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In Brazil the component parts of the Dia- sful magnets, and for the emerald-green mond-sand were observed by Eschwege. mineral called by Dr. Hess Uwarowit. It We give the details below,* and he himself does not melt by the blow-pipe, and changes has frequently seen Diamonds in the sub- neither its color nor appearance in heat: stancet that compacts the portions of Quartz. but it is slowly soluble with borax, (when
The Oriental Diamond, we find it stated it forms a green glass,) or by pulverized by Ritter, (Erdkunde von Asien :) is found phosphorus. While hot the color is brown, over a large extent of the borders of the table. but it becomes green as it cools. land of the Deccan, from the 14th to the 25th The forests clothing the sides of the Ural degree of latitude. The diamond there is along the way.side consisted of pine, larch, found in a loose, conglomerated sandstone, cedar, with some birch and poplars. of but a few feet, and more or less deep be. Larch and cedar succeed best in the marshy neath the surface, but everywhere overlaid grounds. The underwood of the pine-loby a hard sand.stone. The conglomerate rests was formed of wild roses (rosa canina) consists of grains of Quartz, Hornstone, Jas. in full bloom, with lonicera, xylosteum, aud per, Chalcedony, Cornelian, and Brown iron. juniper, agreeably contrasting their dark
Gold is also found there occasionally, green shade with the light hue of the for example, at Sumbhalpoor, but no Plarina. birches. These last were a variety of the Of the diamonds of Borneo, we know only white birch, with beart-shaped leaves, and that they are found in gold-sand ; and respect- no ancient stems were to be seen amongst ing those of Algiers, we possess scarcely any them. Of shrubs were found the Atragine information.
Alpina with its large while flowers, indicaProfessor Göbelt has furnished the propor- tive of a high latitude, though these had tions of the abovementioned Black Dolomite been met with also near Katharinenburg; which, in the valley of Adolphskoi, forms the the Hesperis matronalis and Polemonium base of the diamond bearing gold-sand. cæruleum ; the latter especially luxuriant in
damp spots, and, with the former, ornament. Carbonate of Lime
54,00 and Talc 26,89
ing the gardens in Germany. On the
Kakwa bloomed the Cartusa Mathioli, a iron
10,21 Aluminous Earth
German mountain plant, (Alpenpflanze,) Water
1,20 and also specimens of the Primula cartusoi. in Hydrated muriates
des, much cultivated in Germany. On the Residuum (insoluble)
7,50 heights of Bogoslowsk grew the German
Mespilus cotoneaster near the Siberian Del.
100,30 This Residuum contains
phinium cuneatum and Corydalis Siberica. Clay
In the morasses of the lower ground flouOxide of iron
rished the German Menyanthes trifoliata, of manganese
Andromeda polyfolia and calyculata, the Chalk-stone Flint
4,00 Oxycoco minus, and Rubus chamamorus, a Coal
0,75 dwarf willow, nearly related to the English
Salix cotinifolia, (phylicifolia, L.?)
8,00 The richnees and beauty of the plants An examination of the minerals found in contrasted strongly with the poverty of the the gold-sand affording diamond, is of the Fauna. In the search for beas:s of the greatest importance. À comparison of these chase, they met with but two or three birds, with the inineralogical specimens of the and occasionally a small hare or squirrel. neighboring mountains will give the first in No warbling was heard: chiefly small dication of the original bed of this valuable hawks (Falco tinnunculus and rufipes ;) gem. In the Ural, as in India, Brazil, and here and there the Saxicola rubetra; at elsewhere, their proper birth-place is totally but no sparrows nor wagtails, the feathered
Bogoslowsk a finch (Pyrgita melanictera ;) unknown; but the first offers the strongest hopes of obtaining the requisite information. cosmopolitan accompaniments of man and
civilization. The opinions of those who have most closely examined the question, agree that the dia
Theexcessive vegetation of plants aboundmond is to be sought in the dolomite, forming ing in sap, was the cause of an extreme the diamond-bearing gold.sand.
nuisance in the infinite multitude of grats, Katschkanar is celebrated for its
from which defence was impossible. The power:
inhabitants wear over their faces nets
steeped in birch tar, the smell of which * Quartz, Clay-slate and Talc, Brown-iron-ore, keeps off the intruders; or else they carry Iron-mica, Jasper, Chalcedony, Cyanite, Chrysoberyl, Anatase, Gold, and Platina.
on their backs pots filled with decayed ť Brown-iron-ore.
wood or smoking birch-fungus, as this
smoke does not affect the eyes. The tra-s had been opened by the uprooting of a tree vellers, however, suffered severely, being blown down by the wind. He collected a wholly unprepared, and had no resource quantity and brought them for sale to Kabut fast-driving through the current of air, tharinenburg, where they were noticed by (the usual remedy, we would observe, in M. Kokawin, who made further excavations such dilemmas throughout the East ;) but and sent specimens to Petersburg. One of every time they stopped they were subjected these, presented by his Imperial Majesty to to it; and the horses suffered still more M. von Humboldt, is now in the Berlin colthan the men. The peasants employed in lection. These emeralds are dis inguished mending the roads had lighted fires for by their extraordinary size. One in the their protection, and preferred, whenever mountain-specimen collection at St. Petersthey could pause from labor, holding their burg is eight inches long and five inches heads in the thick smoke to suffering the diameter: the chrystals are of a hexagonal attacks of these insects.
prism, slightly rounded at the sides, and the The district of Bogoslowsk produces extremities flat. gold in abundance: at Petropaulowsk a The Phenakite, till then unknown, was specimen was obtained, weighing 655 gram- first detected by Norderskïold in 1833, mes-it was in long thread-like stripes, and amongst a number of other minerals sent to therefore probably somewhat porous. Its him by the Vice-President Peroffsky. They, weight, in its simple state, was 16,869 : like the emerald, accompany the Micu, and when beaten, 17, 109: and smelted, 16,964. are occasionally from one or two inches in A portion of it, weighing 2,473, subjected to length; they chrystallize also in regular analysis, afforded
hexagonal prisms, are hard like jewels, Silver
13,19 transparent but white, and therefore un fit Gold
86,51 for ornament like the emerald, but more inCopper, iron, and waste 0,30 teresting in their chemical composition.
They have subsequently been found at Fra
100,00 mont, near Strasburg, in brown iron ore, by The rest of the piece was only assayed M. Beirich. for the silver contained.
The banks of the Tura abound in Ele. Silver
13,03 phants' teeth, not only near Tjumen, but This quantity is very remarkable. also to beyond Kainyschloff, often in fine
On the road to Mürsinsk, tumalin, topaz, preservation. On the Suwarysch, a small beryl, and amathyst occur continually with branch of the Isset, near the village of other chrystals. The colors vary in depth, Odina, are found these and other remains but that of the amethyst is inferior to those of elephants, and sometimes of buffaloes, of Ceylon
scattered through the soil. About fourteen versts from Katharinen At Tobolsk they made the acquaintance burg, an Englishman named Major has es- of M. Wiljaminoff, (a name of some notoriety tablished a steam engine manufactory for now in the Circassian war,) a well informed the Ural in a romantic spot. Subsequent to and scientific man and Governor-General of the travellers' visit, in the sand of this neigh West Siberia. From the upper part of the borhood were found, in the year 1831, two town they had an excellent view of the of the diamonds previously referred to; one lower portion and the whole left bank of of which was sent by the younger Major, the Irtish. The height of the upper town after his father's death, to the Mining Aca- is 200 feet above the lower, but the ascent demy at Petersburg.
is extremely gradual by a road of planks Near Kamyschloff, the commencement of through a cleft in the mountains, and is the Siberian plain, the eastward slope of the traversed even by carriages of all kinds. Uralian steeps is extremely gradual, sink. The prospect froin the summit is very siming only 526 feet in a distance of 123 versts; ple, but grand. The semicircular sweep nor are there any parallel mountain chains, of the river forms the principal feature; in as in the northern Harz. A journey along front, towards the right, is the lower town; the smooth road therefore can afford little beyond the stream a large green plain exgeognostic information. About 85 versts tends to the horizon, its uniformity broken from Kadharinenburg Phenakile and Eme. only by the Tobol glancing here and there rald are found, near the granite rocks on along, and by a few scattered Russian and the right bank of the Tekowaja. The presence of Emeralds was first detected by a peasant cutting wood in the neighborhood, * According to the analysis of Hartwell, twowho was attracted by their lustrous spark- thirds of Beryl in matrix contain 4447 of this last ling amongst the mica where the ground few minerals but the Emerald and Beryl.
Tatar villages, mostly near streams; the found everywhere in the wells and springs of latter distinguishable from the former by Siberia, which is no slight luxury to the intheir vicinity to small-leafy woods, (contra- habitants during the great heats, distinguished, we must remark, from the At Omsk begins the steppe of Barabinsk, cypress and other trees of the kind by their which reaches from the Irish to the Ob. foliage,) that shade their cemetries. Far from being dry and hard, as is generally
Ai Tobolsk, where M. von Humboldt imagined, it abounds with small lakes, marsh. continued the astronomical observations es, and rivers flowing inio the Om, Irtish, made by Chappe D'Auteroche, Hansteen, and Ob. The soil is sometimes flat and and Erman, he found the inclination of the level as the sea, sometimes covered with magnetic needle 70.55,6; the longitude and vegetation, and birch and poplar; in other latitude exactly as stated by Erinan, and places it abounds in salt; some of the lakes calculated by Enke from Chappe’s observa. of this steppe are also salt. From the tions.
marshiness of the ground it is often bridged This town had been originally laid down over for a long distance. Owing to the jolt. as the easternmost point of the journey; but ing of the carriage, and the torture of the the facility and speed of their progress incessant stinging of the gnats, one of Fortin's through the northern Ural, induced M. von barometers, held in the hand, was broken Humboldt to extend his researches to the here. Altai, as little had been known of it since the Reaching, July 29th, Kainsk on the Om, time of Pallas, Renovantz, and Hermann : about the middle of the steppe, they there, and the observations of Ledebour and his for the first time, heard of the Siberian plague companions, in all probability referring chief. (Pest) raging in the neighboring villages. ly 10 Botany, were still unpublished. The The medical man who brought the news Governor-General strongly supported the could afford little information, but it subse. scheme, and though the distance was 1500 quently appeared that it was an epidemic versts, along the steppe, from Tobolsk to amongst cattle, attacking also men; and Barnaul, bordering on the Altai, it might be prevailing in the steppe, but never in the traversed within the time first prescribed for mountains. It commences with an indurat. their undertaking, but every moment was ed swelling in men, forming chiefly on the precious. They provided themselves with uncovered parts of the body, as the face, ihe cap-nets for defence against the gnats ; neck, and arms: the disorder is generally still more needful there than in the Ural. ascribed to the stings of insects, and cannot The principal road passes across the steppe, be more particularly accounted for. The through Zara and Kainsk to Tomsk, with swelling proceeds to a black and burning villages at the different stations.
suppuration, and fever and death shortly en. Along the whole way the soil was excel. sue. By incisions, and cataplasms of sal. lent, being firm and black, cultivated near the ammoniac and tobacco in the commencevillages, and everywhere covered with tall ment, the induration is got rid of, and the herbage, interspersed only with groups of cure performed : but if the disorder has made birch and poplar. Between the Wagai and any progress inwardly, it is incurable. Such the lechen whole tracts were reddened by the are the supposed facts of the case. Epilobium angustifolium, in full blossom ; The travellers took all possible precautions others were blue with Delfinium elalum, to avoid contact with the peasanis, even to growing high and compact The fire-red refraining from sleep at the halting places. Lychnis Chalcedonica was also frequent. In every village they found traces of the ma. The peasants in the villages appeared lady ; in one four persons, in another six wealthy and our traveliers' temporary abode died in one day; and 500 horses fell victims in the village Ribina, on the Ajeff, was strik. to the epidemic, so that they could hardly ingly neat and clean. The heat, under an procure the means of continuing their route. unclouded sky, was considerable, reaching at In each village they found a small lazaretto noon 24 Reaumer; the water of the Irish for the patients, who were submitted to the was also warm, being 19 near the convent of above mentioned treatment; and at the two Abalak, on the 24th July; and a smaller extremities of each hamlet were smoky fires stream, on the 25th, showed a temperature of of dry turf and dung, in order to purify the 20,9. The River Ajeff, on the 21st at noon air. They could not imagine, it seems, how was 19,4, the air being 24,6 ; but the water these scattered fumigations should arrest or of the wells, owing to the low temperature of avert the progress of the disorder : but if it the soil, was extremely cold. At Basckshe. arose from the assigned cause, insects, we wa, the first station m Tobolsk, the water should think this not very difficult to divine ; of a common well, free from ice, was 20 ; of and that such was the general impression ono at Ribini, 2,5. Similar grades were l amongst the natives, appears from the suct
stated immediately afterwards; for the same to all the modern, all knowledge of these la. expedient was resorted to, doubtless from bors, and of the people engaged in them, has former experience, and as a preventative, in wholly died away. Obscure and broken lethose parts of the Siberian plain which they gends only remain of the richest of the Gol. passed before the disorder was developed den Mountains, as the Altai are called in there. They lost its traces in quitting the Chinese and old Turkish histories; and it steppe. We must observe, that on the day was these traditions that, under the reign of when they first heard of the epidemic the Peter the Great, occasioned the repeated mi. sky was overcast, with flashes of lightning, litary expeditions to the Upper Irtish. They but on the following the weather cleared up failed in their object then, but they have and became bright and serene.
proved serviceable, in establishing the chain We are now come to the last chapter, the of posts on the line of the Irtish that protect entrance to the Altai mountains ; and the the present la bors of the mines. importance of these appears from their pro. The actual mining of the Altai owes its duce, consisting principally of silver, of which existence to Akimfitsch Nikitas Demidoff
, the a larger quantity is obiained here than in any son of him who commenced the Uralian laother part of the old world; for, during the last bors; and who was probably induced by the half-century, the annual supply has been 1000 traditions referred to, and the copper-ores poods, or 69,900 Cologne marks of silver. brought back by the expeditionary parties Besides this, the yearly produce of copper is above mentioned in 1723, to undertake a 12,000 poods, and of lead 20,000 poods. closer search. He obtained both the per
In the year 1836 the comparative produce mission and assistance of his government for of gold was,
the task; and, after minor successes, formed Pood. Pound. Sol. Doli. in 1728 the first great smelting establishIn the Ural 293
26 40 30
and Bjelaja : and though Allai 104 15 78
somewhat restricted and inconvenienced Of Platina
from the want of wood, laid the origin of the in the Ural 118 2 7 48
town of Burnaul in the year 1739. The Amount of Russian gold, 27884,8 marks : veins of the Schlangenberg mine, rich in gold of Platina, 8269,8 marks.
and silver, were fully opened in 1726 ; but The ore from which this silver was ob. the working of these metals was not permitted tained, came for a long time only from a to individuals. Demidoff, therefore, was ne. single mine of the Schlangenberg, 250 versts cessitated to give notice of the fact to the de. south of Barnaul. Many others have since partment of mines ; a commission was desbeen opened, near and far, along this gigan. patched which, two years later, in 1746, took
range; some of which still are worked, possession on account of the crown; and the and some abandoned. The chief adminis. greatest attention was paid to the works, as tration of the mines, and their principal also to fortify so valuable a possession against smelting place, is in the town of Barnaul.
inroads of the nomade Kalmucks and Te. Though the present working of the Altai leutes. It was held as a private property of mines is more recent than the Uralian, and the Imperial House until within these few is scarcely above a century old, yet the years, when it was placed among the other works assigned generally to the Tchudes, possessions of the crown, and under the conand which are found generally in the Altai trol of the minister of finance. even more plentifully than in the Ural, prove We must refer our readers to the volume che former to have been known from the itself for details of the processes, as well as earliest antiquity. But notwithstanding that of the obstacles that impeded these ; and the numerous ancient shafts have given rise
quote the produce of the year 1827.
Pood. Pound. Solsk.
49 Pure silver
916 37 2018 Gold
27 26 29,6
Rubles. Copecks. The value of the gold and silver, in assignats, is 4,572,907 76 The expenses
Balance 3,293,907 76 The relative values of the principal mines | lowing table, as calculated in Cologne in the old and new world appear by the fol. | marks :
The annual produce of the Nertschinski District
16,500 the Harz, with Anhalt and Mansfield
49,900 the Erzgebirg district of Saxony
481,830 Castilian mks.
The two countries, now united, producing
2,500,000 The Schlangenberg, or Mount of Ser. they passed large; and the peasants appents, so called from the numbers of these peared wealthy; they are occupied in rearreptiles that infest it (the Russian name is ing bees, which produce a fine honey. In Smejowskeja Gora,) stands separate from this neighborhood M. von Humboldt found the surrounding mountains, and extends from the inclination of the needle to be 64: 47: 6. N.W. to S.E., about 300 fathoms. The E., At the house of M. Nakariakoff, a mer. S., and S.W. sides are extremely steep ; and chant of Ustkamenogorsk, they found Col. on the N. it gradually sinks into a plain, on Liancourt, a French emigrant, old, but which the little town of Schlangenberg stands, lively, who had lived 39 years in Siberia, 1,240 feet above the sea; E.N.E. of the and was commandant of the fortress; and a mines rises in a cone the highest mountain of M. Poppoff, whose conversation they found the range, the Karaulja Spoka, or Wacht- very interesting from his thorough knowberg, which was once a watch-station against ledge of Middle Asia, obtained through ex. the nomade Kalmucks. It is, according to tensive commercial connexions in Bochara, Ledebour, 2,006 feet above the sea, and 805 Taschkend, &c.: he has, by his exertions, above the level of the town of Schlangen. rendered great services to his country. berg. The mountain of this name consists On the south side of the Katungi mounof little more than the soil of the ore itself, tains are the only known hot-springs of the which is hornstone bedded in clay.
Altai. They are situate not far from the Kolywansk exhibits, amongst others, a sources of the Berel, in the valley of Rachnew porphyry, and Dr. Rose professes his manowka, which flowing S. W., falls intothe ignorance of more than two additional varie. eastern side of the Berel. A few feet from ties that have been worked, viz, that of Elf. two of the warm springs, one of cold water thal, and the antique red porphyry. This flows eastward through the turf into a small last has a light brownish-red ground, and dif. lake. These hot springs bear affinity to fers from that of the Altai, both in the light- those of Gastein and Pfeffer, from the small ness of the color, and in the reddish tinge proportion of fixed substances they contain. which arises from the occasional presence of The resemblance to the former is still great. hornblend, and absence of quartz: the par. er, as they rise also from chrystalline slate ticulars are given at some length.
rock (Schiefergebirge). The water of Two versts beyond Riddersk rises a coni- these Altaian hot springs is without laste or cal hill, called Kruglaja Sopka, the Round sinell; and M. Gebler, who analysed them Mountain, which is destitute of trees; but, on the spot and at Barnaul, states they con. like the surrounding valley, covered with ve- tain but 0,0013 per cent., an extremely getation of such height, and so compact, that small quantity, of fixed substances, consistit rose above our travellers’ heads, and pre- ing only of bituminous carbonated sales and vented them from perceiving each other extractive-matter; sulphuric acid, carbonated when only a few steps apart. Silivum cer- salts, or other salts, are not to be found in it. nuum, Cnicus pratensis, and Epilobium ang. The existence of these hot springs in the ustifolium, but nearly out of blossom, were Altai is highly interesting, and, as M. von especially common there. A specimen of Humboldt has remarked, connected in all Silivum cernuum, measured by Professor probability with the frequent earthquakes Ehrenberg, was nine feet in height. of the range : these, though not violent, ex
At the village of Tscheranschanka they tend to the plain, and to Barnaul and Su. quitted the road they had taken in coming, sunsk. No warm springs are known in the and followed the valleyof the Ulba. The val. Ural, and earthquakes there are of rare ocley grew wider though the mountains on currence also. either side were still lofty, not unfrequently Sixty versts from Krasnojarsk is the first resembling gigantic doines. The vegeta- Chinese station. On their
thither tion is extremely luxuriant: the villages Ithey crossed the Narym, a small stream