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was once usual amongst ourselves. They use against animals, or to make his way
frequently go barefoot, or with shoes trod- through the brush-wood.
den down at heel. The higher classes

The women often carry their children are cleanly, and during the heats change with them when going to market

. In these their linen three times a day. Ladies ing to the promenade wear on their heads cases, they place one leg on the back of a broad white or black felt hat, with a their steed, horse, or ass, so as to form a couple of tassels hanging down to the lap for the infant: a basket, filled with their shoulders : their pace is slow and mea- wares, hangs on each side of the animalsured ; they hold up their train with one the child in front, a couple of dozen hens, hand, and carry a parasol in the other. tied together by the legs, behind, and a ripe In riding on journeys, they sit like men on in their mouths, they vie with the men in horseback. Many of the women, and 06- full gallop. They who trudge on foot casionally amongst the colored, are musical; the guitar is their favorite instrument, carry the basket on their heads, and wade which they frequently accompany with a through the rivers that cross their course, pleasing voice; their songs are French.” there being but few bridges in Hayti.

Schools and churches are found only in One of these we must insert as a specimen the towns. of the taste of the Haytian fair:

Both sexes are careful, according to our

author, to cleanse their teeth daily, with the "C'est trop long temp(s) souffrir, chere jatropha gossipifolia, which they purchase

amie, C'est trop long temp souffrir, chere amie, sometimes with the wood of the orange

wholesale at market for this purpose, or C'est trop long temp souffrir Pour mes premieres amours.

tree; chewing a morsel of this till the end Adieu, chere amie, pour toujours,

is as soft as a brush or hair-pencil. Adieu, chere amie, pour toujours,

Singing and dancing are the usual Adieu, ma chere amie,

amusements of the lower classes. They L'objet de mes amours."

display much agility in the latter, and a

note of music sets them in motion at once. “ The Haytian black never works till Their favorite dance is the African national cor elled by nger or force, and, the instant he can cease from labor, he throws

dance Bambouche, which may be shortly himself under the shadiest tree near him,

described. lights his cigar, and delivers himself up to The performers stand round a circle in total idleness. It is not unusual to see pairs, with their eyes fixed on each other. two negroes sitting on one horse, and a So soon as the music begins, they place third holding by the tail, to lessen his own their two hands under their (partners) arms, proper exertion."

and with innumerable grimaces and caThe common negroes, in truth, like the resses, go round the circle, using nearly inhabitants of all warm climates, have but

the regular Scotch step. At times, they few wants, and are easily satisfied. A take hands, using a swinging motion, and morsel of cassava bread and salt fish, a

dancing further apart. Their orchestra draught of water with a little rum in it

, and consists of a cask, the bottom supplied by an orange or other fruit, is enough to con

a calf-skin: it is placed on a stool, and two tent him, and after this simple repast, he heavy sticks produce a sound enough to sings himself to sleep. The beds of the deafen a European. Others shake a kind better classes are often the only good or ele of hollow rattle, filled with small stones, by gant furniture in their houses, and the bed way of accompaniment to the barmony; steads frequently are of mahogany.

and, to crown the whole, comes the song

or rather hideous howling, raised by both other cases mats supply the place of beds.

men and women. Amongst the poorer sort, a single iron

In superior assemblies,

drums and fifes form the orchestra. pot forms the whole of the cooking apparatus of their huts, and suffices to dress the

We give the words of one of their melobanana, salt fish, &c. &c. In fine weather, dies, premising that Amelino is the female of course, they prefer the open air; in foul, name most in favor with the composers from they kindle a fire between two stones in

time immemorial. the hut. The household work is perform- “ Amelino, ou pas oublier, titot n'en laisser, ed, as amongst savages, by the women; Titot n’en laisser, titot n'en laisser ?" the husband, if not a soldier or a laborer for the government, employs himself in the There is, undoubtedly, as M. Ritter rechase.

The common negro never goes marks, little meaning in this ditty, but the out without a short sword (machette) at his “Canadian boat-songs' we remember to side, serviceable either for self-defence, to have heard in the original, are scarcely

more intellectual.

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The Haytians are Roman Catholics, anded by similar specimens. We take the in general bigotted; the buriai ceremonies former. of the better class resemble thôse of Europe, but the vulgar preserve their African cus “A lady of rank calls to her maid in a toms, convoking their friends and neigh. drrwling tone : Nini! Nini ! Arrive, me bors so soon as the sufferer expires, and tonrner la tête, il faut me cracher.” keeping an incessant chant or wail over the body till it is interred, which is gene. short historical and geographical sketch

We must now present our readers with a rally in from six to eight hours, Their drawn up by M. Ritter

, but which we have marriages are contracted without any ceremonial whatever, according to our author. revolutions of Hayti since its first discovery

somewhat condensed, of the island and the The distinguishing trait in the character down to the year 1820—the period of our of this people is the hatred felt by every author's visit

. class towards others. Thus the black de.

Columbus, on the 6th December, 1492, tests the colored race, and these reciprocate landed at Hayti, the original name of the the feeling towards the blacks, but the Mez- island of San Domingo, and signifying in tizoes, who more nearly resemble the whites the Carib tongue, mountain-land. in their complexion, are most abhorred of

He found the inhabitants a kind and hos. all.

The Haytian negro is lively and imagi- pitable race, derived, as their habits and apnative; willingly bearing the severest trials pearance testified, from the ancient Indian

stock: of an elegant, slender form, and poswhen interest or ambition prompt him, and showing great aptitude for knowledge, and sessing great agility. Their complexion for the liberal as well as the mechanical was copper-colored, their hair deep black, arts. Their conversation is helped out by ders. The head was unusually flat, from

long, straight, and flowing upon the shoulgesticulation and grimace to an inconceiv. their habit of compressing the forehead in able degree. The negroes address each infancy. They lived in a beautiful country, other as father, mother, brother, and sister; they even address the whites, especially in vegetable productions. Their dexterity in

upon maize, potatoes, bananas, and other the country, by the title of god-father, or gossip (gevatter); or, if to show particular ticles of life was great, and their canoes were

furnishing themselves with the common arrespect, as Bourgeois, or even Monsieur

constructed of the trunks of trees, hewn Blanc.

with flint hatchets. The form of government “The French," says our author, "are hated excessively in Hayti, but less in the was an hereditary monarchy, and the island

was divided into five independent kingSouth Province than elsewhere." Boyer, doms. The monarchs were called cazihowever, gave encouragement and protec

ques. tion to the traders of that nation at Port au

The first kingdom was founded in the Prince, which was not the case under Christophe. If treated kindly, M. Ritter observes, streams in whose sands gold was found

eastern part of the island, and watered by the negro makes in general a good servant. it was called Magua. The second, named He gives an anecdote, by way, we presume, Marien, occupied the northern part, from of illustration, though we cannot feel its

Cape Nicholas to the river Monte-Christ. force in this sense. Happening to break a The third, Maguana, included the western small twig from a tree that grew near a strange negro's hut, the sable proprietor gua, the fourth and richest portion, compre

portion of Cibao to the Artibonita. Xararushed forward in fury, exclaiming, "Whitehended the larger part of the south ; and the if thou dost not leave my house, I will kill thee !" But M. Ritter's servant Thomas, formed the fif:h state, Hygney. They were

remainder, from the D'Yacua to the Ozama, a black, interposed, saying, "How now, constantly at war, and fought with darts: comrade, who will buy our coffee, or bring their superstition was gross; and their idols us linen, if we kill the whites? Do not included forms of animals. you know what our General says:-Negro

The oppression of the Spaniards speedily Kill no white, for we use them for our thinned the number of these unbelievers, trade."

and the island was recruited with negroes To this novel illustration of humanity, or by the care of Bishop Las Casas in 1517; perhaps of Political Economy, we must add but, the discontent continuing, a part of the one of purity of language.

natives rebelled, and one of them, Henri, " The Haytians speak in general the assumed in the interior the title of Cazique Creolian, a bad French, but the cultivated

of Hayti. classes speak good French.". This para about forty years the Spaniards regraph is immediately preceded and follow- tained peaceable possession, till the French

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and English adventurers from St. Christo-southern province under Toussaint, but the
pher, settling in the north, under the name whites joined to reclaim the original sys.
of Flibustiers, or Freebooters, soon from tem; they leagued against Toussaint, ex-
fishing and hunting, turned to ravage the claiming, “Without slaves the colony is
Spanish plantations. Fresh supplies of ad- only a name.”—“We are French subjects,”
venturers arriving, they seized the small the blacks replied.-“ France has given us
island of La Tortue for the sake of its har- freedom-France cannot seek to fetter us
bor, lived by piracy, and incessantly annoy- again after having broken our chains.''
ed the Spaniards, who strove repeatedly, In 1801 Toussaint L'ouverture took pos-
but in vain, to capture the stronghold of session of the Spanish portion of the island,
their adversaries. * At length the French which, since the treaty of July 1795, had
in 1665, under the conduct of Bertrand properly become French, though circum-
D'Ogeron, formed a permanent settlement stances impeded the actual transfer till then.
in the island of Hayli. Hostilities conti- Toussaint made a fearful inroad into the
nued between the two parties, till, at the ac city of San Domingo, and planted the tri-
cession of Philip V. to the throne of Spain, colored flag in the name of the French re-
this (French) portion was formally given public in place of that of Spain. Don Gar-
up to the new settlers. Count Choiseul cia gave up the keys of the town and quit-
Beaupré, in 1707, found the Flibustiers in ted the place. Toussaint was ruler at San
possession of a flourishing trade with fo- Domingo, obeyed alike by whites and
reign vessels, but this governor dying on blacks, and with an army of 40,000 men.
his passage to France, they gave up their Slavery could no longer exist. The French
mode of life for want of encouragement, and accordingly fitted out a fleet, and an army
became planters and laborers.

of 30,000 picked men under general-in-
The colony improved constantly; the chief Le Clerc, who sailed for the island
free natives vied with the whites in intellec- to restore it to its original state.
tual cultivation; the black soldiery was no In February, 1801, Toussaint was still
way inferior to the white, and several regi- in the Spanish portion of the island, and
ments were commanded by native officers. Christophe was commanding at Cape Town
This was the state of the country till the when the fleet arrived. He refused it en-
revolution of 1789.

trance, under a pretext of having no perThe natural diffusion of the novel princi- mission from Toussaint L'ouverture; the ples introduced by this event produced a fleet entered the harbor nevertheless, and strong effect at Hayti. Pride, selfishness, Christophe, in spite of the solicitations of and vanity,says Vastey in his work, reigned the citizens, set fire to the town. By eleven equally over whites and blacks; the rich at night the place resembled a sea of fire, planters despised the small, or petits blancs, which destroyed every thing but the walls these the colored race and the free negroes, of the cathedral church and of the governwho in their turn domineered over the ment-house. Christophe with his

army reslaves. By the white and colored race tired to the mountains, and the French landed the blacks suffered severely ; and the two amongst heaps of ruins. parties of royalists and republicans songht The whole of the southern province, unto bring them over to their respective sides. der Richard, submitted at once, and even Generals Fr. Biässaie, Candi, &c. declared Toussaint's own brother, Paul L'ouverture, for the king; Toussaint L'ouverture, Vil- who commanded at St. Domingo, yielded latte, Levaillé, for the republic. “We shed with his troops to their authority. Chrisour blood," observes Vastey, "without know- tophe, Dessalines, and some others, however, ing why, and even without a suspicion that remained true to their cause, and fled to the we were but the instruments of our own mountains for refuge; but at length both destruction. We were far from imagining parties, wearied with hostilities, came to that the Whites, equally though in different terms, and Toussaint with his generals came ways, sought the same object of dividing, over and surrendered to General Le Clerc and thus enslaving us." Toussaint, as according to the stipulations of the treaty. commander-in-chief of the colony, was vic. Subsequently, however, the unfortunate torio's in the name of the republic, and leader was accused of corresponding with slavery existed no longer.

the English, who long held possession of In 1797 General Hedouville was sent to St. Nicolas; he was shipped with his family St. Domingo. Toussaint was satisfied that for France, where he-it is not known at the colony should remain under French Hayti how-perished. dominion, provided slavery was abolished. The sufferings of Madame Toussaint are Hedouville on his return appointed Rich- described in an Haytian newspaper in 1808. ard, a mulatto general, commander of the She was at length set free, after displaying

considerable spirit and firmness, and lived in / rests on a constitution that secures your Paris till she returned to the new world, ha- rights, you enter into the rank of civilized ving preserved amidst all her privations a

nations.” diamond ring of considerable value. Slavery was again proclaimed at St. Do

The ceremonials ended with a grand mingo, but the blacks flew to arms with entertainment, at which some healths were Dessalines at their head, and Petion and drunk; but, notwithstanding all his profesChristophe joined him in 1803, with seve- sions, Dessalines retained his hatred to the ral others. Thus was renewed a severe

whites and colored race; many of the forand bloody struggle, ending in the complete mer especially were afterwards sacrificed expulsion of the French from this part of to his revenge. The kingdom fell into an the island; and the death of Le Clerc, on unsettled state, as the Haytian writers delithe 28th November of the same year, greatly cately term it.

The conduct of the tyrant contributed to the event. The numerous

daily increased the anger of his subjects, army of France, greatly reduced by ca

and produced his overthrow. sualties, fled to St. Domingo; and, on the

Baron Vastey, the native historian, gives 1st of January, 1804, the negroes solemnly the following particulars of this cvent :proclaimed the independence of Hayti, and erected a free state, with Dessalines, as the oldest general, at its head. Notwithstanding consisted of the minister of war Gerin,

“The combination against Dessalines the general massacre of their antagonists, the general-commandant Petion, with Vathe blacks had had the foresight to preserve von and other mulatto generals. On the some of those of the most necessary profes- night of the 16th October, 1806, Dessalines sions, as the clergy, schoolmasters, compo- rode, with about twenty men for an essitors, printers, &c. during the scenes of cort, through Blackfield to Port-au-Prince. devastation, by throwing them into prison.

When he was some hundred paces from The greater part of these purchased their ceived troops drawn up in military array

the red-bridge near Port-au-Prince, he perlives now by taking the oath of allegiance on both sides of the road-suspecting no to the government, and swearing to resign evil, he rode on. their native land. Of proclamations, there “As he came up to the soldiers, he fore, there was no want, either as to number heard the cry of Halt, halt! from a thouor ability.

sand voices. Still feeling no apprehenOn the 8th October, 1804, Dessalines sion, he rode between the two lines of assumed the title of the Emperor Jacob. I. do you not know me? The troops from

levelled musquets, exclaiming, “Soldiers, An expedition was undertaken against the

awe and alarm were unwilling to offer remnant of the French army at St. Domin- violence; one only of the most daring go, who were an obstacle to his complete re- fired at him, but Dessalines killed him at cognition. Details drawn up at the com- once with a pistol-shot. At this moment mand of the new emperor are in our pos- Gerin, Vavon and others, who had consession, and from these it appears, that after cealed themselves behind the bushes, gave a two month's siege the campaign termi- the word 'Fire! A volley followed, which nated in his retreat; the Spanish portion dead on the spot. Thus fell Dessalines of the island held his talents cheap in con- amidst his black brethren in arms, after sequence of this failure,

one year, ten months, and twenty-six days In this expedition Dessalines put to death of usurped dominion." a number of whites suspected as spies. He was induced however to issue orders for Dessalines, though married and having stopping the execution of some, and the oath children, lived in open polygamy. His of allegiance was taken to the constitution, mistresses, of whom there were about twenwhich was read at the Place d'Armes in ty, cost the state not less than 20,000 piaspresence of the military and civil powers, tres yearly. and a vast crowd of all classes, with due Opinions were greatly divided as to the solemnity. The speech of Dessalines is choice of a successor. Baron Vastey afcurious, as the first specimen of imperial firms that Christophe assumed the governnegro oratory at Hayti.

ment by general invitation; but as he is

notoriously partial to the latter, it may be “Haytians! the political events that doubted whether the South Province, numhave laid waste the country seem at an bering so many mulattoes, might not have end. After the universal storm a moment preferred one of these to a black. solved that the repose of the warrior shall however, could impugn Christophe's right be confirmed by the influence of the legis

as the oldest general-he published an adlator. At this moment, when your eye

dress from Port-au-Prince on the 21st Oc. 7

No one,


tober, 1806, signed by Gerin, Petion, Va-| the court was placed on a European footing. von, Baval, &c., but remained inactive, and Tranquillity was not disturbed till 1813, contented himself with sending his deputies when dissensions were renewed between the to the meeting at Port-au-Prince. The day two states. The blame is thrown by the of convocation came; the assembly should partizans of each upon their adversaries.---have consisted of only 60 members, but as Christophe marching with his whole force they amounted to 78, (the South Province against Port-au-Prince, took Eibert by storm. summoning 18 more than the North,) the The two armies speedily came to a fierce deputies separated without doing any thing. encounter, Boyer, since president, commandOn the 27th December following, Petion ing the republicans. He would have been was chosen president of the Republic of driven back, but for the timely junction of Hayti.

Richard's successor, Bargella, with Petion Christophe refused to acknowledge this himself

. Christophe, called away by some proceeding, and marched with all his forces tumults, had scarcely quitted his army, to Port-au-Prince. Near Eibert on the when a whole division went over to the 15th January he met the army of Petion on enemy. Weakened by the desertion and the march. A fierce encounter ensued, the insurrections at home, after a campaign and Christophe was compelled to retreat, of 75 days he returned to his province. though Vatsey asserts that this arose from Had Petion commenced invader in his his reluctance to shed blood. A complete turn, a fearful scene of bloodshed must have separation of the two states followed : Pe followed. He was contented, however, with tion, in imitation of North America, found." following his antagonist to his own borders. ing a pure republic, whilst Christophe in- The war ceased here. Christophe rewardstituted a monarchy. The latter summoned ing his faithful followers, and ruling the a deliberative assembly at the Cape from blacks with great severity in revenge for amongst the oldest general officers, and the their recent mutinies. constitution of the 17th February, 1807, On the restoration of Louis XVIII. was formally settled.

France was desirous of recovering the soChristophe, appointed president and ge- vereignty of Hayti. Negotiations were to neralissimo of the land and sea forces for be opened with both the chiefs, and Dauxion life, occupied himself peaceably in attending Lavaysse, Draverman, and Medina, charged to the cares of the government: in the South with the mission, landed at Jamaica. MonProvince, however, disturbances prevailed, torsier, a French merchant settled at the and one Baptist Duperier Goman, taking Cape, going there on business, was instructed refuge in the mountains, set both govern- by Christophe to ascertain the object of the ments at defiance, and Petion carried on a negotiators. He found Lavaysse ill, gained long war against him.

his confidence, and on his return with a In 1810, Richard, returning from France letter for the king, would have proceeded to with proposals for a treaty, was made a ge- Sans-Souci, to deliver it in person, instead of neral of division by Petion, and soon after the usual form of transmission in such cases, seized a portion of the province-several through the minister, Baron Dupuy. Chrisleaders, amongst them Gerin and Vavon, tophe gave Montorsier an audience in the were slain, but the death of Richard from capital, however, and assuming a friendly fever relieved Petion of this rival. Mean-tone and manner, in order to put him off his time Christophe was anxious to extend his guard, "What think you," he inquired, authority over the South and West pro- " would be my reward, were I willing to vinces, but failing, he nevertheless, in 1811, return under French dominion ?'' assumed the title of King of Hayti, and majesty might be sovereign lord and ruler was, with his wife, crowned by the Arch of the Island of Tortue; or might live at bishop Gonzalez, whom he himself

, and choice, either in France, the United States not the pope, had appointed. He appeared of America, or any where else; in all cases, on this solemn occasion, according to his H. M. Louis XVIII. would remember and partial biographer, as calm and frank as remain your friend." Christophe artfully usual, and took the path to maintain the replied, "I place no value on the throne or integrity of Hayti, and abolish slavery, and crown, and would fain resign them, and all that was hostile to military and civil all claim to them, durst I fatter myself to rights; to uphold the ordinance of apanage, pass my days any where with my family in and the rights of property; and ever to peace." " That is what is intended, inadvance the honor and welfare of the great terrupted Montorsier, taking his hand. " It Haytian family.

was apprehended, that your majesty might The members of the royal family were not be so disposed; but now the obstacle is to be addressed as royal highnesses, and removed. But," returned Christophe,

" Your

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