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their comfort; and every promise made to London, Edinburgh, and Calcutta, that the them was fulfilled in the course of the under- first impression must necessarily surpass that taking. The Southern provinces of Russia, made by any city inferior to it in this respect. including Mount Ararat
, were also offered But the excitement is soon diminished by a for their investigation ; but this did not enter totally opposite feeling. The first admira. into their plan.
tion subsided, these splendid façades of giSixteen months after bis return from this gantic palaces and enormous vistas that journey (of 14,500 versts, or 2000 geogra- mock the common dimensions of usefulness, phical miles of 6,955 versts each—the Ger- offer only houses which no inhabitants can man geographical mile is about two hours,) fill, and streets that no crowd can throng. M. von Humboldt, in February 1831, re. It is neither a city nor a solitude. Man is ceived a second offer from the Russian Go- there indeed, but his utmost numbers dwindle vernment, to visit at choice either Finland or into scattered groups of diininutive pigmies the Caucasus : but he was prevented by cir. that haunt and infest the scenes they cannot cumstances from accepting it.
inhabit. In contrast to the Public edifices of The Author with his fellow-laborers, MM. fornier ages, mere ar: is mighty, man seems von Humboldi and Ehrenberg, quitted Ber- nothing ; lost in that giant display, shorn of lin on the 12th April, 1829, and took their his just importance, and no longer the lord course through Königsberg and Dorpat, Es- of creation nor the master of his own work. thonia, and Livonia, to Petersburg. The Petersburg strikes the mind as an emblema. details of the journey are not unamusing,and tic miniature of Russian Empire and ambi. are interspersed with observations more im- tion :-its designs too vast for human achievemediately relating 10 the Mineralogy of the ment, too exaggerated for social life : its country. At Konigsberg and the neighbor. long Perspective, the gorgeous high-road of ing towns the sea-shore is almost a forbidden dreaming imagination, spreading out towards ground 10 the inhabitants, being farmed at a a something, which yet is nothing, and never high rate, and jealously watched ; so that the can be more. When Russia shall produce fishermen can only put to sea at certain pre. giants Petersburg will be their lofty dwelling, scribed points of ihe coast; and the loiterer place; while she produces but men they who is found in the prohibited places incurs seem strangers in their own capital :-and annoyance and detention. The value of the such have been her views; mistaking magAmber may be judged from the fact, that the nitude for might, ambition for vigor, and encoast between Danizic and Memel is let to a largement for concentration. And yet it is Mr. Douglas for 10,000 dollars per annum. splendid. His magazine contained 150,000 lbs. of this They left Petersburg June 20th with a Rus. precious commodity ; greatly deteriorated, it sian mining officer as guide, a courier, and a would seem, in price, by the political and cook ; the latter a most indispensable atother changes in Turkey, formerly the chief tendant, since at the stations beyond Moscow
It was kept in rooms vaulted travellers are obliged to cook for themselves and secured with iron doors, to guard against in the kitchens. In the larger towns, where fire, it being highly inflammable.
the wealthier citizens receive strangers, the At Petersburg the author enters more into traveller is directed by the police to one of detail. The district itself, the rich Mineralo. those in his turn : and Siberian hospitality, gical collections of the Capital, and the size offeriog a lodging, not unfrequently includes and splendor of the Crown Jewels, naturally board also. The new Arsenal of the Krem. excited a strong interest. He gives a plate lin at Moscow contains the crowns, sceptre, of the diamonds, drawn of their proper size, throne, arms,and jewels of the Russian Czars, as the most distinguished gems of that extra. with a variety of other costly curiosities, form. ordinary collection. The one on the top of ing, we are told, a larger, a more extraorthe Imperial Sceptre weighs 1943 carats,and dinary and precious collection than perhaps its largest diameter is one inch 3.} lines. It can be found elsewhere: exceeding in value long adorned the throne of Nadir Shah, and even that of the Jewel Office in London, es. was bought with other jewels from the Afghan tinated at 2,000,000 pounds sterling. In plunderer by M. Schafrass, an Armenian, at the Zoological Museum is preserved a large Bagdat for 50,000 piastres. Catherine II. tiger killed in Siberia, where it seems they purchased it twelve years afterwards at the sometimes wander from the South; the dis. price of 450,000 silver rubles and a patent of covery of their bones in these regions there. nobility.
fore must not always be looked upon as con. Professor Rose, like every other stranger, nected with past phenomena. is much struck with the magnificent propor. At Kasan the Tatars forin one-third of a tions of St. Petersburg. This is not sur. population of about 50,000 souls. They prising : its scale of building so far exceeds live chiefly by trade, and have there several
manufactories of soap and leather, which are the Dniester to the Jemba in the Kirghis much valued and in great demand. They steppe, called themselves Tatars or Mongols; sailed hence down the Volga to Bolgarü, a though tradition affirms that Zinghis, the head village beyond Bolgbar, the capital of the of the Khalkas or Calcha-Mongols, was of ancient Volga-Bulgarians, and the largest and Turkish blood, and that the niother of Timour oldest ruins in the Russian empire. Here was a Turkish woman. The Khans who they were received by the whole population ruled Kasan, Astrachan, and the Crimea, of the village drawn up on the bank of the after the division of Zinghis’ Kingdom, were river; and the Elders, after the Russian called Tatars ; their subjects and soldiers fashion, presented salt and bread to M. von were principally Turks. They themselves Humboldt. They found among the ruins of soon adopted the Turkish language, and the town traces of the water-pipe, and even hence arose the custom of confounding the specimens of Arabesque ornament on the rulers with their subjects, under the Tatar walls, of a Bath. Silver and copper coins, name. Alluding to the well-known pun of copper rings, earrings, &c. are frequently St. Louis, of sending the Tatars to their found and offered freely for sale. These Tatarean realms, the author adds : In like Bulgarians formed in the 7th century an in- manner the first Spanish discoverers of Ame. dependent people, extending from the East rica, from the dog-like character of the Caribs, bank of the Volga to the Caspian Sea, and altered their proper name Carina or Calina constantly at war with the Russians. Kla. into the word cannibal. proth and Frähn suppose their name to have been derived from the river.
This we ac.
“ In the last half century, (he proceeds), cept only as a modern derivative, the termi- the confusion of Tatar and 'l'urk has in nation ar (unexplained hitherto) being, we Meiner, Adelung, and Cuvier, Remusat, who,
creased amongst the best writers, such as suggest, a dialectical possessive, originally of with Klaproth, had determined the original Royalty. We need not dwell upon the His- identity of the Mongols and Tartars, protorical details furnished of this race, but must posed to confine the latter appellation to the content ourselves with roticing a rather sin- former race. But in the utter commixture of gular law, venerable doubtless for its antiquity, the Northern tribes to use Tatar as a geneand which possibly was needed to no great ric name, would lead but to further confusion, extent ; namely, that of hanging all ispe
as if we were to distingush Deutschen from
Teutschen. cially clever persons. This munificent re
“When we speak of Tatar features, unward of distinguished talent was instituted derstanding by it a certain inclination of the less, we presume, for the encouragement of angle of the eye and projecting cheek bones, merit than for the reason assigned by an this certainly is justified by the identity of the Eastern traveller :—That such persons were Mongols and Tatars : but the Russian Tamost acceptable in the presence and for the tars have, like the Turks and Indo-Germanic immediate service of the Deity!
races, a Caucausian
physiognomy. The Ta. Professor Rose gives the following ac. Tataric in the proper sense of the word, nor
tars of Kasan and Tobolsk are by no means count of the correct meaning of the much is it so applied to the Mongol races, the Kalmooted word Tatar, on the authority of M. mucks, Sungari, Torguts and Burats.” von Humboldt.
In the Russian dominions, the term Tatar We have not time to enter here upon the always refers to a Turkish race, and these wide field of discussion which these remarks do not present the Mongol features. The open to us; and shall content ourselves for Tatars of the Crimea, of Kasan, and of To. the present with observing, that the Chinese bolsk, belong to what is called the Caucasian vocabularies of the 15th century are of litfamily: Tatars are Turks; but the former tle value in identifying a race so ancient as appellation originally with Asiatic writers re- the Tatars: the meaning of their name, ferred to the Mongols. This last word, in though overlooked or forgotten, is surely not the Chinese vocabularies compiled in the 15th lost to the learned research of Europe ; and century under the Ming Dynasty at Pekin, is certainly bears no affinity whatever to the translated by Tata or Tataeul ; the r being sense of the word Mongol. On the contrary constantly substituted for l in Chinese. The it has its precise equivalent of meaning in the incorrect application of the word Tatar, which language of every oldest race in existence,and signifies a Mongol (Mohu, Mongu), to the of these alone, but the question would lead noble Turkish race, originated in the Mongol too far, and we must return to it hereafter. invasion. When Djudji, son of Zinghis Khan, The Chinese word Tataeul, is obviously a overran the north west of Asia and the east compound, and not the mere substitution of of Europe, the Turks between the Volga the final r by eul. But for the original word, and the Dnieper fell under Mongol dominion we are satisfied for the moment to take it, as The Princes of Kipchak, which reached from it is usually received, with a comparatively
modern derivation ; from a prince or a river, Gold
98.96 like the instance in the preceding paragraph,
0.16 till we have an opportunity of showing, as Copper
0-35 we trust to be alle to do, whence it really Iron
0-05 originated. On the way to Perm, the travellers first
99.52 fell in with a party of exiles destined for Si The average of the lower strata of sand, beria, and consisting of from 60 to 80 women and these are the richest, affords from 1 to and girls. They were unfettered, conse. 2 Solotnik in 100 Poods of sand, or 0,0005 quently not of the worst class of criminals ; per cent.; a proportion apparently small; for these last are all fastened by one hand but, considering the facility of procuring and to a long rope. Each party is escorted by washing, it is in reality large. The expense Bashkirs armed and mounted in their usu- of washing is 2-3ds the cost of the gold; so al fashion.
that in a pood the expense is 20,000 rubles, At Malmüsch they found the Post-master its value being about 50,000 rubles. It is reimbued with a taste for Mineralogy ; large quisite, however, to observe that in 1828, the quantities of teeth and bones of the Mammoth, cost at Katharinenburg was considerably found on the banks of the W jatka, lay before diminished :—the gold there contains also and even within his house.
about 7 per cent. of silver. At Schabrowski The forest in the neighborhood is compo. are the principal establishments for washing sed of Pines and Firs (Pinus abies et sylves- gold of the whole Ural. The process is simtris) and extends two days' journey. Con- ple, and the quantity obtained depends on the flagrations are frequent; and sometimes for skill employed. Great improvement has miles together nothing is seen but charred been made of late years in the art; and the trunks of trees. The negligence of travel. gold-sand of former times has been latterly lers and shepherds is the cause here as else. subjected to another operation. where ; but wood of course is of no value in From Katharinenburg to the North Works these districts.
is nearly level, though so near the Ural; At the large village of Werchne-Mulinsk which, however, is of no great height here, are large copper-mines belonging to Count but rises towards Kuschwinsk. The country Polier : the copper ores obtained and smelted presents little variety, and the general uni. here are termed sand-ores (Sanderze) and formity is increased by the continuous forest, are found on the oldest layers of white Sand. which covers all the declivities along the stone. This Sandstone formation on the course of the road. Western side of the Ural is of great extent, Nischne Tagilsk, and the whole district, of not only in the Government of Perm, but of about 8000 square versts, belongs to the DeWjatka and Orenburg also ; and mining pro- midoff family, though none of them reside ceeds on many points along the banks of the there now. Their ancestor, Nikita Demi. Wjatka, Kama, Dioma, and Sakmara. On doff, a simple smith at Tula, received, in the the East side, however, it is not to be found, year 1702, the recently discovered magnetic and the celebrated copper-mines of Gumes. hill (Magnet.berg), and the iron-forges of chewsk, Nischne-Tagilsh, and Bogoslowsk, Newjansk, as a present from Peter the offer a totally different arrangement.
Great, and founded Nischne Tagilsk, and The Beroswaja Gora, not very far from the the numerous works in its vicinity.
His village of Nowaja-Alexejewskaya,approaches so:), Akimfitsch Demidoff, Councillor of to within four versts distance of the small ri. Siate, materially enlarged the works; and ver Rascheta, which flows into the Isset, and his successors have considerably increa. thus communicates with the Tobol, Irtish, and sed them, particularly Nicolas Nikitisch, Ob; so inconsiderable is the mountain-chain the father of the present brothers Demidoff ; between the Tschussowaja and the Rascheta, so that the town, in 1826, contained 3000 that a canal has been already projected of houses and 17,000 inhabitants : the popula. four versts in length, to unite, not only the tion of the district is 28,000. There is two rivers, but, in fact, the Icy and Caspian scarcely a place in the world so rich in ores Scas.
as Nischne.Tagilsk : at two versts distance The Mineralogical Collections at Katha - stands the celebrated Magnetberg, which rinenburgh were not extensive, but extremely supplies all the surrounding forges with ore; interesting as consisting principally of Urali. and in the immediate vicinity, copper-ores, an Minerals. In the vicinity are establish: not inferior to that of Gumeschewskoi, were ments for Gold washing; and a grain of the discovered in 1812. Subsequently, mines gold analysed at Schabrowskoi contained the of gold and platina have been worked there ; following proportions
the latter incomparably superior in richness to the rest of the Ural.
The general feature of the mountains con- juco go!d and diamonds; and platina and tinue much the same till about fifteen versts diamonds near the river Abaste. These refrom Tscherno-Istotschinsk, where a plateau marks had excited a strong expectation of of about 1140 feet high separates the waters finding diamonds in the Ural, not only in his of Europe and Asia. On the East arise the own breast
, but also, and still earlier, in Prosprings of the Bobrowka, a rivulet flowing fessor Engelhardt and in M. Mamyscheff, into the Tagil; and on the west those of the the director of the mining works at Goro. Wissim, which flows into the Uika and blagodatsch. On our travellers' arrival at Tschussowaja. About the centre of the any one of the works, they subjected the plateau, towards the right, stands a lofty pine, gold-sand 10 microscopic observations, in or. with the words Asia and Europe carved se. der to find out the accompanying substances verally on the right and left sides. The stone of gold and platina, and directed their prin. composing this plateau is principally ihin la- cipal researches to the diamond. We alminated hornblend (dünnschiefrieger Horn. ways, says Dr. Rose, procured a quantity of blendschiefer),consisting of finely rayed horn. gold-sand to be partially washed, so as to get blend, with white feldspar or albit. To the rid of the lighter portion, and enable us better west of this elevation, and south of the road, 10 examine the remainder. To carry the are six platina works, in small vallies, within process too far would be losing with the a space of ten versts.
quarız the lighter unmetallic substances, and The principal chain of the Ural through the there would remain with the gold and platina district of Kuschwinsk consists of laminated onlymagneticironore,andsometimes clirome. talc and chlorite, running perpendicularly iron-ore (Magneteisenerz und Chromeisenfrom north to south, or at an acute angle to. erz). By these microscopic examinations wards the cast. The rock is scarcely per- we were so fortunate as to find chrystals un. ceptible, being every where overlaid with known in the gold-sand of the Ural, and wood, earth, and marsh : such is the general which attracted our notice most strongly, as feature of the country.
they occur with the diamond in the gold-sand At Kuschwinsk the travellers parted from of Brazil. We almost every where disco. Count Polier, who was proceeding to his es. vered small zircoons, which by their diamond tates on the Koiva, in the western declivity like brilliancy frequently deceived us, and at of the Ural. They had intended accompa. Nischne Tagilsk we found anatase. But nying him to see his gold and iron works, but our search for the diamond was vain, and the direct path was only practicable on horse. though the discovery was made by Count back, and another route would have caused Polier and M. Schmidt on ihe western slope too great a loss of time. They therefore of the mountain, on the 5th July (O. S), but abandoned the idea.
four days after our parting from them, we This separation unfortunately prevented obtained the intelligence only on the 3d Septheir being present at the important discovery ember, at Miask, after travelling through a to which the journey of Count Polier led; great part of Siberia. Count Polier seni M. though the Count did not long survive the fa- Schmidt from Nischnei-Novogorod, with one tigues of the aforesaid journey, which Dr. Rose of the discovered diamonds, to M. Von considers to have brought on a fatal disease of Humboldt, requesting him not to render the the lungs. It may be worth while to dwell discovery public till our arrival at Petersupon the particulars of this discovery, burg; inasmuch as he himself had not yet since the diamond was long considered the presented one to the sovereign. The diaproduct only of tropical climates; while its mond so sent to M. von Humboldt is now in occurrence so high as the 59th deg, of lati- the museum at Berlin. So confident, in fact, tude, has excited the greatest interest, estab. had this learned traveller felt of the approachlishing it as a Russian and European stone ing discovery that, in quitting Petersburg, he also. Several errors, too have arisen in the had jestingly declared to the Empress that accounts of this event, which Dr. Rose thinks he would not return;without Russian diamonds. it necessary to correct; as his party were sor On our return to that capital, in November, a time the companions of the discoverers, the Emperor alone had seen Polier's dia. Mr. Schmidt and Count Polier.
monds; and M. Von Humboldt was the first Von Humboldt had already, in his Essai 10 show one to the Empress. A circumstanGeognostique sur le gisement des Roches, tial report of the discovery was made by the published in 1823, directed attention to the Count on his return to Petersburg to M. singular analogy of mineralogical character. Cancrin, minister of finance, and communi. istics in certain different parts of the globe, cated also to M. Humboldt. The publication as regards platina and gold-sand. Thus at of this document is due to the deceased no. Corrego, in Brazil, gold, platina, palladium, bleman; the more, as a letter on the saine and diamonds are found together; near Te subject, intended for M. Arago, and to be in.
serted in the Annales de Chimie, remains wife, the Princess Schakowskoi, and form nnfinished. We condense some passages of part of the lands appertaining to the works this report. Count Polier says,
at Bissersk. They are about 25 versts N. "Strongly impressed with the ideas of E. of this place; more than 200 versts E. Von Humboldt, I parted from him on the 1st of Perm; and about 70 N. W. of KuschJuly, and inspected fruitlessly all the works winsk. They can be reached only on horse. for gold washing near Bissersk, till I came back, by an execrable path from the village to the last, about 25 versts from that place. of Kalinskoje, near to Tschussowaja. There On the 5th July (O. S.) I entered this with is in winter a tolerably good road for sledges M. Schmidt, a young mineralogist of Frey- transporting wood, coale, ores, and founded berg; and the same day, in the sand brought and forged iron ; which latter articles are pro. before me, amongst a quanti!y of iron chrys: duced in the works.'' tals and quartz, appeared the first diamond The first discovery and exploration of the of the Ural. It had been found the day be. gold sand occurred in 1824, but has, until fore by Paul Popoff
, a boy of fourteen, em. now, been unattended with any material ad. ployed in the works, a native of the village of vantage; either on account of the bad state Kalinskoje. As a reward was promised to of the machinery and management, or from those who should discover anyvaluable stones, the poverty of the sand, which required a he hastened with his unrecognized prize to more economical process. the overseer; who, however, attached no At a short distance, 14 verst S. of Kresto. value to the stone, and, taking it for a topaze, wosdwischenskoi, are other works, which placed it with the other minerals for my in. have recently furnished gold at about 14 to spection. Its transparency was perfect; 14 Solotnik to the 100 poods of Sand. This and this, and its brilliance, would have satis- sand is richer the deeper it goes, and its fied us of its being a diamond, even had its mineralogical basis the same as the former rounded chrystalisation left us any doub: of works, but with a larger portion of rock. the fulfilment of Humboldt's prophecy. chrystal and flint-iron, mixed in the lower Within three lays aftcrwards a second was portions with chalk stone forming its base, and found by another boy; and, a few days sub- with much quartz. Between two such masses sequent to my departure from the works, was found the first diamond of the Ural; the received a third, larger than the two others others were discovered in the same works. put together.
Professor Engelhardt, from whom, in 1826, “ M. Schmidt had all the requisite instru- the first hint of the existence of Diamond in ments for mineralogy at hand to examine the Ural was confessedly derived, was led the three chrystals, and verify the discovery. by this brilliant confirmation to undertake a We first took the specific gravity-the two second journey there in 1830, and he states former gems weighed together 3,520 ; the that the diamonds, though small, are not in. exact medium between the extremes assign-ferior in beauty and value to the Brazilian. ed by mineralogists as the specific gravity In the Professor's opinion, the boy's dis. of the diamond; these are 3, 4. & 3, 6. covery has been even more advantage to The absolute weight of the first was 0,105, himself than to his employer; as the latter or something more than half a carat: of the has gained but precious stones, the former second 0,132 ; and of the third 0,253, or that more precious jewel, his liberty, and a about 14 carat :-205 millegrames make one sum of money given him by his master. The
The specific weight of the third was result of Professor Engelhardt's researches 3,514. We were therefore certain that the gives, amongst other interesting matter, a hardness of these stones was superior to that probability that the hitherlo unascertained of quartz, which they scratched easily, and parent-stone of the Diamond is, in all likeli. the korundum had no effect on them. But hood, a black Dolomite. The chemical the smallness of these diamonds, and their analysis of Professor Göbelt, of Dorpat, and rounded corners, prevented our
scratching the specimens of this stone from the Ural, as the last-named stone with them. The second well as those discovered by Professor Engelof these diamonds we sent at once to M. hardt in the Government of Olonetz, give von Humboldt ; for it was but just that he to room to imagine that diamonds may be found whom the discovery was principally owing in this latter district also. should be the first apprized of it.
We must refer our readers to Dr. Rose's “ It only remains for me to give a descrip- volume for the details of the component parts tion of the spot where the discovery was 'of the soil that produces the diamond, of made. I could have wished to forward a which, it appears, however, only thirty-seven specimen of the Sand, and the kinds of rock had been found up to July, 1833. Some of forming its basis, but have not yet received these had flaws within, and others, black spots, them. The works are the property of my probably from the coal formation.