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population of Bohemia and the eastern skill of diplomatists turned to the study of provinces of the empire, under the dominion the peculiarities of nations, instead of the of the emperors of the house of Luxem- petty artifices by which unprincipled courburg ;—the history of the fine arts in those tiers endeavor to outwit each other, perhaps countries in the 14th and following century, a result in some degree to be depended upon with the influence which the connexion might be expected from the labors of cenwith Constantinople probably exerted in the turies. This study it will be necessary to earliest times, and the check which the de- take up, as soon as it shall seem more advelopment of letters and the arts probably visable to contract alliances with nations received through the rival and conflicting than with their rulers, and we are much influence of the western church and policy; mistaken if this grand epoch in the politi
- finally, the causes of the better success cal world is not rapidly approaching. Had that attended the German schools of art on the diplomatic body at the late grand corothe Rhine and at Nürnberg, would be nation at Prague not been too much taken come apparent as a result of the compari- up by the ceremonies, the etiquette, and son between the social state and foreign pomp of the occasion, to attend to the disrelations of the Germans and Slavonians. position manifested by the middle and lower
The true history of the martyrdom of classes of the people, in which not a few of that remarkable Bohemian saint, John of the nobility joined, they would have reNepomuck, is certainly of mere local in- marked the scarcely suppressed feeling of terest; its historical investigation at an indignation which the prospect of the conearlier period would have saved the good tinuance of their oppression awakened. people of Prague from the charge of at The emperor, whose lamentable incapacity least one absurdity, it being now ascertained is not even veiled by his courtiers, appeared that the spot marked on the bridge as that amongst them, surrounded by the men from which the confessor was thrown by whose political sentiments had been but too the tyrannical justice or cruelty of Wen- well displayed under his father's reign, and ceslaw, did not exist at the period. The who now arrogate the task of compelling bridge was then in process of building, their sovereign as well as his people to imand did not extend so far across the river. plicit obedience. Forty thousand men,
A true and impartial detail of the story principally Hungarians and Poles, quarterof John Huss and his resolute friends and ed in the city and its immediate neighboradherents, with the causes of their remark-hood, who were ostentatiously reviewed in able success with the people, would, how the town itself before the opening of the ever, be an invaluable acquisition, particu- ceremonies, and fifty pieces of cannon on larly viewed from the Slavonian side of the the heights of the Hradchin, were considerquestion. Nor could less important com- ed necessary to insure silence, if they munications be made respecting the chief could not inspire enthusiasm. actors in the thirty-years war ; the true We doubt very much whether any minisdesigns and wishes of the Elector of Ba- ter present on that occasion was in a situvaria, and others, who took a conspicuous ation to remark the different effects propart, as well as the means by which the duced on the minds of the Bohemians by Austrian party was at length enabled to the grand parade in the cathedral and by gain so decided a triumph in Bohemia. A the appearance of the two works named at singular instance of the proneness of the the head of this article. Had any of them multitude to follow the leader of the day is noticed it, perhaps they would have thought given in the pilgrimages of the Bohemians it of little importance. But we cannot at the present day to the chapel on the agree with them. The first volume of M. White Hill, near Prague, which, although Palacky's work was published in honor of built to commemorate their defeat, and orna- the coronation, and was hailed by every mented with paintings descriptive of the Bohemian as the harbinger of a time to triumph of Ferdinand over their national come, when his nation should be suffered and religious feelings, they have been to assume the rights of a separate member taught to look upon as a spot of peculiar of the European confederation, and be sanctity.
judged according to the peculiar bias of its Were but half the pains which are now character. That the ceremony in the cathetaken to mislead the nations of Europe, and did not tend to hasten this object of legitito suppress and restain the energies arising mate desire must have been but too evident from local influence and national feeling, to all. directed to useful ends, what different scenes The new sovereign has it certainly in his would not most countries present, from power to identify his accession to the throne what they now display! And were the with a literary work which must (if worthi
ly completed) outlive all the storms which his reign, or those of his successors, may There are few, if any, questions, connect. encounter. Even should his dynasty pass ed with the science of medicine, so eminentaway, this monument of his accession will ly deserving the patient and persevering be imperishable, if he so ordains it. But inquiries of the medical philosopher, or this can only be achieved by giving the that come home more closely to all classes historian the utmost freedom. The archives and conditions of men, than that which of Prague, Vienna, and Venice, contain forms the subject of our present notice. documents whose publication must mate. Insanity, until very lately, has been viewed rially change the face of the histories of as a disease over which medicine could many states of Europe. What is there to exert but liti le control, and the asylums to fear from their publication ?
very which its unhappy victims were consigned, fact of allowing them to come to light were established as receptacles where, withwould draw so marked a distinction between out fear of offending the public eye, they Ferdinand of the 17th century and Ferdi- might drag on a few years of miserable nand of the 19th, that the stronger the na. existence, rather than with a hopeor prospect tional hatred to the former grew, the more of ultimate recovery. The wretched and dehope and attachment would be inspired by graded state to which some of the fairest the candor of the latter. If iniquitous pro- portions of our fellow creatures have, for a ceedings on the part of the papal see should succession of years, we might almost say be disclosed, the same remark will again ages, been there reduced, by the cruel and apply; if the Romish court has discarded absurd notions which then prevailed on the dark intrigues of former ages, it can general treatment, are revolting to our finer only gain in the eyes of the world by the feelings, and it cannot fail to afford unmincontrast between the present and the past gled satisfaction, to contrast the past and being held up to view. Poor Venice exists present state of those asylums. no longer to regret or regain her vanished power and crooked policy.
“I visited,” says Sir A. Halliday, “a The second work, whose title stands at few days ago, the cells of the Edinburgh the head of our article, is in the Bohemian found fifty-four individuals in that abode
Bedlam, in company with Spurzheim. We tongue, but the celebrity which M. Szafarik of misery, two-thirds of them females, hahas attained cannot fail to ensure its speedy ving had scarcely a sufficiency of rags to translation into all European languages. cover their nakedness, and even the shreds Only two numbers have hitherto appeared, that remained appeared not to have been and we must therefore confine ourselves to cleansed for months. In a distant cell we the plan of the work. It proposes to fur- discovered a woman worn out by the vionish a comprehensive survey of the antiqui: pallet, and sinking rapidly to the grave.
lence of her disease, stretched on a straw ties of the Slavonian nations in the earliest | A rat was perched upon her bed. I will times of which any monuments, whether not affirm that this animal attempted to buildings, mere names, legends, or historical mangle the exhausted body of the dying notices remain. Considerable attention maniac, but the sight was horrible. Spurzwill of course be devoted to the explana- heim exclaimed, “That palaces were protion of many of the names we find in Provided for the accommodation of the greatcopius, Jornandes, Claudian, and the By- while those unfortunate beings were left
est villains and disturbers of society, zantine writers, according to Slavonian in misery, and I am a living witness that etymology, which must render the book the swine of Germany are better cared acceptable to the classical student.
M. for.” Szafárik's former work in German,“ Ueber die Abkunft der Slawen,” contains much Happily such scenes are now no longer valuable information of this nature.
to be met with.
So late as 1772 there were only four hospitals throughout the kingdom for the reception of lunatics: two in London, one
in Manchester, and one in Newcasle ; and Art. III.- Statistique de la Maison Roy. and navy were all sent to a private asylum
previous to 1815, the insane of the army ale de Charenton, daus les Annales d'Hygiene Publique. Par M. Esquirol,
near London, where, as was proved before Medecinen-chef. (Statistics of the Roy. Their cure was a matter of secondary mo
a committee of the House of Commons, al House of Charenton, from the Annales d'Hygiene Publique. By M. Esquirol, Sir James Macgregor, an asylum for those
ment. Through the valuable exertions of Principal Physician.) Paris, 1836.
deserving sufferers has been established at
Fort Pitt, Chatham, where they now enjoy fined merely to the resident attendants; it all the comforts which their unhappy con- extended to the visiters, who were appointed dition so eminently entitles them to. from the college of physicians. One of
Now Bethlem will afford a tolerably fair those visiters being asked, idea of the state and condition of those retreats in general. Here, in the first in “ Did you ever visit the infirmary? stance, the windows were left unglazed, so
“I do not know that I have. that the unhappy inmates were either kept
“ You can give no information to the
committee? in total darkness or exposed to the incle
“No, I cannot; whether I have seen mency of the weather; and the generous the infirmary or not I do not know." efforts of Lord Robert Seymour were hardly sufficient to persuade the committee to And yet such men were continued in their lower the windows of this establishment, vocations for a series of years ! so that the poor sufferers might have a Mr. Roberts states in his evidence that view of the animated scenes which were when he visited this place by order of the passing around them.
parish of St. George, he found five crib In 1806 and 1807 we find the first attempt rooms that he knew nothing of before. In at statistics of the insane, and such was the this state it was reported to have remained imperfect state in which they were found for twenty-seven years of statute visitation. to exist, that in all England and Wales not in this horrid place there was an unfortumore than 2247 lunatics and idiots could be nate man of the name of Norris cased in found, while we find Suffolk and Norfolk iron for a period of nine years; and in 1814 alone returned 230.
there were in the women's ward ten patients Doubtless much of the evil which existed chained by one leg and one arm to the wall. in those asylums arose from the very ab- The chain merely allowed thein to stand surd regulations, which vested in the hands up or sit down. Their entire covering was of the goveruors the medical and other ar a blanket tied like a gown. In the men's rangements. We find by a declaration of ward the men were chained in the same the governors of Bethlem hospital, made in
way. 1814, “that all patients chained there were Thanks to the untiring labors of the phyincurable;", though, in one year after 1815, sicians of the present day, we turn from there remained but one lunatic chained. In those revolting scenes to more cheering and this year the question, " What constitutes happy prospects, at least for the doomed to an incurable case ?'' was put to the apothe such retreats. Insanity, which, in its inost cary of Bethlem ; to which he replied, comprehensive sense, may be considered an "After a residence of twelve months, if such ineptitude for conducting one's-self in the person has exhibited symptoms of malevo ordinary affairs of life and its relations lence, or is mischievous, and it is consider with society, has of late been stripped of ed necessary that society be delivered from those terrors which, in times less enlighten. them, they are declared incurable.” And ed, consigned its unhappy victims either to this, 100, in the nineteenth century! perpetual imprisonment or the less objec
At the White House, Bethnal Green, the tionable evil,--premature death, from the custom was to chain the unfortunate lunatics treatment to which they were subjected.every Saturday afternoon at 4 o'clock, and They are now no longer handed over, on leave them so until 8 o'clock on Monday. the fiat of an apothecary, as we have alreaIn 1827, a Mr. Hall visited the infirmary of dy seen, to perpetual imprisonment on the this establishment, and found it so filthy that grounds of incurability. he could not breathe in it. "I was obliged Though the nature of this review preto hold my breath while I staid to make a vents our entering into a minute and critical short survey of the room."
investigation of the various theories of inThe evidence of John Nettle is scarcely sanity, yet we deem it not altogether foreign to be credited in a civilized community. - to its general principles to dwell a little on " When Mr. Warburton came to have the a subject from which no one has a special infirmary cleaned, I turned the straw out immunity. of the cribs, and there were magots at the Esquirol remarked some years back, that bottom of them where the sick lay." The insanity belongs almost exclusively to civiinfirmaries of those asylums were a kind of zed nations or races of men.
In a savage sanctuaria where none but the elect were state the mind is uncultivated, its reasoning admitted. “Did they ever admit any per- faculties undeveloped, and, consequently, sons to this infirmary ?" was a question put free from the various exciting causes which to this witness, to which he replied, “No, are perpetually operating on highly cultiva. never." This indifference was not con-lied minds. In civilized life we may be
said, by our excessive refinements, to beat | suffering any inconvenience. Others have out or expand our brains, and thus expose gazed for entire days at the sun without any a more extended surface to the action of injury to vision. It would seem that phy. external causes, than those who are actua- sical sensibility diminishes in proportion as ted only by the ordinary excitements of the cerebral excitement increases, and during natural wants and appetencies. Prichard the paroxysın, pain may cease altogether, is disposed to believe that congenital pre- or be changed into a state of well-being. disposition, so powerful a cause of insanity We see mad men frequently commit horrid in civilized life, is wanting in the uncivili mutilations with very blunt instruments, zed state; and it is not going too far to sup- sometimes with red hot iron, without expose that, as we see in refined states of so- hibiting the least symptom of pain, but on ciety varieties of structure created, morbid the contrary, the strongest appearances of varieties of organization may be increased pleasure. or multiplied. There are many diseases, The moon has long been considered to constitutional in civilized life, wholly un- exercise a powerful influence over the inknown in the savage state.
Esquirol says that, though he canIt is admitted by travellers that insanity not confirm the general opinion of it, yet he is seldom met with among the negroes of is disposed to admit that at the full of the Africa or the native Americans ; and Dr. moon mad people are more affected than at Winterbottom says that, among the tribes any other period. They are also affected, of Sierra Leone, mania is a disease which he says, at day.light every morning, and he seldom, if ever, occurs : and it is scarcely is, from this inclined to think that light is known in the West Indies among the ne- the chief cause of excitement. “ Light," he groes.
says, " frightens some, pleases others, but The early writers on insanity divided it agitates all." into two orders; mania and melancholia. Madness has been frequently feigned Esquirol's division, which is now conside with a view of escaping some dangerous or red the most approved, is into four ; mania, laborious duties. Such was the extent to monomania, dementia, and idiocy. The which it was carried in France during the mortality in the first is one in twenty-five; conscription, that Fodere says, it was as difin the second, one in sixteen; in the third, ficult to detect a feigned case as to cure a one in three; in the fourth, the returns are real one. Some pretended to be deaf. In not quite determined. He considers the one case of this kind, it was so well manahallucinations of the insane as intellectual ged, that a pistol let off close to the patient's phenomena, quite independent of the organs ear, without his expecting it, produced no of sense, and which may take place though effect. A very curious case is recorded of those organs may have been destroyed, or feigned blindness by Mohon, a French wriso affected as to be no longer capable of ter. A young conscript was sent to a corps performing their functions; as when deaf blockading Luxembourg Having passed men hear sounds, and blind people see co the night at the advanced post, he declared lors, which are processes carried on in the himself blind the next day, and was sent to brain, without any participation of the sen. :he hospital. The surgeons used the most sual organs. Many cases arise from a powerful remedies, and were convinced that want of power of attention. In monoma- the disease was feigned, as the pupil connia, the attention is too much concentrated tracted perfectly. He assured them, howon one object, in mania it is too much dis- ever, that he could not see, thanked them tracted. The imbecile, Esquirol says, dif- for their care of him, and asked for the apfers from the victim of dementia. The for- plication of new remedies. He was sent mer never possessed the faculty of the unto the superior medical officers of Thionderstanding in a state sufficiently developed ville. They were also convinced that it for the display of reason; the latter was was a fraud, but hearing the course that once endowed with them, but has lost their was pursued, they determined on a last tripossession. The imbecile lives neither in al. He was put on the bank of a river and the past nor future; the victim of dementia ordered to walk forward. He did so, and has some thoughts of time past, reminiscen- fell into the water, from which he was imces which excite in him occasional gleams mediately taken by two boatmen stationed of hope.
for that purpose. Convinced of his blindThe effect of madness on our ordinary ness, but unable to explain the dilations and sensibilities is in many cases quite incom- contractions of the pupil, the surgeon gave prehensible. Very delicate mad people him a discharge, but warned him, at the have been often known to sleep on the same time that, it the disease was feigned, ground for nights in succession, without it would prove of no avail, as it would,
sooner or later, be ascertained that he was set the question in its true and proper light. not blind. They offered him another if he would confess the fraud. He hesitated at
Some writers have endeavoured to first, but being assured they would keep the material organic cause of madness,
turn altogether from the investigation of their word, he took up a book and read. The illusions of the insane are often ex- not a physical disease, or material dis
resting on the belief that this disease is ceedingly whimsical. A lunatic once re- ease, but rather a disease of the soul. fused to eat anything for several days, alleg. “This singular proposition is evidently ing that “ Dead men never eat.” After all an absurd profession of materialism; is attempts to persuade him to eat had failed, it not in fact to deprive the soul of its most he was left alone for a time, when persons to the level of matter, to suppose it sus
noble attributes, to degrade and debase it entered his room dressed in white shrouds, and, after talking in his presence, lo per
ceptible of alteration ?
The soul should be a stranger to our suade him that they were dead men orghosts researches, but, considering the brain as sat down to the table and began to eat. the material instrument of its manifestaWhen his curiosity was excited by the tion, as the organ of intelligence, we seek strange scene, they invited him, as belonging in this organ the cause of the derangeto their own state of existence, to partake of ment which occurs in its functions." the repast. At first he expressed surprise, but at length sat down, ate voraciously, fell in the stomach and intestines, from which
Pinel placed the primary seat of insanity asleep, and awoke with a consciousness that he supposed it radiated, and ultimately dehe was alive.
Writers who insist on insanity being a ranged the understanding; but having disease of the mind adduce, as proofs, the found, in the heads of mad people, appearabsence of any characteristie phenomena
ances similar to those found in other diseas
es after death, he was inclined to give up uniformly exhibited by post mortem examinations, as connected with insanity; and by pathological appearances, an opinion in
the hope of ever being able to account for it bring forward cases where, after death, no which Esquirol is disposed to a acquiesce. alteration in the natural texture of the or
Indeed, such has been the difficulty of logan could be discovered. Lunatics, they allege, live many years in high health, calizing insanity, that many have altogether whilst the mind is in a state of high excite given up the idea. Bayle thinks its primament. Those men are of opinion that mad- ry seat is the brain, but fixes it in the meninness is caused by such circumstances as in. ges. Cullen, Cox, Haslam, Foville and fluence the mind-joy, grief, care, violent Georget, regard it as an idiopathic affection
of the brain, the nature of the organic al. passions, &c., and that it is cured by moral
teration being unknown. treatment suited to the disease of the mind, often too, without any measures adapted to
Georget says that, from his own experithe physical disorders. Of this class, the ence and that of others, he concludes that inost zealous advocate is Professor Hein- among 100 lunatics 99 at least have been
or moral roth, who insists that moral depravity is the so from the influence of affection
There is an expression at Salpeessential cause of madness. With biin
trière which has almost passed into a proguilt and sin are its real sources. Inordi. nate passions, want of a proper mild disci verb, qu'on perd la tête par les revolupline, give a preponderance to the infirmitions d'esprit.” Pinel found moral causes ties of our nature, which render them fre 464 to 219, and the first question which he
to operate in the proportion to physical, as quently so impetuous as to destroy all re. generally put to patients, who still preservstraint, on the total loss of which, even over the actions of the mind itself
, consists that dergone any vexation or disappointment ? ed some intelligence, was,
“ Have you un subversion of the understanding which he say The reply was seldom in the negative." It constitutes insanity. This doctrine of Heinroth's has met with a warm opponent in mind is most susceptible of strong feelings,
is,” he says, “in the age in which the Jacobi, who adduces cases where insanity in which the passions are excited by the occurred in persons remarkable for their moral and religious lives.
strongest interests, that madness is powerFoville, physician to the lunatic asylunı fully displayed. Children, calm and withfor the department of Seine Inférieure, at out anxiety, incapable of long and extensive Rouen, is a strong advocate for the material
combinations of thought, not yet initiated origin of insanity, and, though medical men the now vanishing illusions of their prece
into the troubles of life, and old men, whom are sometimes accused of a desire to materialize too much, wethink that Foville has ding age, and the increasing physical and
moral weakness, render indifferent as to