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events, are but rarely affected.” Moral|From the returns made of all the Quakers causes are considered to act more power- in England and Scotland, it appears that fally on women, physical on men. the number does not exceed 23,000; of

The popular opinion in this country and these there have not been of late years, on the continent is, that it is a disease of the an average, more than 60 confined as lumind itself independent of any corporeal natics in the Retreat.

This, it appears, malady, but with the scientific men of both gives about three insane for every 1000, a countries this is entirely abandoned, the proportion much higher than any which opinion being, that it depends upon diseas-obtains in the general population of the es of the brain and its membranes.

country. In attempting to account for this It appears, by the tables which Esquirol apparent augmentation among the Quahas supplied, that more than one-half the kers, Tuke says, entire number of cases admitted under bis care are ascribed to moral causes, which, which the proportion of lunatics in Eng

"I should demur to the data upon as they operate more generally in a civiliz land rests. I believe the parliamentary ed than in a savage state, account for the returns to be so incorrect as to afford no prevalence of insanity in the former condi- fair grounds for the estimate which is tion. During the eventful times of the made; whilst the knowledge of each other conscription in France, great numbers of which prevails in our society, and the insane were driven into the public asylu.ns. character of the Retreat, brings nearly all " The influence of our political misfor the cases which occur among us into the tunes,” says Esquirol, “ has been so great, nected with mental peculiarities are more

Moral improprieties conthat I could illustrate the history of our easily and more frequently stamped as inrevolution from the taking of the Bastille sanity amongst us than in the world at to the last appearance of Bonaparte, by de large, while the care of our poor prevents scribing in a series the cases of lunatics any individual of that class from being whose mental derangement was in connec- allowed to roam at large, or remain at tion with the succession of events." There home, on account of the expense of mainare mad people in whom it is difficult to taining him in our asylum.' discover any hallucination, but there are There is an opinion afloat that insanity is none in whom the moral affections are not on the increase in this country, and the disordered; in this particular Esquirol says opinion is in some degree borne out by a he never met with an exception.

comparison of the late registers with those Though religion has long been consider- of an older date. Dr. Powel who first died a fruitful source of insanity, the data rected attention to this particular departupon which this opinion rests are not quite ment, grounded his belief of a positive inconclusive. Roman Catholics are suppos- crease on the apparent augmentation in the ed by some to enjoy an immunity from it. London registers for lunaties. These inAt the Cork Asylum, where the Roman cluded all lunatics confined in private asyCatholics are to Protestants as 10 to 1, Dr. lums throughout England, which gave an Hallaran says no instance has occurred to increase as compared with eight quinquenhim of religious madness in the former, nial periods from 1775 to 1814; the ag. but that, whenever religious madness did gregate for the former being 1783, for the exist, it was always among the Protestant latter 3647. This is a conclusion which inmates. Guislain makes a similar report Dr. Burrows says, is not borne out by facts, as regards the Low Countries. The Prus- as the register does not comprehend lunasian provinces on the Rhine afford a good ties confined in unlicensed houses. Comopportunity of testing the accuracy of this paring the lunatics with the census of the Jacobi has paid considerable attention to population for 1800, Dr. Powel arrived at this subject, and is inclined to doubt the the conclusion, that there was one lunatic correctness of the reports which Guislain to 7300 persons, a conclusion which shows and others bave made. He states, that in how absurd it was to attempt a statistic aca Catholic population the proportion of lu count of insanity with means so inadequate. natics compared with those in a Lutheran Pinel thought that the increase in the repopulation is 11 to 10, which gives a pre turns of the insane might be accounted for ponderance to Catholics.

in various ways— irregularity in former In the Quaker's Retreat, at York, Tuke returns, and increase of the inmates of asysays, that since 1811 they had but thrre lums, from the better arrangements which cases of insanity from religion, and those now prevail. He says that the greater the cases were people of weakly constitutions, liberty in any country, the greater the numand not educated in their society, so that ber of insane is likely to be. with them religious madoess is very rare.

In 1806 a select committee was appointed

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to inquire into this subject, and in the report to the population as 1 to 1000, and idiots which they sent in, they gave for England are to lunatics as 2 to 1; while in 7 counand Wales an aggregate of 2248 lunatics. ties of North Wales there are 7 idiots to 1 In 1815 another report was made, which lunatic, and 1 lunatic to 850. gave nearly double the number, but which In South Wales the proportion of lunaincrease should be ascribed to the inaccu. tics to the population is 1 to 750, and idiots racy of former returns rather than to any are to the insane as 1 to 8 1-2. Throughpositive augmentation in the number of the out Wales as in many parts of England, insane.

there is a preponderance on the side of By returns which were made in 1819, female lunatics over males; in Wales the Dr. Burrows found the aggregate of luna- excess is very great. The explanation aftics confined in public hospitals and asylums forded for this is, that nearly half the poputo be 1456, in private asylums, 2585, in all lation is employed in agriculture. There for England and Wales, 4041, to which he is a general impression that, in agricultural added half the number for those confined districts, where people work hard and in private asylums not registered. In this where females are employed in labour, the way he raised the whole number to 6000, violent exertions required in such occupawhich he considered the nearest approx- tions produce distortion of the body, and imation to the total number of lunatics in inay very materially affect the growth and Great Britain, and which gives us a pro- developement of the brain, and even the portion of about 1 lunatic in 2000 persons. form of the cranium in utero. It is well

In 1826 Sir A. Halliday made a return known that females are obliged to work of the lunatics confined in public and pri- during the whole of their pregnancy, and vate asylums in England and Wales, giving there can be no doubt of the injury which as the gross amount 4782, to which he adds such occupations must entail on the offthose of whom the law takes no notice, as spring. living with their friends, and concludes, According to a return made for Scotland from an experience of twenty-five years, in 1821, the proportion of lunatics to the chat the number confined in England and population is 1 to 474, but little reliance can Wales, in public and private asylums, ex- be placed on this as a correct estimate of ceeds 8000; yet, with this apparent aug- the state of insanity there. mentation, he is not disposed to believe that By the returns which have been made insanity is on the increase with us. He for the French hospitals, from 1801 up to estimates the insane of Scotland at 3700. 1823, there is a steady and progressive inIn 1829 he sent in another report, which crease.

The first return gave, in 1801, gave for England and Wales 6806 lunatics, 1070 lunatics, and the last, in 1823, gave and rates the idiots at 5741, to which he 2493. Rating the population at 32 miladds for places not returned 1500, in all lions, Esquirol estimates the insane as 1 in 14,000. The proportion of insane to the 1000. In France, as in England, the opepopulation is, he says-England I in 1000; rating causes vary very much. Of 336 Wales 1 in 800; Scotland 1 in 574. In lunatics in his establishment, Esquirol says, the gross amount of 14,000, the paupers there were only three from drunkenness. are estimated at 11,000.

It, however, prevails as an exciting cause Some very curious returns have been to a great degree in Salpetrière, where womade, showing the influence of different men only are admitted, and of whom onehabits and pursuits in life in producing in- twelfth part are girls of the town. We sanity. In twelve English counties where find also, by the reports which Dr. Whally the population is employed in agriculture, has made on the effect of drunkenness, that the proportion of insane to the general popu. it prevails to a great extent in Lancaster inlation is 1 in 820, and the lunatics are to firmary. idiots as 5 to 7. In twelve counties where All the attempts which have hitherto been the people are differently employed, the made to account for insanity by pathological insane are to the population as 1 to 1200. appearances have proved hopeless. In exPeople who work in mines are reported to amining the morbid results we are led to be less liable to insanity than those who consider how the mental diseases could have work on the surface. It is because they resulted from them ; but here the nature of are less exposed to the exciting influences the subject completely baffles us. of a busy life, which are ever passing of other diseases, of the lungs, whose funcaround us in our intercourse with the world, tions are now well understood, the morbid and from which miners are for a great por- change accounts for the derangement, but tion of their life withdrawn?

the case is quite different when the mind is In six maritime counties the lunatics are affected. We are ignorant of the manner

In cases

in which it performs its functions, and of the the government of Norway. In 1825 re-
connexion between the organic agents and turns were ordered of the sex, age, situation,
the operations commonly referred to it, and number of insane. The report was
Hence, some are inclined to doubt whether drawn up by Dr. Holst, and published in
the phenomena of insanity are the result of 1828. 'The lunatics are to the population as
changes discovered in the brain, and view 1 to 551, Here is a marked difference as
them as the result of the diseased operations compared with England and France. The
of the mind, believing that hardness of brain population of Norway is employed much in
and thickening of membranes are only formagriculture and rearing cattle, embosomed
ed after mental disease of long standing, and in mountains, and without any manufacturing
are altogether wanting in recent cases of in-towns. These are to be taken into account
sanity; upon these grounds mental disease in considering the comparative state of in-
is considered as a deviation from the healthy sanity there, in comparison with other coun-
state, different from that which anatomy ex- tries.
hibits.

From Spain we are without any satisfac-
The different states of the intestinal ca. tory returns, while we find the Italian States
nal have been considered a fruitful source giving only 1 in 4879. Here we find that
of insanity, both to the rich and the poot, where insanity is scarce, idiotism is always
to the former, from over-indulgence; to the found to predominate, more especially in
latter, from very opposite causes-low diet, Spain and Portugal. In New York the in-
bad food, cold, constipation. Worms have sane were as 1 to 721 of the population.
been viewed as producing it, because in With respect to the treatment of this very
some cases, mad people were cured, on the distressing affection, we shall endeavor to
expulsion of worms by the intestines. Es- show that our only hopes of cure rest upon
quirol records two cases of this kind. It was an early application for proper medical ad-
also a popular belief that it is more intimate- vice. The average duration of the complaint
ly connected with disease of the abdominal under the care of Pinel was from five to six
viscera than the thoracic, but this has been months, but the greatest number of recoveries
proved not to be the fact. In 168 cases took place in the first month. This is also
Esquirol found only 2 cases of liver-com- the opinion of Esquirol. The greatest
plaint, whilst in the same number he found amount of recoveries is obtained in the first
65 cases of disease of the lungs, and he is two years, but the mean duration is less than
disposed to believe that insanity is attended one, and after the third year, the chance of
by disease of the thoracic viscera in 2 cases cure is scarcely 1 in 30. This is a conclusion at
out of 8. To this opinion Georget is inclin- which Esquirol arrived, founded on an ex-
ed, who adds, that one half of the lunatics perience from 1804 to 1813 at Salpetrière.
who die at Saltpetrière are cut off by A similar conclusion has been come to at the
phthisis. In some of those patients it is rather Gloucester Asylum.
curious that, where large excavations are The most favorable age for recoveries is
found to exist after death, no expectoration 25 to 30, but women frequently recover after
took place during life. Greding found in 45; and there are four cases recorded at
100 maniacs, 40 affected with phthisis ; of Charenton of recoveries where each patient
the whole number, 76 had effusion into one was 70 years old. Writers in general ad-
or other cavity of the thorax.

mit that recoveries are more frequent in woIn the Dutch States, the number of insane men than men. from 1820 to 1825, was 4520. Guislain is Dr. Burrows gives a report of cures in redisposed to ascribe the increase of insanity cent cases 91 in 100, and in 64 old cases 19 to the positive augmentation which has ta- cures. This is considered by some as much ken place in the population since the war, too great, and they account for it by suppoby which the number may be augmented in sing, that many was discharged before a the ratio of the population. He agrees with complete cure was effected. Sir A. Halliday, that though a temporary Esquirol states that, out of the gross aaugmentation may take place, from the pres- mount of admissions at Bicètre, of 12,592, sure of circumstances, there is no danger of 4968 recovered. its permanently progressive increase.

At Bethlem, St. Luke's, and the York The returns afforded by the Prussian asylum, the admissions from 1748 to 1814 States, if correct, should necessarily alarm were 16,516, of whom 5918 recovered. From us, but Jacobi, who has had opportunities of this it appears that the cures in England were judging of their fidelity, attaches but little formerly fewer than in France. faith to them. The proportion of lunatics In Lancaster there were admitted, from there to the population, is 1 in 6661. 1817 to 1832, 1750 lunatics; of these, 597

Perhaps the best statistics are supplied by were cured, a proportion of about 40 in 100.

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In the Retreat, near York, frəm 1812 to ence of opinion how far it should be carried. 1833 inclusive, 334 were admitted. Of A system of treatment is adopted at Gheel these, 168 were cured, 50 died, 37 removed, in Belgium, which if acted on in other coun10 improved, 69 remained. Here the pro- tries, would doubtless be productive of great bability of recoveries in recent cases is 9 to advantages

. Gheel is a small country vil1.

lage, where 500 or 600 lunatics are spread Insanity is not reckoned among the diseas- among the cottages of the peasants. Each es injurious to life. In this state the brain, patient is to labor in the fields or gardens for though unfit for intellectual operations, is a certain number of hours every day. When able to carry on other processes dependent not employed they are allowed to walk on it, but which are subservient to physical about without restraint, and are summoned existence.

to their homes by a village bell. The peaIn 1812 there was at Bicètre 1 who was sants are bound to treat them with kindness, there 56 years, 3 upwards of 40 years, 21 and are awarded according to the care they more than 30 years, 50 upwards of 20 years, take of them. and 150 for 10 years.

A farmer once obtained in Scotland a great The dates of entry for 7 cases, at Salpe- reputation for curing insanity. He fastened trière, were from 50 to 57 years, 11 from 50 his patients to his plough, and made them to 60 years, and 17 from 40 to 50.

work his grounds, and by degrees brought The admissions of males to females are, at the most intemperate to reason.

Music has Charenton, as 3 to 2. At Bicètre the case been employed with invariable success in the is reversed, females are to males as 3 to 2. treatment of the insane. There are two In the South of France there are more fe- states in which it may be useful; first, when males than males in the asylums; the con- the invalid himself plays, his attention is trary obtains in the North ; but throughout for a time agreeably occupied ; and next, France the females are to males as 14 to 11. when another person plays, pleasing sensaIn Spain there is an excess of females of tions are thus commonly excited. Frank one-fifth over males. In Italy the males employed it largely, and found it of great predominate. According to the returns advantage in mania, while Esquirol states, which Guislain has made of Holland and that he found it in similar states to produce Belgium, females are to males as 34 to 29.raving fits. There is an impression with

In Great Britain and Ireland the males are the majority of the profession, that in mania to females as 13 to 12, and in the United it is too exciting, but in states of lethargy or States the males are to females as 2 to 1.- apathy it may be used with benefit. Dr. Esquirol shows, from the gross amount of Cox employed it largely in his establishlunatics confined all over Europe, of 76,526, ment, but his successor Dr. Bompas, has althat there were 37,825 male, and 38,701 fe- together discontinued it. males, about 37 to 38, without the fraction. The Quakers, in the Retreat at York, were

Insanity is not limited to any particular the first who discontinued the use of chains ; age; it may begin as early as two years of and the only restraint used there is, seclusion, age, but does not become common until 15. a straight waist-coat, shower bath, and a few Georget has collected, from the admissions in occasional privations. Pinel, who may fairFrance and England, from the age of 10 to ly be considered as the founder of this mild 70, 4409 patients, and the average of admis- and successful system of cure, gives many sions for every 10 years:

cases to prove its good effects. From 10 years to 20

356 “A lunatic,” he says, " in the vigor of his 20 30

1106/ age, and of great strength, who had been 30 40

1416 seized by his family; tied, and brought bound 40 50

861 in a carriage, so terrified his conductors, 50 60

461 that no one dared to approach him to untie 60 70

174 him, and conduct him to his cell. The 70 and upwards

35 steward sent the keepers away, talked some

time with him, and gained his confidence,

4409 and, after being unbound, he permitted himThere is one leading feature in the ma- self to be conducted quietly to his new abode. nagement of the insane in which all writers The steward gained every day more influseem to agree-seclusion. Pinel dwells on ence over his mind, became his confidant, and it as the most rational mode of cure, and con- succeeded in restoring him to reason and to siders the separation from friends as indis- the bosom of his family, of which he constipensable. Willis changed all the servants tutes the chief happiness." of George III. Confinement is also neces With respect to the frequency of insanity sary; but there is still considerable differ- l in the different states and conditions of life,

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Esquirol has supplied some interesting re- which is often mistaken for a progressive turns :-For the three years, 1826-1828, augmentation in this painful disease. there were admitted into Charenton 619 patients; of these, 282 were married, 293 never married, and 44 widowed. The number of men was 385, women 253. Of the men 206 were unmarried, and 87 of the women, which shows celibacy to be a fruitful source Art. IV.-Historie du Pape Pius VII. of insanity.

Par M. le Chevalier d'Artaud, Ancien Another large class composing the in Chargé d'Affaires à Rome, à Florence, mates of this establishment, is made up of et à Vienne, de l'Académie des inscripofficers and soldiers. For the three years tions et Belles-Lettres, de l'Académie delabove mentioned, there are 49 officers and 47 la Crusca et de Gottingen. Paris. 1836. soldiers admitted, a proportion exorbitantly 2 vols. 8 vo. great, considering the relative number of each class. Hereditary insanity is here esti The personal and literary character of mated at one seventh of the admissions. the author of these volumes is so highly

From the review which we now have tak- and deservedly esteemed, as to command, en of the statistics of insanity in different at all times, for any production from his countries of Europe, we do not think that pen, a more than ordinary degree of public the opinion advanced by some writers, of a aitention. But at the present moment, when positive and permanent increase in that pain the politico-religious parties in our own ful and distressing affection, is at all support-country stand opposed to each other in such ed by facts. That there is an apparent in- formidable array, and when every reflecting crease in the number returned of late, as mind is tremblingly alive to the consequences compared with our older records, is quite of victory or defeat, a work which gives so clear, but this is only what is manifest in deep an insight into the policy of the Court every other department of inquiry, when of Rome, which exposes its weakness and attention is particularly directed to a subject unmasks its power, cannot fail to command previously much neglected. The question for its readers the philosopher, the legislaof insanity was hitherto surrounded by so tor, and the divine, many delicate and distressing associations, Attached to the celebrated diplomatist M. that many cases have altogether escaped no- Cacault, in the capacity of private and contice. And when we consider the system of fidential secretary, and long honored with treatment which then universally obtained, that gentleman's friendship, M. Artaud poswe cannot wonder that the insane are allow- sessed peculiar faculties for his present work ed to drag out a miserable existence in the and of these he has availed himself with society of friends, rather than be consigned great judgment and ability. From an enorto the hopeless alternative of chains and a mous mass of documents, public and pridungeon. The improvements which a mild vate, he has selected nearly two hundred but decisive system of treatment, first adopt- highly interesting and curious papers, all ed by those quiet unobtrusive men, the Qua- hitherto unpublished, and inserted them ackers, in the Retreat at York, have at length cording to their respective dates in the boforced them on general attention. It is now dy of his work. the prevailing system throughout Europe, Once in possession of his materials, two at Charenton, Salpetrière, Bicètre, St. Yon, modes of employing them presented themin France, and in all cur own institutions.-- selves to the author's choice. By a clear Those asylums are now so much improved but concise analysis of his documents, a in their internal economy and comforts, and judicious selection of their most striking the chance of cure so great, when attention passages, and a few apt and general reflexis early direc'ed to it, that cases are instantly ions, uniting the whole, he might have efsent thither, which, under the former bad fected what many of those writers have arrangements

, would never have reached done, who have transmitted to posterity the them. In this way the apparent increase actions of celebrated characters. Nor, like may be accounted for; besides which, slight the great historians of antiquity, who atshades of mental aberration are now classed tribute to their heroes harangues which are under one or other form of madness, which purely ideal-the creation of the writers' probably, at a period when the subject was vivid imagination, had M. Artaud to depend not so well understood, would not be classed upon the possession of a like talent; the veat all under any form of insanity. These, ry words themselves, as they fell from the with other temporary causes, will occasion. Lips of his personages

, lay before him, and ally give a slight increase in the returns, he could, therefore, easily undertake to

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