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ship, with its temples, idols, and priests.common weal, and with the distributions
The principal temple of the Slavonians, of justice. The assembly of the starosts*
neatly constructed of wood, consisted decided respecting the affairs of a whole
chiefly of an exterior and interior part. tribe; the priests, however, as interpreters
The wooden walls of the outward division of the divine will, exercised the greatest
were covered with carvings, but the inte influence. The oldest laws (zakony) were
rior compartment rested on pillars, and of religious origin. Property was heredi-
instead of walls was hung with cloths. In tary and divisible. Slavery was unknown.
the inmost part stood the idol, colossal in The larger landed proprietors (lechi
size if of wood, small and raised on a pe- slechtici) acquired early considerable im-
destal if of metal ; other smaller figures portance among the people; they became
were ranged at each side. Besides the starosts, not alone from their age, but
vessels of sacrifice and the consecrated likewise from the weight of their posses-
banners of war, the temple was filled sions and their experience, and this influ-
with the treasures and arms taken from ence, together with the dignity which was
the conquered enemies, which were offer- inherited through several generations,
ed to the deities. None but the priests brought the Slavonians to acknowledge,
durst enter the inner part, and these held at length, the first knezen or princes, after
their breath from veneration when they the example of neighbouring nations.”
approached the god. In the outward part
of the temple the wealth and splendour of The conflict for the supremacy on the one
the nation were displayed ; for fixed conside and for independence on the other be-
tributions were levied for its support and
ornament. Besides the principal temple gan between the Germans and their Bohe-
of the land, there were particular temples hemian neighbors, after Charlemagne had
in the chief place of each zupa, which the extended the Frankish sway, by his victories
zupa was obliged to maintain. They were over the Saxons and the Avars, to the banks
chiefly erected in the middle of the cas- of the Elbe and the Raab. The Bohemi.
tles, on an open spot shaded by holy ans had joined him as allies against the bar-
trees ; some were raised, however, in barous Avars, which proved however to be
groves connected with the castles.”

short-sighted policy: Of all the destroyers

of the human race, we follow the steps of The picture which the historian draws of the earliest state of society among the Sla- Charlemagne with the greatest sympathy,

as his conquests opened the way to many vonians agrees with what we have described as the leading features of the Bohemians it is true, in the Germanic grise of monar

nations for the light of Christianity, clothed, of the present day.

chy; that is to say, identifying its doctrines “Their principal seats in antiquity lay knowledged a human head. Whatever may

with the institutions of a church which acto the the Vistula and the Don, remote from, and have been the merits of this church, or rathinaccessible to, the Greeks and Romans, er of its members, in those dark


and offering nothing that could powerfully we are not disposed to underrate them, it awaken their curiosity. For the Slavo- must be clear that this cumbrous superstrucnians were-ever unlike the Germans and ture, burdening the all-intelligible lessons Sarmatians, who were conquering, war- of wisdom and love contained in the Gospel, like, nomadic nations-fond of peace, at- and implying, as it necessarily did, the oblitached to agriculture, cattle breeding, the gation of tribute to be paid by the prosemechanical arts, and commerce. As a peaceful, 'agricultural people, they lytes, was a great impediment to the extenappear from the oldest times to have had sion of Christianity. The word of truth, no fixed national arrangements for war. in short, could only advance with this inBrave as they often showed themselves to cumbrance through the openings made by be, they scarcely ever used their arms to the conqueror's sword, and where this was attack others, but solely for defence; nei- met by equal skill and bravery the blessing ther did they fight on horseback, but on foot, as shield-bearers. Generals (woie- was excluded, together with the miseries

Thus it was wody) were only chosen by them in time of which it attempted to impose. war ; their power ceased with the establish- with the Bohemians, placed as they were ment of peace. The warlike, piratical on the farthest extremities of the Frankish tribe of the Wilten formed, however, an empire; the feudal armies of Charlemagne exception in this respect. Their most an- overran the country indeed, and turned its cient civil institutions, as far as we know fertile plains into a desert, but he was not them, were those of a harneless people, of a nation yet in its infancy. As neither the rule of a prince nor any distinctions of

* The starost, which was until lately a title of rank were originally known among them, dignity in Poland, corresponds exactly to the Sarthe eldest (starsi, starosti,) in each com- on alderman, the German graf, the Latin senator mune were charged with the care for thel(senex); stary signifying old.

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able to storm the towns, and still less to reserved for missionaries of a different sort. maintain possession of so distant a land. As We


here observe, that a firm convica natural consequence the Bohemians, for- tion prevails among the most enlightened tunately for themselves, and perhaps for Eu- men of Bohemia, that that country owed its rope, did not receive their first notions of first knowledge of Christianity, as well as Christianity at his hands. The Moravians the introduction of many of the arts of civwere the first of the Slavonic tribes upon the ilized life, to the intercourse maintained by Danube who were converted, and great pains the Slavonic nations on the Danube with the seem to have been taken at a very early pe- Greek Empire and its capital; but that the riod to assert the supremacy of the Roinish smallest traces of such intercourse, which church in those countries; a forged bull of was particularly evident in the religious obEugenius II., bearing date of the 9th centu- servances, ornaments of the churches, &c., ry, but most probably drawn up in the 10th, were destroyed or utterly defaced as seeds being promulgated to prove the existence of of rebellion against the Romish see at varifour regular bishoprics in Moravia and Hun- ous subsequent epochs, when the country gary about the year 826. That Christian- was exposed to the fanatical persecutions of ity had spread both into those districts and the Popish party. We regret to say that, even into Bohemia, at an earlier period, from at the present day, the same disposition is the East, cannot be doubted, but the inhabi- but too openly manifested ; the zeal of the tants were not looked upon as Christians clerical censors at Prague, under the influby the Germans, or by the Pope, until their ence of the ruling party, being no less watchsubjection to the rule of the latter.

ful to prevent any allusions to these antina

tional proceedings, and but too prompt in in“The church at Neitra, which the arch- voking the aid of the secular authorities, bishop of Salzburg, Adolram, consecrated where any thing short of implicit obedience in 1936, was, if not the oldest built by the is manifested. We truly hope that, since Slavonians of the north-west, yet the old

the est of which any remembrance has been

government has challenged the attention preserved. But those of Olmütz and Brünn of the civilized world, by sanctioning M. existed, according to documental evidence, Palacky's undertaking, he will be allowed in Moymir's time (825—846); and it can- a greater latitude of speech and investiganot be doubted that the famous old We- tion than has hitherto been suffered in his lerhad obtained its first churches at the predecessors. Our author unfortunately besame period. Many lechs (nobles), and a trays, in this most important part of his work, great part of the people in Moymir's do, the effect produced by the knowledge that minions, must therefore have professed it must be submitted to the inquisitorial powChristianity.

" In the year 844, fourteen Bohemian er of these judges in Israel. He evidently nobles (lechy) formed a resolution to em- nowhere ventures to develop the extent of brace Christianity, and repaired, in con- the connection between the Bohemians and sequence, towards the close of the year, the Greek Church and Empire, but adduces to Ratisbon, to King Louis the German, so much circumstantial evidence that it is who received them amicably, and had clear the papal supremacy was nowhere acthem baptized, with their trains, on the 1st knowledged among the Slavonians, but of January, A. D.845. The names of these where the swords of its German champions little princes, and the details of the solemnity of baptism, are unfortunately not re-enforced its reception. corded. This remarkable occurrence is the first historical notice of the spreading “Christianity had made its way to the of Christianity among the Bohemians, al- Slavonians who penetrated into Mesia, though it cannot be doubted that this faith Thrace, Macedonia, and the Greek peninhad, before that period, found professors sula, as early as the beginning of the 6th there. One among other consequences of century. The conversion of these tribes this act was, that the whole of Bohemia, was the work of the Christian zeal of the before the erection of the bishopric of Byzantines; it was mostly effected in a Prague, was included within the diocese peaceable manner, and without resistance; of Ratisbon."

as, not only in instruction, but also in the

church service, the vernacular tongue of It will readily be supposed, that this last- these nations was used, and thus both mentioned act of papal usurpation, by which their reason and religious feeling were the pretence of a few nobles surrendering often entrusted with the most elevated their consciences to the Roman faith was charges at the imperial court, in the army, seized for the extension of the temporal pow- and even in the Church. Thus Nicetas, a er of the church, was likely to make no fa- Slavonian by birth, was raised in the year vorable impression upon the ruler and ma- 766 to be Patriarch of Constantinople, and jority of the nation. Their conversion was a hundred years later Slavonian family VOL. XX.


found its way, with the great Basil, the midable Slavonic power that had hitherto Macedonian, to the Imperial throne of By- appeared. The authority of the new Mozantium, on which it maintained itself for ravian king was acknowledged by all the a century. These circumstances explain Slavonian tribes, from the Danube to the how, in the ninth century, two natives of Elbe, and his marriage with the daughter Thessalonica, in Macedonia, at that time a half Greek and half Slavonian town, of the Duke of Bohemia was preceded by came to be the founders of the Slavonic the conversion and baptism of her father written language, beginning in the worthi- Borziwoy. The bap:ism of Borziwoy was est manner the list of Slavonic authors." probably performed by Method in person ;

and at the same epoch the Slavonic ritual The brothers, Cyrill and Method, here was introduced into Bohemia, of which the alluded to, and who are justly entitled the sole remains, the popular hymn, “Gospodi Apostles of the Slavonians, undertook the pomilui ny,may still be heard on Sundays, conversion of the Bohemians and Moravi- after the mass, sung by the people in the ans in a manner more likely to be success- two principal churches at Prague. ful than that which had hitherto been tried. When the sinking sceptre of the Carolin

gians was grasped by the vigorous hand of “Whether the want of a suitable and Arnulf (888), a renewed attempt was made profound instruction, or the wish, even in by the Germans to subjugate what they pendent of the Germans, or both together, pretended to consider the revolted Slavonic influenced him to enter into a close and tribes. The war lasted after the death of lasting alliance with Byzantium; Ratislaw both Arnulf and Swatopluk, and at length resolved to secure to his people the bene- merged into the fearful events which acfit of such a remarkable apostolic work. companied the first appearance of the MaHe therefore despatched an embassy to gyars (Hungarians) in Southern Europe. the Emperor Michael at Constantinople, The Moravian kingdom had, however, demanding of him Slavonic christian been totally dissolved by the efforts of the teachers; for his people had, it is true, German armies from without, and those of with baptism adopted the Christian faith from the German priests, but this faith, an intriguing Romish priesthood within ; from want of instruction,'had not taken but Germany was doomed to pay a heavy root in their conviction. The Emperor penalty for this untimely piece of ambition. Michael was highly rejoiced at this em In a civilized age a just calculation of the bassy, and sent the Moravians the two balance of power, and a correct estimate of celebrated brothers, whom he amply sup- the means of defence which the other nations plied with all necessaries for the journey; of Europe had to wield, would have shown came to Moravia, attended by several dis- | the utility of preserving a power on the eastciples, where they were to achieve their ern frontier capable of resisting the attacks fairest work. There they finished the of the unsettled hordes of Asia, to which translation of the Holy Scriptures, and of the better cultivated regions of this quarter the necessary church books, travelling of the globe offer a continual lure. Were through the country to proclaim the word we to speculate on the probable results of of God to the people in their own language. such a course of policy pursued at that time, Numerous churches arose by their exertions, and the service in the Slavonian we might picture to ourselves the earlier language was soon spread not only over advancement of those splendid countries Moravia, but penetrated even to their which lie between the Carpathians and the neighbors, the Slavonians of Pannonia. Black Sea, to a state of high civilization,

The archbishop Adalwin, of The maintenance of a different element of Salzburg, celebrated, for the last time, the religious discipline in one half of Europe festival of Christmas with Kocel, in his must have delivered either part from the castle of Mossburg, at the Balaton Lake, danger of being priest-ridden. The invadsoon after which this prince, with his whole people, went over to the Slavonic ing

Magyars, Moguls

, and Turks, having preachers, whom the German diocesans so formidable a bulwark to oppose their inhad vainly endeavored to banish and keep roads, would not have carried their devastaat a distance.”

ting arms, which produced even more la

mentable moral effects, into the very heart The result of this alienation from the of civilized Europe. But let us turn from German alliance was a series of wars be speculation upon that which might have been tween the Slavonians of Moravia and the to the melancholy picture of reality. German princes of the Carolignian line, which, after many remarkable changes of “The fall of the Moravian kingdom, and fortune, ended in leaving Swatopluck, ne- the weakness of king Louis the Child, phew of Ratislaw, at the head of the most for- opened the gates of Germany, France, and


Italy, to these rapine-seeking hordes. The man of warlike and ungovernable temper, Hungarians, mounted upon swist horses, shared the discontent which these proceedlightly armed, and dangerous even in ings created in the country, and is said to fight, were yearly seen to go out in quest have murdered the pious Wenceslaw, upon of booty, and reach their homes with im which the nation elected him by acclamapunity. In 908 they advanced into Saxony and Thuringia ; 909 into Swabia ; 910 into tion as his successor. The monkish hisBavaria and Franconia (on which occa- torians, with one accord, accuse Boleslaw, sion the German king submitted to the ob- and his mother, Drahomira, who took part ligation of tribute); 912 into Franconia with him, as Pagans, and represent this and Thuringia; 913 into Swabia ; 915 as revolution as an attempt to abolish Chrisfar as Fulda and Bremen ; 917 into Swit- tianity. If, however, we compare what zerland, Alsace, and Lorraine; 919 into has been said of the early introduction of Italy and France; 922 into Italy: 924 Christianity into these countries from the through Italy into the South of France, as well as into Saxony and to the Rhine ; 926 East, and the probability of the whole, or to the Rhine again, Alsace, and Switzer- the greatest part, of the inhabitants having land. Swift and unexpected, like a fear- been converted before the ruling house ful hurricane, they swept across these adopted the Christian faith, with the known countries, destroying every thing in their contest for supremacy between the Papal way, and disappeared again before the and the Slavonian parties, we shall not be heavy-armed troops of Germany could assemble to oppose them. As plunder judged overhasty 'in surmising that the and rapine were their only objects, they quarrel in reality concerned the two forms delayed nowhere to besiege fortifled pla- of Christian worship; the national one, ces; they hurried past them, and avoided which likewise sanctioned the reading of greater battles, in order to return the more the Seriptures by the people at large, being surely with the collected booty."

looked upon by the Romish clergy as in no

degree better than heathenism. The hisWhen at length the German emperors, torians of Bohemia hitherto have univerafter years of preparations and wise policy, sally followed the chroniclers, and even had sufficiently improved the discipline of Professor Schneller, in the abridged edition their troops, and roused the spirit of the of his history, published after he had withnation to meet these marauders in the field, drawn beyond the reach of Austrian perse. the bloody and decisive battles which were cution, roundly taxes Boleslaw and Drahoto put an end to their devastations were still mira with Paganism. M. Palacky evidently fought in the very heart of their own em- partakes the prevailing opinion of the prepire, on the banks of the Saale and the sent times, that the dispute lay between the Lech. The allied troops of the Dukes of two existing Christian parties in the land, Bohemia did good service on both these but, having no other historical evidence to occasions.

adduce which would set the matter beyond When the Magyars at length settled in dispute, contents himself with remaining their present seats, they formed so formida- silent upon the point. Whether the orthoble a barrier between the Bohemians and dox zeal of the Prague censors has supthe neighbouring Slavonians and the Greek pressed any part of his original MS. in this empire, that this, together with the contin place, a calamity to which he unquestionaual decay of the Byxantine and the constant bly exposed, we have naturally no means of growth of the Papal influence, probably ascertaining. explain the ascendency gradually obtained That the death of Wenceslaw did not by the advocates for the Latin liturgy over cause the re-establishment of Paganism in the national preference for that in the lan- Bohemia is certain ; while the acceptance guage of the country. The final victory of Christianity by the contemporary ruler of the Latins was, however, marked by a of Poland seems to have been brought about fearful event.

by the persuasions and example of the The Bohemian Duke Weneeslaw, a con- daughter of Boleslaw. temporary of the Emperor Henry the Fowler in Germany, had been educated by “In the year 965, Boleslaw married his his grandmother, Ludmilla, who was after-daughter, Dubrawka, to the Pagan Duke wards canonized, in the dogmas and ritual of Poland, Mecislaw'or Mesek. Whether of the Romish Church of a weak mind, the Bohemian princess stipulated the conand thus drawn into the western alliance, version of her consort as a preliminary

condition, or, as the chroniclers of other he cheerfully granted to the German em. countries assert, she induced him to take peror the tribute, which, when afterwards this step by proofs of devoted attachment, disputed, was certainly enforced by the and by judicious reasoning; it is certain, German arms. His brother, Boleslaw, aby unanimous testimony, that it was Du


brawka who caused the Polish Duke to Iconnexion of this kind between Bohemia become a Christian. He was baptised in and the Empire. If the Bohemians had 966, by a Bohemian priest, and a large been free to choose, on the occasion of the portion of his people followed his exam- struggle for independence attempted by the ple."

Saxons against the Franks in 1075, their If some of our readers think that we

evident policy would have been to leave have dwelt too long upon the manner and the parties to fight it out among themselves. details of the conversion of the Bohemians In the memorable battle on the Unstruth, to Christianity, our answer is a ready one.

even the German historians confess that, Upon the circumstances attending this con

when the vanguard of the Swabians was version the whole series of important events thrown into disorder, it was the firmness of of which Bohemia was, in after times, the the Bohemians which restored the battle, theatre, may be said to hang.

The state of and decided the victory. They may thus the country, too, at the present day, can ouly claim the mournful honor of having conbe understood when considered from this tributed to the subjugation of a people whose point of view. Particular mental

national character bore many more points

propenșities are inherited for a much longer period of similarity to their own, than did that of by nations than by the individuals of a

the restless and contentious Franks and family; and the appeal made so early to the basis of the future freedom of Germany,

On the banks of the Unstruth the reason and feelings of the nation matters of religion, accompanied, as it was, and all chance of independence for Boheby a kind of obligation to canvass the re mia, were destroyed at one blow. spective merits of the two rituals, during Bohemia down to the year 1197, and

The first volume brings the history of the period of the contest for supremacy, left a disposition behind to look closely into although it contains, as we have seen, despiritual matters, which has manifested bateable matter enough, yet its importance, itself under many various political conjec. as far as the history of the other European tures. Unluckily for the Romish faith, it states is concerned, is less than that of the began by setting the national feeling against yet unpublished volumes must prove. it , by relying for support upon the oppres: change takes place in the system now in

fact, we fear that, unless some unexpected sive and repressive power of foreign conquerors. Thus scarcely any outbreaking force in Austria, according to which no of discontent upon religious matters has publication is permitted which calls in failed of a wakening the national hatred of question the infallibility of any line of policy foreigners; and we fear the feeling is deeply adopted since the accession of the first sown, which, in a violent struggle for politi- Hapsburg, we must wait long for the apcal rights, would prompt the mass of the pearance of the continuing volumes. If country to throw themsel:es into the arms

M. Palacky does not assume a compliant of an ally, whose hatred of the now pre-tone, he can scarcely expect to meet with vailing ritual might promise to rid them of more favour than his precursors. Of Pelthat, with other badges of a galling sub- zel's Bohemian history, the most meritojection.

rious that has hitherto appeared, the third We return to the course of the history. volume has been lying for years in manuThe first papal legate appeared in Bohe script for want of the necessary imprimatur, mia in 1072, on the occasion of a dispute and a critical edition of one of the most between the Bishops of Prague and Olmütz, valuable Bohemian chroniclers (Dalemil) respecting the revenues of the lands and has also been suppressed, from its com castle of Podiwin. The Bishop of Prague memorating the hatred with which the was summoned. to Rome, and humbled / Germans inspired the inhabitants of the himself before the ambitious Gregory VII., country in the 13th century: whose anger he deprecated.

Among the points of which M. Palacky When M. Palacky speaks of an alliance would be able to furnish new and very between the Emperor Henry IV. and valuable information, if the sources under Wratislaw of Bohemia, we regret that he the control of government were opened to does not more fully explain his meaning, or

him, or if he were allowed even to canvass quote his authorities. The German his- freely those which he can now command, torians, and even Schneller, look upon the we may notice the following :- The part aid lent by the Bohemians as the tribute which the Slavonian nations bore in the due from a vassal to his suzerain, and under repulsion of the Mogul invasion in the both the Frankish and Swabian emperors 13th century, the brunt of which they rethere can be no doubt of the existence of a sistei almost unaided;—che relations sub

sisting betwcen the Germanic and Slavonic

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