author, in ancient Greece; he traces them previous acquaintance with the idiom of the to the struggles which took place with regard country, because they speak a universal lan- to the forms of the constitutions, and to the guage.
neighborhood of other states governed in va. rious manners. The habit was dormant du. ring the middle ages, because the feudal sys. tem admitted of no free citizenship, and al. lowed no varieties of government.
It might have been expected first to give ART. VI.- Vermischte Historische Schrif signs of life in Italy, where," all the ordinary
ten. Von H. L. Heeren, Erster Theil.- causes appear to have united ;-a number of Ueber die Entstehung, die Ausbildung, und small states arose near each other, republi. den politischen Einfluss der politischen can constitutions were established, political Theorien, und die Erhaltung des Monar- parties were everywhere al work and at va. chischen Princips in dem neueren Euro- riance; and with all this, the arts and scien. pa. (Miscellaneous Historical Works. ces were in the full splendor of their revival.” By H. L. Heeren, Vol. I.-On the Rise, Yet political theories were as few in Italy as Progress, and practical Influence of Politic. they had been•many in Greece ; for which al Theories, and on the Preservation of we may perhaps account, if we remember the Monarchical Principle in Modern Eu. that "there never was a philosophical sysrope.)
tem of character or influence which prosper.
ed under the sky of Italy." Roman philoThe construction of new constitutions, and sophy was a mere echo of the Grecian; and the consideration of theories of government, again, at the revival of science after the pe. have been lately the occupation of half the riod of darkness, Plato and Aristotle were the nations of the world ; our own constitution chief and only guides. While speculative has recently undergone one important science made no great advance among the change, and is threatened with others. It Italians, they were nevertheless the deepest is therefore that we seize the opportunity of land most accomplished politicians. Their VOL. XX.