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came very impatient for the return of their |ceiving with a good grace wholesome adbeloved pontiff--an impatience which they vice, and acting upon it with all the enertook every opportunity of expressing to the gy which accompanies an internal convicagents of the French government.
tion; the other, restless, given up to a The author commences his second vo- envious of the mission of the priesthood,
foolish pride, and a superficial knowledge, lume with an account of the pope's resi- and considering himself humiliated, inasdence at the Tuileries in the pavilion of much as he is not, in the intervals between Flora, where he continued to grant audience battles, the pontiff of the nation, as he had to the faithful, and sometimes received been the supreme director of the army," the emperor.
He gives us a letter of &c. congratulation sent by Pius to Napoleon on the occasion of the birth of a nephew,
Several circumstances had occurred to the son of the princess Hortense and his lead the Pope to apprehend that his debrother Louis. This is the same youth parture from the French capital would not who has recently compromised himself so be permitted; this almost became certain, unfortunately at Strasburg. His holiness when a person of high rank and office, but also received intelligence of the alarming whose name his holiness would never diinundation of the Tiber, which took place vulge, actually spoke to him about taking on the 31st of January, 1805-a disaster up his residence at Avignon. Although that occasioned the most serious losses, and the communication was not official, Napowhich the Romans did not fail to attribute leon's power over the words and even the to the continued absence of the pope.
thoughts of those about him was too great Whilst the holy father was making pre- to suppose it to be hazarded without his parations for his departure, the arch-chan- permission. The pope, therefore, replicellor of the German empire expressed his ed, -wish that Monsignore Bernier should be appointed legate à latere at Ratisbon. This “A report has been spread, that we circumstance gave rise to the Report of might be forcibly detained in France:
well! deprive us of our liberty: all has M. Portalis the ecclesiastical demands been foreseen and provided against. Be
upon of the pope. The discussions which ensu- fore leaving Rome, we signed a formal ed; the reproduction of the letter of Louis abdication, which will come into operaXIV. to the Cardinal de la Tremouille and tion the moment we become a prisoner; to Innocent XII.; the colloquies of the pope this instrument is out of the reach of with the emperor, are all related with gra- French power; it is deposited with Carphic power. The state papers connected dinal Pignatelli at Palermo, and so soon with the subject will be found particularly
as the projects, now said to be meditated, interesting. The conclusion of Napole in your hands only a poor monk, named
are put into execution, there will remain on's answer to the demands of the pope is Barnabas Chiaramonte.” very striking.
His holiness, however, contrary to his “The emperor, ever constant to the plan fears, obtained permission to quit Paris, he has laid down for himself from the comabout the same time that Napoleon was to mencement, will place all his glory and all his happiness in being one of the firmest set off in order to be crowned King of Italy. supports of the holy see, and one of the After receiving every mark of veneration most sincere defenders of the prosperity and every testimonial of esteem, from the of Christian nations. He is desirous that different cities through which he passed, among the actions which have thrown a particularly at- Châlons-sur-Saone and at splendor around his existence, should be Lyons, his holiness arrived safe at Rome reckoned foremost the respect which he
on the 16th of May. He was received at has constantly manifested for the Church of Rome, and his successful efforts for the gate of St. Peter's by Cardinal York, reconciling to it the affections and the though this venerable prelate was bending faith of the first nation of the universe.”
under the weight of fourscore years. Our author's own reflections upon the “After the benediction, the pontiff again above are admirable.
approached the altar to make a last prayer
before quitting the church. It would seem "But were such sentiments likely to last that, while on his knees, he was seized long? Will there not always be found in with a kind of ecstacy. The idea of findNapoleon, whenever the question turns ing himself once more in the chief temple upon religious matters, two distinct indi- of his capital, one hundred and twenty viduals ? — the one, just, prompt, clear- days after his melancholy departure from headed, not above asking counsel upon incurred or imagined he had incurred
it; the recollection of the dangers he had questions which he had never studied, re
during so long a journey, so engrossed his fidel. Marriages between Protestants and every faculty, that he remained, as if im- Catholics, although they may be held in movable, at the foot of the altar. His ab- abhorrence by the church,are, nevertheless, straction continued; the church, which recognized by it as valid. had not been lighted up, no night ceremo “ After this research into facts, we have ny having been expected, gradually be considered, under every point of view, came dark. More than thirty thousand whether the absence of the priest could, persons were, in the midst of this silence according to the principles of the ecclesiand the approach of night, totally unable astical law, furnish a reason for nullity; to account for so extraordinary a circum- but we have remained convinced that this stance. Cardinal Gonslavi now gently motive of nullity does not exist. arose, approached the pope, and, touching It does not, in fact, exist with respect his arm, asked him if he was suffering any to the place of residence of the husband. sudden indisposition. The pope pressed It is an incontestible maxim, that, the cardinal's hand, thanked him, and as- for the validity of a marriage, it suffices to sured him that this prolongation of his observe the laws which are in force in the prayer was but the effect of excessive country where one of the two parties rehappiness and delight.”
sides, especially when neither of the two
clandestinely or fraudulently abandons his Soon after the arrival in Rome, the pope place of abode : whence it follows, that, if received a letter from Napoleon relative to the laws in force in the country of the woJeromBonaparte, who had married a man's residence, and in which the marriProtestant lady in America. This letter age is celebrated, be duly observed, it is gave rise to several important questions and in the country of the man's residence, and
not necessary to conform to those in force to some unpleasant feelings; but notwith. in which the marriage has not been constanding this, magnificent gifts passed be- tracted. tween the French emperor and the pontiff. “Nor can there exist a reason of nullity The former was gratified by receiving a
on account of the woman's place of resisuperb cameo representing The Continence dence, for the reasons above assigned." of Scipio, the latter by the present of a splendid tiara.
The above passages from the letter of As the emperor, however, insisted
Pius VII. set completely at rest the ques
upon the pope's annulling the marriage of his tion of the validity of such marriages
. The bro:her, he was under the necessity of an.
decision of the pope was, however, any swering him in a very long letter, the fol thing but agreeable to the emperor,' who, lowing passages from which will not fail perhaps, by way of retaliation, addressed to to be read with great interest, in this coun
him a very strong letter upon the ecclesias. try especially:
tical affairs of Italy, which letter, together
with the discreet answer of the pope, will " Amidst an oppressive accumulation of be found in its place. The emperor, shortbusiness, we have taken every possible ly afterwards, ordered Ancona to be occucare and trouble in making personal re pied by the French troops, an invasion of search to discover if our apostolic autho- the papal territory and rights, against which rity could furnish us with some means of the pope protested with equal justice, elomeeting your majesty's wishes, which, quence, and firmness. After the famous considering their object, it would have gi. battle of Austerlitz, another still more vioven us infinite satisfaction to have se- lent epistle was addressed by Napoleon to conded. But, in whatever point of view we have considered the matter, the only his holiness, in which he formally declares
« Votre result has been our conviction, that of all himself the Emperor of Rome. the motives which have been proposed, or Sainteté," says he, “est souverain de Rome, which we can imagine, there is not one mais j'en suis l'empereur," The reply of which holds out a hope of being able to the pope is drawn up with great care, sasatisfy your majesty as far as we could wish, namely, to declare the nullity of the gacity, and temper, and displays throughout said marriage.
a courage worthy of his character and 6. The three reports which your majesty
station. has forwarded to us, being based upon
The immoderate ambition of Bonaparte reciprocally opposite principles, naturally now still more openly and unblushingly destroy each other.
displayed itself by his causing his brother “In the first place, the difference of re-Joseph to enter Naples at the head of an arligion, considered by the church as a bar
my, nullifying a marriage, is of no effect be- have been, in which the mere fact of pos
and to assume the royal dignity. Times tween two persons who have been baptized, although one of them may not belong to session of the crown, no matter by what the Catholic communion.
means, insured the party the respect and “ This bar is only of effect in marriages fear of those under his sway;
the case, contracted between a Christian and an in-however, is happily different in our times,
and if monarchs who claim the throne by all property of whatsoever kind belonging long hereditary descent, are compelled (if to us, whether moveable or immoveable, they wish to preserve it) 10 affect at least money, jewels, diamonds, and orders, as the semblance of virtues, how much more
well as the insignia of our crown, the de
corations, valuable effects, and credits of necessary is it for such as owe their scep our royal house, our own property in tre to the smiles of fortune to be well-iu- funds, our rights and duties of whatsoever formed, learned, just, valiant, grateful for kind they may be, belong exclusively and sacrifices made in their behalf, and bene- without reservation to us, and are of our ficent to those learned men who have en own free property and possession, as procompassed their new-made crown with the ceeding in part from the inheritance of the halo of genius and talent !
ancestors of our royal house and family,
and duly devolved and bequeathed unto Sinister rumors were now very rife :
us, the holy see was to be transferred to Avig ourselves.
and in part as acquired and saved by non or to Paris-the states of the church were to be divided between the kingdoms "Finally, we purpose here to renew, and of Italy and Naples—the order of Malta to regard and hold, as expressly inserted, was to be secularized—the French code our protest, preserved in the acts of the published at Romne—and the marriage of notary Cataldi, the 27th January, 1788, priests allowed. Melancholy forebodings upon the occasion of the death of our most oppressed the unhappy pontiff, who now sion of our rights and succession to the saw himself deprived of the principalities throne of England in favor of the prince of Benevento and Ponte Corvo, the former to whom they will by right (de jure) fall by of which was bestowed upon M. Talley. proximity of blood, and by the laws of rand and the latler upon Marshal Berna- succession; we here declare that we so dotte. He found himself compelled to dis. transmit them to him in the most express miss his valued friend, the Cardinal Caso. and solemn manner.
“Given at our residence of Frascati this ni as his secretary of state; and lastly, he saw Francis forced to renounce the title of day, 15th July, 1802.
"HENRY, THE King." Emperor of Germany.
On the 15th of July, 1807, the family of Events of a serious character now rapidthe Stuarts became extinct by the death of ly succeeded each other. Napoleon wrote Cardinal York. This prince, who was to the viceroy of Italy in very strong terms born in Rome on the 6th of March, 1725, upon the affairs of Rome. T'he pope was was baptized in the month of May follow. supposed to be inclined to nominate Napo. ing by the Pope Benedict XIll. He at leon Emperor of the West. Rome was first took the title of Duke of York, and, occupied by General Miollis, and Cardinal upon being invested with the purple by Casoni was replaced, first by Cardinal GiuBenedict XIV, in 1747, assumed that of seppe Doria, and soon afterwards by Car. cardinal. His father, who married the dini Gabrielli. And now, say's our augrand-daughter of Sobieski, the savior of thor, we have arrived at the 11th July, 1808, Vienna, had bequeathed all his papers the day when the pope thought fit to assem. and jewels to his eldest son, Prince Charles. ble in consistory such of the cardinals as Edward, the Duke of York's brother, and were still at Rome. He then pronounced the latter, upon the death of the prince in the celebrated allocution commencing with 1788, came into possession of them. On these words, “ Nora vulnera." As this inthe death of the last of the Stuarts being teresting document has never been publishnotified to Napoleon, he said, “If they had ed, the author gives the following extract but left a child eight years old, I would from an original copy, signed with the pon. have replaced him upon the throne of Great tiff's own hand, and sealed with his arms. Britain." M. Artaud, in a note, gives verbatim the cardinal's will, which has never * The holy father is about to exhibit to before been published. It is 100 volumin. his brethren the fresh wounds which have ous to be transcribed at length in this brief been inflicted upon him. The last time he article, and we shall therefore extract the convoked the cardinals was on the 16th passages most important to an English moval of five of that august body: ten
March; he then deplored the forcible rereader.
more have just now been torn from the
capital, without, however, any crime being We, Henry-Benedict-Maria, son of laid to their charge. Such is the state of James III., King of England, Scotland, slavery here, thai all that we might volunFrance, and Ireland, Cardinal of the Holy tarily refuse to perform is extorted from Roman Church, Bishop of Frascati, con- us by violence and force of arms." (The sidering, &c. *
pope here quotes the answer he ordered “We, moreover, expressly declare, that' to be addressed to General Lefebvre.)
“Benedict XIV. in the wars of Spainful by order of Napoleon, conducted to knew how to avoid becoming either an Florence, and thence to Alexandria, then to. ally or an enemy. Behold the reward we Grenoble, Avignon, and lastly to Savona. have received for our fatigues in carrying A most interesting account of this transacthe holy chrism wherewith to consecrate Napoleon! Charlemagne is only recalled tion is given by Cardinal Pacca, an eyeby him to our memory in order to be ca- witness, who, after describing the manner lumuiated, for the ten years' possession in which the soldiery broke into the palace, of Rome is matter of evidence. Printers the interview of General Radet with the are forbidden under pain of death to print pope, and the admirable self-possession of any thing concerning public affairs. Mon his holiness, states that the signore Cavalchini, a person of the strict
and himest probity, has been driven from Rome, ing allowed even time to put into it a valise
self were forced to enter a carriage, not bewithin a few hours. been opened afresh (vulnus reconduit) upon with the linen necessary for their persons, thinking of the departure of the cardinals. and thus proceeds: They say that when insulting the sovereign, they do not outrage the pontiff: are Shortly afterwards the pope asked me not the pontiff and the sovereign one and if I had any money about me. I replied, the same individual ? who would dare to Your holiness saw that I was arrested in affirm that in attacking the King of Italy, your apartment, since which arrest I was he did not attack the Emperor of the not allowed to return into mine.' Then French? But if the heavens and the earth we drew out our purses, and, notwithwere to fall, the word of the divine pro- standing the affliction and grief into which mise would not pass away."
we were plunged at being thus torn from
Rome and its beloved people, we could The author thus concludes :
not refrain from laughing when we found
in the purse of his holiness one papetto, “The pope then protests with all the so- about twenty-two French sous, and in lemnity and earnestness possible against mine, three grossi—little more than sixteen these outrages. He is willing to sacrifice French sous. The pope, showing the pahis life for the welfare of his people. That petto to General Radet, said, 'This, then, people he presses to his heart and bestows is all that is left us from our principality." upon them the kiss of peace. As to the emperor, he is conjured in the name of After the battle of Wagram, Napoleon the Lord to remove evil from the house of demanded a list of all those excoinmunis Israel, to withdraw himself from the coun- cated by the pope, and seized at Rome the cils of those perfidious advisers, who, un, famous ring of the Fisherman, with which der the pretence of aggrandizing the royal the pontiffs signed their decrees. Then majesty, draw him on to eternal perdition. followed his marriage Maria Louisa, and Let him therefore follow those better sug. gestions which comfort the church and the exile of thirteen cardinals for not apwhich will ensure his own salvation. The proving of that marriage.
Canova once prince of the apostles is supplicated to more visited Paris, where he arrived on render tranquillity to the sea agitated by the 11th October, 1810. He had several tempests. "God is in the midst of his peo- conversations with Napoleon. ple from this time and for evermore.'—Ps.
was now transported to Fontainebleau. cxxiv. v. 2."
Hither the Emperor soon repaired, and Whilst the pope was pronouncing this taking the advantage of the state of physicelebrated allocution, a decree, dated the 6th cal and mental depression to which the unJuly, had nominated Joseph Bonaparte
fortunate pontiff was reduced, he prevailed King of Spain. On the 23rd commenced upon him to sanction the famous Concordat the first siege of Saragossa, and Spanish of 1813. On the arrival, however, of the deputies arrived at Rome for the purpose of Cardinals Pacca and Gonsalvi, at Fontainesecretly congratulating the pope upon his bleau, the pope recovered his former vigor resistance. On the 14th July, Joachim Mu: and protested against the Concordat. rat was proclaimed King of Naples, and
It is certainly a curious coincidence, that his holiness was speedily enjoined to re- after the issuing of the excommunication,
Napoleon's affairs daily grew worse until cognize him as such without delay.
Misfortunes trod upon the heels of each his total ruin. At length, he thought proother. Cardinal Pacca was arrested, al- per to order Pius VII so be reconducted to though the pope had conducted him into Rome. His journey through France was his own apartments; the papal states were
truly glorious for him. The events from
this time are so well known as to need no incorporated with the Empire; the pope published his bull of excommunication, and recapitulation. We shall therefore conat length the sovereign pontiff was seized clude with giving the reader two more exin a manner the most brutal a nd disgrace tracts, the one, extremely curious, relative
to the Stuart papers, the other an account | litical matters, even more than her husof the pope's decease.
band, who was almost incapacitated for
filling the duties of consul. The English “ We consider it our duty," says our
man declined following this advice. He author, " to give an account of what hap- appeared to be ignorant of the influence pened with respect to the Stuart papers, Rome. He was always talking, consult
exercised by the British government at Jeft at Rome by the Cardinal of York. By the dispositions of the will
, Monsignore ing, and deciphering: He was soon beCesarini, Bishop of Milevi, was nominated trayed, and information being
given to the to the entail. The latter had left the care tuted into the affair, the papers were
Roman government, an inquiry was instiof several trunks filled with papers to a steward, (maestro di casa,) who in 1809, at seized, with the exception of a few loose the time of the change in the government, sheets, which were afterwards found in
other hands. kept them concealed in a garret, in order
Watson vainly protested to preserve them from the French. This against the government order. Well insteward died, carrying his secret with formed persons assert, that the papers, him. About 1816, the papers were disco- after having been examined by an agent vered by a person who had a confused of the Court of Sardinia, (the rights of the knowledge of what had taken place, and Stuarts having passed over to the second who, having searched for the trunks, at son of Victor Amadeus III., who reigned last 'discovered them. Englishmen were
at Turin in 1817,) were after this scrutiny always flocking to Rome: one of them, a
sent to England. Mr. Watson, offered to buy, for ready money, the papers of which he suspected
The death of Pius VII. is thus related. the existence. The person in possession of them, but unlawfully so, handed them " The news of the 1st of July had anover to him for the paltry súm of one hun- nounced to the Court of Vienna, that the dred and seventy Roman crowns. The pope was in a most alarming state of bargain being concluded, the Englishman weakness. The emperor immediately orat first acted with great caution in order dered that the oldest and choicest of his to accomplish his plan of carrying off the Tokay wines should be sent from his celpapers from the Roman States. A late lars for the benefit of his holiness. As the consul of France, M. Stamaty, had for- state of the patient did not allow of his merly had an opportunity of secretly see being easily moved, Louis XVIII. foring many of those papers, at that time warded, at the suggestion of the ambassa. even partly destroyed by insects, and he dor, one of those mechanical beds which has told me, that, in what he had deci- had just been invented in France, and phered of them, he had found a volumi- which allowed the patient to be raised nous correspondence with English autho- without inconvenience or pain . . . . As rities which had sent to the Stuarts many soon as the sick pontiff was placed upon testimonials of fidelity and attachment, this bed, he experienced relief. and even sometimes money. The corre “ The patient was tolerably tranquil on spondence with Scotland was in great the 18th, but on the following day, the confusion, and appeared to have had the most alarming symptoms appeared: the most important documents abstracted. pope wildly pronounced the words Savona From a kind of inventory which was and Fontainebleau. His voice soon changfound, it is probable that many lacuna ex- ed, and the sound of a few Latin words isted.' Among them, were also found se showed that he was constantly in prayer. veral papers connected with the Court of There was no appearance, writes the amSt. Germain, about 1708, and especially bassador, of any thing like any other agisome Irish documents. After having cast tation or disturbance than that occasioned a rapid glance over this valuable collec- by pain. In the evening, the patient could tion, M. Stamaty acknowledged that he no longer take any nourishment, and on could not undertake to decipher with due the 20th August at five o'clock in the mornexactness this ancient writing, nor even ing, this life, so pure, so wise, so firm unthe more recent specimens, owing to their der many circumstances, became extinct. having been purposely disfigured. A per- Thus died the Sovereign Pontiff Pius VII. son who resided at Rome, and possessed at the age of eighty-one, after a reign of both tact and discretion, and who particu- twenty-three years, five months, and six larly enjoyed Mr. Artaud's confidence, days." told him, that since fate had deposited these papers in faithful hands, and as, to We cannot too earnestly recommend M. all appearance, they had not been acquir- Artaud's work to our readers. Unbiassed ed with the view of compromising many by any thing like prejudice, or party spirit, honorable and noble families, the trunk's must be embarked at Civita Vecchia, that
he has given a simple narrative of circumevery precaution, however, was to be stances as they occurred, proving the autaken against Mr. Denis, the English con-thenticity of his facts by the most interestsul, or rather Mrs. Denis, who intermed- ing documents that have been submitted to dled in everything, not excepting even po- the public for many years.