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present them to the public; a little care in contest. In many instances, yielding to the chronological arrangement, and the addi- emotions excited within his breast hy the tion of a few explanatory and illustrative splendour of military renown, or by the notes, would have completed this by no milder yet not less powerful radiancy of the means difficult or laborious task. On the apostolic virtues, he has left his readers to other hand, by a faithful transcript of the form their own opinions and to draw their correspondence, speeches, addresses, re- own conclusions. ports, and recriminations of the parties, he While, therefore, this work cannot be would exhibit a far more lively portraiture considered, in one point of view, as entirely of their characters, views, prejudices, and his own, it nevertheless becomes virtually predilections, and by thus making each of so, by the author's vouching for the accurathem, as it were, his own biographer, cy of the facts therein related-a responsiwould furnish his readers with unquestion-bility which he takes upon himself the able and incontrovertible data from which more willingly, from his desire not to comto form an opinion touching their vices or promise any noble personages to whom he their virtues, their demerits or their deserts. might have wished to dedicate his volumes. The correct judgment and tried experience Although our author has most scrupu. of M. Artaud could not but convince him lously avoided any observations which of the superior advantages of the latter mode might give offence to the memory of that of treating his subject, and he has accord- extraordinary man who lately ruled the ingly adopted it. In the present work, destinies of France, with so much glory for therefore, we do not see the great political himself and her, although he has been characters of our times in one point of view equally careful not to wound the feelings of only: it is not Bonaparte alone who speaks, the friends and relatives of the hero now but the general—the first consul—the em- no more, yet when that name becomes mixperor—and by this self-delineation we are ed up with important facts, and when the enabled to contemplate him throughout the integrity of history forbids the suppression successive phases of his short but brilliant of those facts, our author has not hesitated career. . Imperturbable amid all the politi- to say : “ He was in such a place and acted cal changes, the sad reverses, and distress-thus.'' ing mortifications to which he was subject Equally anxious has M. Artaud been to ed, Pius VII. the head of the Catholic diffuse a splendour around the lofty qualichurch, the representatative of St. Peter, ties of Pius VII., and if in one single inconstantly preserves his dignity, and equal. stance that pontiff appears to have incurred ly commands our respect whether crossing blame, since an accusatory document has the Alps, at the invitation or rather order found its place in these volumes, he soon of Bonaparte, or abashing the irreverence recovered from that state of bodily illness of the thoughtless Parisians, or once more and exhaustion which had operated so unissuing his briefs and apostolical instructions favorably on his mind, and again astonishfrom the papal chair. With equal fidelity ed all around him by his Christian, we had of pencil are sketched the portraits of the almost said celestial, virtues. Had the aumost celebrated ministers of the day, men thor
, as he himself very justly observes, perwhose superiority of genius or political sa sisted in a useless silence, he would have gacity has enabled them to take so large a been precluded in the sequel from applaudshare either in producing or repairing the ing one of the most heroic actions, and one misfortunes of Europe.
of the most glorious and affecting instances The author's next care was the due ar- of repentance and contrition, ever exhibited rangement of his various facts, and to this to the admiration of mankind, or deserving unpresuming task he appears to have con- the favor of the Most High . fined himself. It must not, however be Having thus stated our opinion of the supposed, that he has never hazarded his plan and general merits of this interesting own opinion, or that he has been a listless work, we shall proceed to examine its conor unconcerned relator of so many circum- tents more in detail, and although the facts stances calculated to create a deep and pow. therein related are so numerous and imerful interest. On the contrary, by occa- portant both in political and a moral point sionally interrupting the thread of his nar. of view, that many more pages than are ration by a few well-timed reflexions, he allotted to us would be too few to convey an has sufficiently shown that he is not the adequate idea of them, we shall endeavor to mere echo of the selfish or tyrannical sen compress as many of them as possible withtiments of others, and that, although fight in our brief article. ing in the private ranks, he did not take the After a few introductory observations upless interest in the conduct and issue of the on the reign of Pius VII., the author pro.
ceeds to state that his late holiness was borned to employ every possible means, even at Cesena, in the legation of Forli, on the force, to obtain possession of them.' 14th August, 1742, his father being Count Scipio Chiaramonte, and his mother the
The Roman republic was now proclaim. Countess Jane Ghini. Having been des- ed, and the unhappy Pius VI. being forced tined from his youth to the austerities of the from Rome, was first conducted to Sienna, cloister, he entered upon his theological after the tumults at Imola and the celebra
then to the Chartreuse of Florence, and studies at Parma, and on the 20th August, 1758, took the habit of St. Benedict. But ted homily of Cardinal Chiaramonte, to to some kind of men, their virtues serve
Valenza, where he died on the 28th of Authem but as enemies;" and so it was with gust, 1799. The description of this veneChiaramonte, whose amiable qualities and rable pontiff's departure from Rome is so superior talents but excited the jealousy of touching that we cannot omit its insertion
here. his brethren, and they therefore lost no opportunity of gratifying their malignity, by
"The unfortunate sovereign, who might subjecting him to every species of annoy have avoided his deplorable fate by taking ance and mortification. How painful it is the road to Naples, was declared a prisonthus to see verified the saying of the divine He was told, with unfeeling irony, Ariosto, that discord, intrigue, and vice, that his predilection for travel was now usually take up their abode in that place in about to be indulged. By an order of the which nought should reside but fraternal Directory, the pope, at first a captive in love, tranquillity, and virtue. Fortunate
his own apartments, was despoiled of his was it for our monk, that he found a pro-was commanded to quit Rome. A violent
rings even to the pontifical signet, and tector in Pius VI., who, indignant at the storm raged on the night fixed for his deunworthy treatment of his fellow citizen parture, nevertheless, at four o'clock in and relation, conferred upon him, by a brief, the morning of the 20th of February, the the title of Abbate ; shortly after nomina- head of the Catholic Church, oppressed ted him bishop of Tivoli : upon the death by misfortunes, and enfeebled by years, of Cardinal Bondi, translated him to the was forced to enter a carriage, and the bishopric of Imola ; and on the 14th Fe- gates of the court yard were opened just bruary, 1785, presented him with a cardinal's sufficient to allow the vehicle to pass; but hat.
no sooner did the pontiff appear in the
open street, on his way to the Porta AnThe author now proceeds to describe the gelica, than he found a vast concourse of war in Italy, and treats at length of the ar- his subjects, who courageously testified to mistice concluded at Bologna between the him their veneration and ther love." holy see and the French republic; the new victories of Bonaparte; the invasion of the
An interesting account follows the conRoman States; the famous treaty of Tolen- clave of Venice, of the disputes between tino; the tumults of Rome, in which Ge. the cardinals and Monsignore Gonsalvi, a neral Duphot fell a victim; and the inex- most able politician, who had been appointcusable conduct of the French ambassador, ed secretary to the conclave—and of the Joseph Bonaparte, and others of his coun-election, principally through Gonsalvi's trymen. The consequence of this unhappy means, of the Cardinal Chiaramonte, who event was the marching of General Ber- out of gratitude to the memory of his benethier upon Rome, a procedure which plain- factor, the late pope, assumed the name of ly showed that the Directory, in violation Pius VII. The newly chosen pontiff pubof every principle of political integrity and lished his Encyclica, or apostolic address, honor, had been the real instigators of the and departed from Venice for Rome, which conspiracy concocted against the pope, in city he entered on the third of July, and order that they might have a pretext for immediately commenced his wise and palaying main basse upon some property be- ternal government. The battle of Marenlonging to the papal see, and which was go shortly followed, and the first consulandeposited with a Genoese banker : nounced that he was disposed to treat with
the pope, for which object M. Cacault ar“By a decree of the Directory," says rived at Rome, having our author as his our author, “it was ordered, that the dia- secretary of legation. A characteristic monds formerly given in pledge by the trait of Bonaparte is here related. Upon pope to the French republic, and which taking leave of the first consul, M. Cacault had been afterwards restored to him, asked him in what manner he should treat should be seized at Genoa, where they still
the " Treat him," replied the generemained, converted into specie, and
pope. transmitted to the military chest of the ral, “ as if he had two hundred thousand army of Italy. M. Faypoult was instruct- men at his command.
You know," con:
tinued he, "that in the month of October, I was found a Latin inscription, placed there 1796, I wrote to you that I was more ambi- by Monsignore Marotti, designating the tious to be the savior of the holy see than place where the pontiff's death had taken its destroyer.'
place. In this paper were remarked words
which were doubtless at the time unknown This embassy, however was instructed to depart from Rome unless the concordat the very eyes of the fiercest tyrants it is
to the Directory, so true is it, that under was signed within three days, and in con possible to transmit their perfidy and brusequence M. Cacault quitted Rome for Flo- tality to the indignation of posterity. The rence, leaving behind him the secretary of expressions were as follows: legation, while Gonsalvi, now a cardinal
In arce in qua set off for Paris. After drawing a parallel
Obses Gallorum custodiebatur.'" between the concordats of Leo X. and Francis I. and that of 1801, the author pro tion of the milder term obses for the real one
Prudence perhaps suggested the substitu. ceeds to describe the parties who had most influence with the pope at this time—the re
captivus. moval from Rome of Cardinal Maury by or took place : the promulgation of the con
About this time several important events der of the first consul,the doubts of the pope as cordat by the first consul ; the abdication to the sincerity and good faith of the French of Charles Emanuel IV., king of Sardinia ; government, and the opinions of the Ro- the succession of his brother, Victor Emamans themselves upon the recent concordat. The following is one of the pasquinades relative to the nomination of the grand-mas
nuel; and the negociations with England upon the occasion :
ter of Malta. “Pio (VI.) per conservar la fede,
Upon restoring Benevento and Ponte Perda la sede.
Corvo to the holy see, Bonaparte required Pio (VII.) per conservar la sede, as an equivalent five cardinal's hats for Perde la fede."
France. M. Talleyrand also, that able, as
tute, and redoubtable diplomatist, had his The Cardinal Gonsalvi at length request secular habit restored to him, a circumed and obtained leave to present the concor-stance which excited much disapprobation dat to the first consul. The minister Ca- and which was productive of important concault then resumed his functions in Rome, sequences. The city of Pesaro was also whither Cardinal Gonsalvi also returned. given back to the pope, who about this time Cardinal Caprara proceeded to France as nominated as grand master of the order of legate à latere. The author transcribes in Malta the Bailli Ruspoli, a choice which this place the letter written by the fourteen met with the approbation of France. French bishops who had taken refuge in - In the month of September, 1802, M. CaEngland, in answer to the pope's ordinan-cault received a private letter from M. de
He also gives the report of M. Ber- Bourrienne, in which he announced to him nier upon the same subject, as well as that that Canova was invited to proceed immeof an agent respecting the French bishops diately to Paris to execute a statue of the who had fled into Germany. Then follows first consul. The artist was to be perfectly the firm answer of the pope to a letter from at liberty as to the mode of execution ; his the first consul.
travelling expenses were to be defrayed; Pius VII. bad given instructions to Car- and he was io receive for his labors the dinal Caprara, to require that the body of sum of 120,000 francs. Upon the letter the late pope might be transported to Rome. being made known to this celebrated sculpThe request was immediately, complied tor, he peremptorily refused to go. with, and orders were given that the re- Bonaparte," said he, “it is this man who mains of that pontiff should be delivered to has destroyed my country and afterwards Monsignore Spina. An account then fol. abandoned it to Austria. I have more than lows of the arrival of the body at Rome I can do here. I ask nothing from power; and its magnificent interment. The fol. besides, the winter is approaching, and I lowing will not be read without interest.
shall find my death amid the snows of Pa
ris.' After some remonstrances, however, “They then proceeded to the recogni- from M. Cacault, Canova became mollified tion of the body. After opening both coffins, the one of wood and the other of lead, and consented to proceed to the French cathe body was discovered entire ; but as the pital; an acquiescence which, it is said, was coffin had, from want of due care, been principally owing to his being told that when turned over, and carried in that position, Bonaparte was in Egypt, and was present a part of the face, and particularly the at the discovery of a colossal statue, he had nose, which rested upon the lead, had un-exclaimed, “ Ah! were I not a conqueror, dergone some change. Near the hands
“ It is
I would be a sculptor.” Canova's conduct | followed, the pope insisting upon certain during this his first visit to Paris was cha- conditions. Much delay, ensuing, Cardiracterized alike by discretion and courage. nal Fesch pressed for a decided promise of At his very first introduction to the first departure. Conferences of two, three, and consul, he told him that Rome languished four hours in length took place with Cardi. in poverty ; that its commerce was ruined, nal Gonsalvi; every day fresh difficulties and that the finest remains of antiquity, were started; at length the pontificial gowhich it once could boast of as its own, vernment declared that it expected a letter were then in the galleries and collections of of invitation, which should obtain unequiforeigners. The answer was, “I will re vocal assurances of a sincere desire for the store Rome. The welfare of humanity is welfare of religion. The emperor then dedear to me, and I will effect it.”
cided upon writing the following letter :The next concordat was that with the Italian republic. The republics of Lucca
"Most holy Father, and Genoa were created. The
" Thé happy effect produced upon
pope magnificent legacy bequeathed to him by a the character and moral feeling of my
people by the re-establishment of the Venetian nobleman, Monsignore Cornaro : Christian religion induces me to intreat this was a palace at Venice with all the that your holiness will give me a fresh pictures that it contained. Bonaparte also proof of the interest which you take in my sent him as a present two schooners, named welfare, and in that of this great nation, the St. Peter and the St. Paul, for the pro- under circumstances the most important tection of his commerce. The account of ever presented by the annals of mankind. the audience given by the pope to the officers I beg that you will
, in person, impart, in of these vessels will be forind curious.
the highest possible degree, the character The Bailli Ruspoli having, it is supposing and crowning the first emperor of the
of religion to the ceremonial of the anointed, from English influence, refused the ap- French. This ceremony will acquire an pointment of grand-master of Malta, Tom- additional splendor by being performed masi was raised to that dignity. The situ- by your holiness; and your holiness will ation of the pope at this time, though upon thereby insure both for us and our people, the whole satisfactory, was rendered some the blessing of that Deity, whose high will what irksome by several untoward circum- determines alike the fate of empires and
of individuals. stances, such as the infamous satires pub
“ Your holiness is aware of the affection lished against him, and the attack made which I have long entertained for you, upon M. Cacault
, by a facinoroso, while and may judge therefrom of the pleasure passing through by.street; and which which this circumstance will afford me of but for the magnanimity of that mini- giving you fresh proof of it. We pray ster, might have compromised the go- God, most holy Father, to vouchsafe you vernmeni. The circumstance, however, many years that you may direct and which gave most umbrage to his holiness, govern in your wisdom our holy mother
Church. vas the recall of M. Cacault to Paris, and
“Your devout Son, his being replaced by Cardinal Fesch, un.
(Signed) NAPOLEON. cle to the first consul. It is said that the “ Cologne, September 15th, 1804." cardinal, upon his appointment, having expressed his intentions to look over the cor. This letter of the emperor's was carried respondence with the holy see, “ Read no to the pope by General Caffarelli. His thing," said the first consul to him, “tact holiness had required that it might be preis all that is necessary."
sented to him by two bishops, if Cardinal The subjects our author next proceeds to Fesch had not the duty assigned to him.treat upon, are the re-organization of the However, as the general possessed a repuCatholic hierarchy in Germany; the no- tation for much amenity and suavity, and mination of M. Chateaubriand as secretary had also expressed great satisfaction upon of legation, in place of our author ; the in- the publication of the concordat, the pope structions given to Cardinal Fesch; the received him with kindness. Some scrupope's letter to the first consul upon the ples, however, induced the pontiff to require German churches; the arrival of M. Cha- another letter more explicit upon the affairs teaubriand at Rome, and his first emotions of religion, in answer to which requisition upon finding himself in that ancient city; M. Talley rand addressed cardinal Caprara the arrival of Cardinal Fesch, &c. &c. &c. as follows:
In 1804 Bonaparte determined upon as. suming the imperial dignity, and invited
“ The coronation of his majesty will not th pope to come to
be the only object of this journey; the
aris to consecrate and crown him. A long correspondence grand interests of religion, which will be
discussed in the mutual councils of his vantages which may, in the history of our majesty and the sovereign pontiff, will con- times, diffuse a splendor around your mastitute the principal part. The results of jesty and us. It is with these sentiments their deliberations cannot but prove in the that we bestow upon you majesty, with highest degree advantageous to the pro- the utmost cordiality, the paternal aposgress of religion, and to the welfare of the tolic benediction. state.”
“Given at Turin, November 13th, 1804,
“ Of our pontificate the fifth, Encouraged by these assurances, Pius
"'Pius P. P. VII." VII., adds our author, (who had now returned to Rome) pronounced an allocution The emperor's answer, dated the 20th in the Consistory, and with the unanimous of November, was this :consent of the eardinals, the time of his departure was fixed, Cardinal Gonsalvi be
"Most holy Father, ing appointed to direct and carry on the pleasure, hy the letter of your holiness
“I have learned with the greatest government during the pope's absence. His dated from Turin, that your holiness is holiness, therefore, set off on the 2d of No- in good health. Í am most anxious to vember, 1804, and having arrived at Flo- know how your holiness has supported rence, was received vith the utmost respect the fatigue of crossing the mountains. I by the queen of Etruria. Great efforts flatter myself that in the course of this were indeed made by an English agent to week, I shall have the happiness of seeing detain him in that city, or to make him de your holiness, and of expressing the sentilay his departure for one day, in order to af to my palace of Fontainebleau, which is on
ments I entertain for you. By repairing ford time for establishing a cordon sanitaire; the road, I shall be enabled to enjoy that for the purpose of cutting off the communi-pleasure the sooner. cations between Tuscany and Bologna, on Thereupon, I pray God, most holy account of an epidemic, which had broken Father, that he may vouchsafe you many out at Leghorn. But Pius VII. refused to years to direct and govern our holy mointerrupt his journey, considering that, ha ther Church, ving promised to arrive in France as speedi
"Your devout Son,
(Signed) “NAPOLEON. ly as possible, any delay would be deroga
“ Saint Cloud, November 20th, 1804.” tory to his dignity. On the 13th of No. vember the pope arrived at Turin, whence On the 25th the pope arrived at Fontainehe wrote to the emperor as follows: bleau. The emperor who was hunting,
having been informed of the approach of
bis holiness, met him at the cross of S. Ha. “My very dear Son in Jesus Christ, "We received through the hands of
rein Cardinal Cambacérès, at Turin, where we palace, and were there received by Cardiarrived last night at midnight, your ma- nal Caprara, and the great officers of the jesty's letter of the 1st of November. Your household. After various interviews bemajesty's obliging expressions, not less tween these illustrious personages, the
pope than your attention in deputing three dis. proceeded to visit the express, a condescentinguished personages to congratulate us sion which did not pass without censure, as upon our journey, have enabled us to bear being contrary to the papal dignity; but the fatigue of travelling. We have not the pope replied, " Let us do thus much for least doubt of these indubitable proofs of France; if we have causes of discord, let your attachment being both agreeable to it not be occasioned by matters of etiquette. your majesty, and beneficial to the cause of In travelling there is less etiquette than at religion, the only sure basis of the stabili- Rome, as you well know." ty of thrones, and the happiness of nations. On the pope's arrival at Paris, he receive Faithful to our promise, we hasten on as ed addresses from the president of the seexpeditiously as possible, that we may nate, the legislative body, and various other gratify your wishes; but' fatigue consequent upon the long and oppressive jour-public assemblies, and on the 2d of Decemney of yesterday, the horrible state of the ber, at nine o'clock, his holiness left the Turoads, the want of horses, which is such, ileries for the metropolitan church, in order that part of our suite has not yet arrived, to perform the august ceremony of the cooblige us to remain one day at Turin, to-ronation of the emperor. M. de Pradt, who gether with the Cardinals Fesch and Cam- fulfilled the duties of master of the ceremobacérès, who are equally convinced with nies to the clergy, and who did not quit Naourselves of this unavoidable necessity. We feel ourselves animated in this journey poleon a single instant, asserts that throughby a most anxious desire to become per- put the whole ceremony he did nothing sonally acquainted with your majesty, and but gape. Upon receiving news of the coto procure for religion and the Church ad-I ronation of the emperor, the Romans be