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with its arbitrary dispositions, and the reso- unless we are to consider them alone the lutions formed by the Diet at Frankfort in sole perfection of human nature, must have 1831, but which were not published until greater interest than their superiors in eff ct1832. What a singular scene must that ing a change ; and consequently, that conDiet have presented, at which the English servation and variation are both equally selfish. minister presented remonstrances in the To build a form of government on any other naine of his king against resolutions to basis than this principle of selfishness would which his Hanoverian colleague, in the be attempting an abstract perfection, not an name of the same king, gave his consent and adaptation to mankind as now constituted; and affixed his signature !
would therefore be useless, as all attempts at We have now gone at considerable length realizing this beau-ideal have proved. into the history of the later Hanoverian The assumption, then, that those who changes, repudiating to the best of our conduct governments, are in general more power the assumption of any marked tone, blind or more selfish than the rest of the or party feeling, throughout the whole de. world, is manifestly groundless ; and if we tail. We have referred, for the spirit of in. are to take particular instances, these at least quiry into existing political abuses, to the should be approached and examined with French revolution, but rather as the first candor. To judge of an act of the ruler, as • obvious and exaggerated development of in the case of the Hanoverian patent, merely that spirit, than as itself originating principles by the effect it has produced on one portion which in reality grew out of the progress of of the people, is assuredly unjust. Feelings society, and of which the revolution was can be adopted as the measure of facts only only the perverted child. In the continuous when there is no other criterion to judge by : progress of nations, and the consequent but the present case offers an opportunity of ceaseless increase of those complications examination into the proceeding itself; and, which necessarily arise from hourly multiply from all that appears on this head, we have no ing interests and eternally extending ramifi. hesitation in saying that the hostile impression, cations of thought, fresh views and feelings wherever existing, is decidedly premature. must unceasingly spring up in society, and We must first simply state the facts of the its very nature materially change. But to case, observing preliminarily that if a Gov. refer these changes to the sagacity of any ernment is necessarily slow to effectuate a particular school, or the vehemence of any change in its own constitution, the cause particular explosion, is only, we submit
, may fairly be attributed rather to doubt of the mistaking the effect for the cause, and asking propriety of such change, and a sense of the our gratitude not for the source, but the difficulties attendant on it, together with a misdirection of principles. The impulses salutary distrust of an untried system, than so generally referred to the French revolu- to the mere want of information as to princition had their origin long before ; in the ples. The Government of a country too is gradual enlightenment of the age : but it is a always answerable, the people never, for the singular hypothesis to assume that this, con- measures adopted there. The supporters of fessedly general, enlightenment, was only innovation, who adopted an opposite course partial and confined to the lower ranks of from different motives, as we have shown, society instead of being participated by the have therefore no right to assume for them. upper also. It would be difficult to devise a selves an exclusive wisdom or disinterestedreason why the latter, wino possess in a ness. How then can we take their views as higher degree the advantages of education, the sole basis, their impressions as the sole should yet be ignorant of truths so obvious, guides of our judgments ? as is prelended, to their inferiors. The We must further be allowed to observe, classes in whom the power of a government that we shall here endeavor to avoid mislead. is generally vested could scarcely be more ing ourselves or others, by a misapplication ignorant than those beneath them. And are of terms. The apparent meaning of the they more selfish and interested ? Has Na word popular refers to the People itself, yet ture two sets of feelings and passions ? The its general use refers, not to the People but upper ranks, it is said, are more concerned the Populace : that lighter portion of a in ihe conservation of an existing order of solid mass which flies off at every breath, things ; and this in proportion to the per- and atones for want of weight by levity and sonal interests they hold in the state. This agitation. We have iherefore through: is undeniable, or else their possession of out this article, substituted the term Demoproperty would be of no use to the com- cratic in its purest sense, as better convey. munity at large. The infe es are ing the idea of those extreme opinions, which less concerned, and this from their inferior give their stamp to the system of opposition interests: it follows, therefore, that these, I to the Government.
We now turn to the facts of the case be. I affirmative of despotic power, have shown fore us, premising that, as we have shown, their own sense of the incompleteness of this both the Government and the People were anomaly, by arguing for a later effectiveness agreed on the necessity of material changes of the change, and the validity of the Constiin the Constitution of Hanover.
tution in question, because that Fundamental The General Assembly of the States, in Law was subsequently agreed to by the States 1832, propounded as a basis of future themselves. changes, and, in fact, of a Fundamental This has the double merit of being the Law, that this should be the joint work, and best and the worst argument in the whole settled by the mutual consent, of the King business. and the States.
If, as is contended, it is conclusive of the The Government, accepting this condition, validity in question now, it is not less concluwas thus bound by its own act to abide by it. sive of the invalidity previously. For it es
The propositions for the Fundamental tablishes that, by the general sense of the Law were accordingly offered by the States Estates or Popular Representatives, the to the Government.
carrying of the Fundamental Law into effect The Government, receiving the proposi. in the first instance was a violation of acknowtions, altered some of the most material,* by a ledged Representative Rights, and that all no less violent change than the transfer of the proceedings since are thus arbitrary and knights from the Second Chamber to the invalid. First; which created an aristocratic propon• But further: if the subsequent consent of derance not contemplated by the States : i. e. the States legalizes the act, a door is thrown the Representatives of the People.
open to all future Despotism-for it estabThe law, so altered, was at once put into lishes the Precedent that any confessed illeforce without the consent of the States, by the galily,-however ARBITRARY, AND EVEN TY. very Government that had bound itself to RANNOUS-may be enforced by the Sove. act only with that consent. Thus vitiating reign alone ; and he has only to enact an the very basis of its own proceedings by a additional clause, rendering future dissent Despotic Act.
penal, to obtain all he can desire in future. Further, the Crown had itself dissolved For the rejection of this precedent Europe these very States before issuing its patent for may well be grateful to King Ernest. the enactment of the law in question. So, We have hitherto considered only the that in fact, the Crown had barred the popular public grounds of this proceeding : but a voice from pronouncing the very judgment private one is also mixed up with it. The it had been expressly empowered to pro. German Jura Agnalica, or Rights of Rela. nounce.
tives, expressly gives the Crown-property as The Fundamental Law was thus, by the Entail to the Heir Presumptive, and provides sole power of the Crown, fixed as the Law for his Consent in cases sirailar to the one of the People, and enforced and acted upon before us. So jealously is this guarded, that as such.
it has been laid down as an obvious conseYet this irregularity was objected to at the quence of the foregoing, that even a novel time by a formal protest of the minister, on arrangement, or interference in this property, behalf of the People, and thus the right of by the States, is a virtual alienation; and objection was preserved.
consequently only binding on the succes. So far then, every subsequent step of the sors when the entirety of the Family consent proceeding vitiated, and was vitiated by, the unto the same. first arrangement : and the protest stamped In Hanover then, as in England, to cut off the seal of its invalidity.
an Entail, in defiance of Protest from the But the advocates of this singular proceed- next Heir, is decidedly illegal. Thus Priing, which multiplies a Sovereign into a vate-Right as well as Public-Right was Representative Assembly, and makes the sacrificed by the Royal Patent of William two negatives on the popular side into one IV. in 1833.
The establishment of the Fundamental * These alterations were fourteen in number. Law being thus defective in Constituted Amongst them were the Liberty of the Press. Forms, and destructive in Constitutional ten. The power of the Crown to determine upon the dency : rendering the Sovereign, in fact, cases where the army might be employed ; the right to interfere in corporations in matters of sole judge of his own rights, and of those of justice, in the transfer of causes from one tribunal his family ; master of the private property of to another : its exemption from the national audit his subjects and of their public voice in the of its own household accounts, and its right of States: the establishment, we repeat, is dispensing with the oath to the Fundamental Law in its own servants : to say nothing of the equally futile in itself, and fatal in its conse. feudal tenure, &c. &c.
quences. How then could the present King 29
on his accession to the Throne publicly ap- Ministry, cannot, if calmly considered, be a prove of what he publicly condemned ? He matter of regret to any one not compromised could not, we submit, agree to what he, in by former acts. common with many, held to be a violation of With regard to the assumed displeasure his own and his subjects' rights. Instead of of the Diet, it will suffice to say that not the temporizing, instead of dissembling, he at slightest indication of any such feeling has once and openly appointed a Board of In- yet appeared, and we would challenge quiry into the operation and results of the proof of any grounds for the assertion : we obtruded law. The names of the Members know they do not exist, and that the King's are those of men of acknowledged skill in present course is viewed there simply as jurisprudence; and the result of this moder- suspensory, this being its real character. ate, and, in every sense, fair Constitutional Equally and utterly untrue is, we positive. proceeding was, a Report, showing the in- ly asseit, the allegation, that the King of elegibility of various provisions of the Fun- Hanover consulted or acted by advice of damental Law, and the invalidity of its estab any English conservative whatever, as to lishment. Hence issued the Royal Patent the course to be followed in his dominions. of Nov. 1, 1837, declaring its invalidity in We would remark too on a point upon fact and the abrogation of its mere form ; which far greater stress has been laid than and announcing, farther, that a careful in- it seems to us to deserve; we mean the proquiry should be made into its provisions, and ceedings respecting the seven Gottingen a comparison of these with the previously Professors. We perceive that the protest existing Constitution instituted by the States of these justly eminent men does not turn of the People, for the formation of a more upon the Constitutional right of the main legal system.
question so much as on the point, whether, The Patent of last November is therefore having accepted and sworn to one Constithe suspension of a despotic enactment, and tution in 1833, they can, consistently with an examination into its tendency: and the that oath, act under the abrogation of the fact that the States are convoked for an im- system. This, however important, is tomediate consideration of the question, ex-tally distinct from the main question, and is hibits nothing like an apprehension of in fact a mere point of conscience for thempopular opinion. The steps that seem to selves. But the long interval between ourselves so hostile to Liberty are simply their protest and dismissal, is, in itself, an the very forms of the old Constituition, neces- indicative of moderation on the Sovereign's sarily brought into play, when the funda- part, and totally opposite to the feelings he mental law that superseded them was shown is accused of entertaining.
He seems, in to be nugatory by the Commissioners of In- truth, to have proceeded to the last act only quiry. But these forms in Hanover are very when the example was becoming contadifferent from the view taken of them else- gious through his clemency or supineness. where: the elder Governments of Germany The fact, or even the rumor, long since curare essentially, as we long since remarked, rent in Germany, tha! Kiel had invited Despotic Paternities—where the voice these Professors to her walls, proves that in of the sovereign is imperative, but his sway the opinion of their warmest admirers the attempered. If the Fundamental Law is nu- dismissal of the seven Professors was a gatory therefore, the old forms must remain natural consequence of their conduct, while in force, or else the people be left without the calumniated King of Hanover bimself, any Government till a new one is prepared. wishing to shut his eyes to the whole pro
Though the last Constitution therefore ceeding, delayed it to the utmost, and has is nought in point of fact, the Repeal may at length reluctantly yielded to the necesbe necessary as an Act of Form: there are sity of preserving subordination at home. abuses to be remedied even in the last: and We would therefore recommend our amongst them surely the seizure and do. readers to wait the result of the deliberations nation of private property by the Crown of the States; and not take assump!ions for Mandate of William IV. is not one of the granted, and argue on them for improbable least. The strangely anomalous position conclusions. Nothing is yet known, and of the English and Hanoverian Ministers nothing can be known of ihe future, till it of the same Sovereign at the Diet is a comes to pass. To anticipate the results of striking proof of the mismanagement com- uncommenced deliberations without one plained of: and that a system so fraught clue to the nature of those deliberations is with doubts and uncertainty should be sus- an error, of reasoning we will not say, but pended till it can be constitutionally cor. of imagination and prejudice, of which we rected by the joint labors and cooperations shall be most reluctant in accuse our counof the National Representatives and the trymen.
Art. IX.-Reise nach dem Ural, dem Altai, of the latter, may be considered as a fortu
und dem Kaspischen Meere auf befeht Sr. nate circumstance for science in the present Majestät des Kaisers von Russland im instance, as opening a wide field for investiJahre 1826. ausgeführt von A. von Hum- gation by a European power, aided by the boldt, G. Ehrenberg, und G. Rose. Mine light of European intelligence, and by the ralogisch-geognostischer Theil und_his regularity of an established European potorischer Bericht der Reise von G. Rose. litical system, into the mineral riches of a (Travels in the Ural, the Altai, and the continent continually displaying unquesneighborhood of the Caspian Sea, by tionable indications of affluence in that decommand of H. M. the Emperor of Rus-partment of nature, but the levity of whose sia, in the year 1829. By A. von Hum- natives, and the instability of whose proper boldt, G. Ehrenberg, and G. Rose. The governments, have hitherto barred the reMineralogico.geognostic Portion and searches of travellers in their own territory; Historical Report of the Journey by G. and this is no less from the absence of every Rose.)
thing like security for the person, than from Mineralogisch-geognostische Reise nach dem the want of every facility to bring their labors
Ural, dem Altai, und dem Kaspischen to an efficient termination. Through the long Mecre von Gustav Rose. Erster Band. chain of communication thus opened from Reise nach dem nordlichen Ural und dem the West towards the Easi, we might look Altai. Mit Kupfern, Karten, und in vain for native governments competent Holzschnitten. (Mineralogico-geognostic to understand the utility of such labors, still travels in the Ural, the Altai, and the less to commence, or even assist, the underneighborhood of the Caspian Sea. By taking. The borders of the Turk and the Gustavus Rose. Vol. 1.- Travels in Persian, overrun by fierce and uncivilized the Northern Ural and Altai, with Cop predatory tribes, display and insult the per-plates, Maps, and Wood-cuts.) Ber- weakness of the respective governments; lin, 1837.
yet these are established Asiatic powers;
ihe Afghan, the Usbek, the Bucharian, lik The objects of the journey, of which the the Mongol and Manchew, posse s even volume before us affords us the first and a fewer elements for the task; and though partial report, are too well understood in their cupidity can be easily excited, it is only Europe and the civilized world in general | by visible objects, the scanty and irregular to render necessary any details in this article. spoils of plunder; or, at best, a laborious To those who seek to inquire into its causes and imperfect traffic. and particular objects, a full explanation is In Persia, it is true, not many years offered in the preface of this work, extracted since, awakened a partial anxiety to ascerfrom the writings of Von Humboldı. It tain and cultivate the riches hidden beneath may be requisite here to apprize the reader the soil; and some dispositions of the late that the volume under consideration is not enterprising and intelligent Prince, Abbas the production of the celebrated traveller Mirza, led almost to an attempt to form a himself, as a glance at the former title Company for Mining. But the desire of would induce him to believe; but simply personal aggrandizement that might have the scientific report of Mr. Rose, the first led to some beneficial result gave way to portion of which is now presented, and in the narrowness of personal interests of the contents of this part fully indicated by the hour in the individuals themselves; and to second tiile at the head of this review. It this was superadded, not merely the sense is therefore necessarily less interesting to or insecurity, so fatally verified shortly afihe world at large, and even to general terwards by the conquests of their northern science, than former details from the pen of neighbors, but also the obstacle of personal M. A. Von Humboldt; but yet it is impor. avarice in the Head of the State. European tant in itself as affording not merely the capital and enterprise were vainly sought positive facts of the expedition, but also as at a moment when Europe was awakening to a certain extent assisting us to form 10 the ruin of American dreams; and even distinct idea of the mineral productious of the blindness of speculation at length felt the Russian Empire; and consequently, as the objections of want of wood and water, well of the resources that country can com- machinery, cattle, means of transit, submand as of the inducements that may tend sistence, accommodation, and of roads; and, to divide her pursuits, of the objects of am more than all these, the dangerous vicinity bition now generally attributed to her, with of an all-grasping native Government, and more domestic acquisitions.
of a still more dangerous, powerful, and The long extent of the Russian domini incumbent European enemy. ons in Asia, bordering so many kingdoms If then in the hands of native Powers
any possible approximation towards Mine.than of partial extracts from passages; since ralogical labors and discovery is utterly those to whom the details are of superior in. hopeless, it is only the tiro great European terest will naturally recur to the book itself proprietors of the land that can undertake and the Chart of the Ural chain which ac. the task with any prospect of success. The companies it. For something beyond mere chain of British research extends along the science, we must wait, we fear, for details mighty range ofthe Himmalayeh, and links from M. A. von Humboldt himself. the recent province of Assam to the Indian This accomplished traveller had it seems Empire; while Russia is actively exploring been requested in the year 1829 by M. de for the purposes of science, and perhaps of Cancrin, the Russian Minister of Finance, future dominion, the northern course of the and to whom the present volume is dediUral mountains and the eastward declen- cated, to give his opinion as to the eligibility sion of the Altai: and thus the projecting of a coinage of Platina from the Ural and its arms of advancing civilisatjon approach, and relative value to gold and silver. He had may yet include or haply dissever the ter- already been applied to by the Spanish go. restrial portion of the territories of "the Son vernment on the same subject; and a proof Heaven.”
posal had also been made by some private We have dwelt somewhat largely upon individuals to the Congress of Vienna to inthis portion of the subject, for the facts in troduce the new metal into circulation by a the volume be!ore us open an entirely novel coinage supported and recognized by Go. view of the possible destinies of Russia. In vernment aui hori!y. The doubts entertain. the alarm that has been so long and widely ed by M. von Humboldt of the eligibility of spread regarding the views of Catharine the measure proposed to him, have not, he and her successors, though we rejoice to candidly states, been justified by the result; recognize the stern and suspicious mastiff- though possibly the moderation of the issue vigilance of the national spirit, watchful for and ihe great extent of the Empire lessened its own independence in integrity, we have or averted altogether the anticipated mis. never fully participated in the belief of the chiefs. But the confidence and esteem of practicability of those views to any very the Russian Government was no way di. serious extent: and we are the less dispo-minished towards the eminent philosopher by sed to entertain such alarm when we exa- this occurrence. On the contrary, happen. mine the long pretension of the Russian ing in the course of the correspondence to line into the heart of a wild and lawless express his wish to visit the Ural Mountains nomade existence, whose cupidity will be and compare them with the Andes chain of increased in proportion to the riches disco. New Grenada, he received an invitation from vered, and whose aggressive inroads will the Emperor Nicholas to undertake the jourrender indispensable an eternal chain of ney at the Imperial expense. As he was fortified posts; which either by warfure or then (December, 1827.) engaged in giving more genile intercourse must necessarily public lectures, he was allowed to fix his own disseminate a portion of civilisation amongst time for the expedition as well as to select his them. Thus, while the dominion of the companions; and in 1829 he accordingly set predorninating Power is gradually consoli. out with Professor Ehrenberg of Berlin, the dating itself, it will likewise tend to im- celebrated botanist, and Professor Rose, the prove its ruder neighbors in the very arts Mineralogist, author of the volume before us. most formidable to its own extension; and The direction and objects of the journey were the years, perhaps ages, that must elapse left to M. von Humboldt's own discretion ; before either par y can securely maintain an he shared the scientific investigations with his ascendancy dangerous beyond their length of two learned associates ; nor, judging from frontier, will surely give time for remoter na- the manner in which Professor Rose has tions, such as now acknowledge ourown do- executed his portion of the task-the only minion or influence, to offer the firm barrier one that has yet appeared-could the labor of civilised communities to the already antici- have devolved into abler hands. pated aggression.
The Minister of Finance made all due We have thrown out these remarks, as provisions for the undertaking, with regard naturally suggested by the circumstances ; io the various expenses. Carriages, couand shall hereafter reiurn to a more careful riers, and from 15 to 20 post-horses were and prolonged consideration of the question : placed at the travellers' disposal : a military but for the present article we must confine escort was provided for their safety.and even ourselves to the peculiar information afford a selection of residences for their accommo. ed by the volume immediately before us, and dation. They were attended also by an of. in the shape rather of a digest of the most ficer of the Mines who spoke French and material and interesting points throughout, German ; nothing was neglected to insure