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“ what will my ministers, functionaries, and | Medina remained with Christophe. Here officers say to it? they will oppose it with at Cape Town he had the mortification to all their might." They must be won be present while the court sung Te Deum over to acquiesce," replied Montorsier, in public worship, to hear the substance of calmly.
his instructions, and the contents of the letHe had scarcely uttered the words, when ter which he had brought, as well as the Christophe rose up, crying aloud, “Here, answer of the national assembly, proclaimofficers! you are to be robbed of your liber- ed at the termination of mass to the troops, ty: I am requested to prevail on you to and beheld himself alone and surrounded break your
by the negro army, the object of their fiercest The officers, in attendance, rushed at execrations. He soon after disappeared alonce into the room at the voice of the king together, and was probably assassinated in Montorsier, awakened from his dream, saw the confinement to which, we would state, the error he had committed; he trembled he was doomed when the seizure of his from head to foot, turned pale, and stood si- papers afforded evidence that one of the lent and in the greatest confusion. The objects of his mission was to foment disofficers were for throwing him from the turbances. His two companions returned balcony into the street; but Christophe said, to France, “ No, let him go quietly; enough that his We must briefly add, that the French
gomaneuvres are discovered.” Montorsier vernment, no way discouraged by this viowent ; but fell a sacrifice soon after to his lence, renewed more than once afterwards too ready compliance with the monarch's its efforts at negotiation, both with Petion wishes.
and Christophe; and after the death of In conformity with this prelude, and on these two chiefs, with the president Boyer. the 21st of October, 1814, a general coun No sooner was Petion dead (1818) than eil being met, Christophe thus addressed Christophe issued a proclamation to induce them from the throne.
the South Province to accept himself as
their ruler---but in vain. Boyer succeeded “Haytians, we have assembled you, and Petion, and thus matters stood when our convoked a general council of the nation, author arrived in the island. in order to lay before you the papers
Christophe falling ill in 1820, and being transmitted through General Dauxion Lavaysse from the French cabinet. Hay-confined to his bed for several weeks, the tians, determine with prudence and con- discontent which his severity and tyranny sideration as becomes men. Decide on had excited came to a head. A conspiracy points affecting the interests of the nation was formed under the auspices of the Duke you represent, as well as your own pros- of Marmalade, governor of Cape Town, pects as those of your fellow citizens."
and the Prince de Limbé, minister of war.
On the 6th October, says our author, a So soon as the letter from Dauxion La
confused rumour arose about midnight of a vaysse had been read by Count Limonade,
revolution at St. Marks. No one knew the the assembly unanimously declared them- details: uneasiness and terror reigned duselves ready to perish amongst the ruins of ring the following day on every face, for yoke of France : and so strong was this and the whites dreaded a general massacre
all felt that some catastrophe was at hand, feeling in the nation, that, according to of themselves. They assembled, and deVastey,
cided on embarking at once on board the " the moment the proceedings were made ships, and slipping anchor and putting to public, the whole people hastened to the sea during the night. They attempted infield. They vowed each to deliver his stantly to put their resolve in execution, but own cabin to the flames so soon as the found to their alarm that guards were posted French should set foot upon the soil. every where along the shore by the goverSome snatched their sabres, some prepa-nor's orders. The intended fugitives conred their muskets, others took up the knap- sequently returned in the greatest constersack. The women were equally resolute; nation to their homes, barricaded the doors, and even the children, actuated by the common feeling, bundled their little pro and, arming themselves as they best could. perty and toys together, and pointed with awaited their doom. their fingers to the mountains as the last refuge from slavery."
“About nightfall the alarm increased in
the streets ; at eleven the trumpets and Draverman had proceeded in the mean drums sounded to arms: the clash of time to the South Province, Dauxion La- weapons, the fearful cries of the negroes; Yaysia to Petion at Port-au-Prince, while the clattering of cavalry through the
streets, and the volumes of fire which
arose from Christophe's residence and Laxavon was bayoneted by the soldiers. plantation to the skies, added fresh terrors Baron Vastey, the historian of Hayti, was to their situation. This state of things also murdered.
His body was lasted till morning.
thrown into an empty well, where I myself Early in the morning, a numerous saw it.
The corpse of Christobody of negro troops, headed by an offi- phe was interred at Citadelle Henri." cer, drew up before the house in which we
The officer handed to M. Hoffman We believe, however, that Prevost, whom (agent of the Baron von Dietrich) a writ- M. Ritter's omits, remained, like Dupuy, with ten order from the governor to give up his unfortunate master to the last, and helped to their officer what fire-arms,
&c. he pos: to carry him to his quick-lime grave before sessed, and to send also the sum of 1000 the rebellious soldiery could arrive to malSpanish dollars to the governor."
treat the body. Sans Souci was given up to It seems that the Austrian vessel had a plunder, and this whole portion of the island cargo of arms and arnunition on board, and became the prey of anarchy and violence. the money was divided amongst the mili
“Everywhere was heard the cry ‘Liberté! tary.
égalité ! The unfettered negro plundered Any remonstrance under the circum- to his heart's content under this watchstances would have been equally hazard-word; these wild swarms cared for no ous and unavailing; the will of the gover- On the other hand the whites could now
laws, all for them was free and privileged. nor was law. The amount of this exaction was subsequently balanced in coffee. travel without passports wherever they
“Christophe learned early in the morn- pleased, and without any pledges for their ing at Sans-Souci the events of the pre-lous scenes occurred. Here might be seen
security. During this period many ridicuceding evening. He made every effort, and tried every expedient to put down the a half-naked negro with a splendid goldinsurrection. On hearing that the whites laced hat and feather on his head; there had supplied weapons to the insurgents, another, without a shoe on his dirty feet, he issued orders to the governor that they decked out in the full uniform of an officer should be all put to death, but Marmalade,
of rank, &c.” whose connivance in the rebellion was unknown to him, put us in security. Chris
Such was the state of affairs till the pretophe placed 'his guard, of whom there sidency of this part of the island was also were about 1000 at Sans-Souci, under assumed by Boyer. The present president arms, and made them take again the oath is mild and amiable in manners, and rules of fidelity ; but as his illness prevented with gentleness. He is a mulatto, and was him from taking the command, he appoint- formerly secretary to Petion on his return ed the Duke of Fort-Royal instead; the
from France. He commanded the army crown-prince and other generals accompanied him.
of the South Province in the war between “Meantime the rebels were at Haut-du- the latter and Christophe, as we have alreaCap erecting batteries; the guard advan- dy seen; he is short and spare, and of simced against them, but their attack was fee-ple habits; greatly beloved by the people, ble and some even cried Vive l'indépend. and deservedly so for the excellence of his ance!_vive le Général Richard! They administration. The nobility under his rule then placed white hankerchiefs on their bayonets, and went over to their brethren. are simply officers on the staff
, and have Their leaders alone returned in great af- resigned their former titles of princes, dukes, fliction to Sans-Souci to apprise Christo. &c. The common people are contented phe of the event. His friends and follow- and happy; relieved of the heavy burdens ers now all quitted him, with the exception imposed on them by the tyranny of Chrisof the Baron Dupuy. Christophe said to tophe and his predecessor, “ each lives in him, 'Save yourself, my time is expired;' his own house, and cultivates his own land; and, repairing to his bed, ended his life
else—and this is far more often the casewith a pistol. “On the day of his death, his wives, the
lets it alone altogether." crown-prince, the two princesses, and the
Before the French Revolution of 1789, whole family, were brought on horseback the population of Hayti, according to some, to the Cape Town amidst the shouts of amounted to 570,000, of whom 40,000 were the populace, the ringing of bells, and the whites, 30,000 free blacks and colored, and thunder of cannon. The females were 500,000 slaves. La Croix states the whole confined in their rooms, but the males of present number at 501,000, of which the the 9th october Victor Henri
, Christophe's Republic contained 261,000, and Christoson, was found murdered. 'He wept bit- phe's portion 240,000 souls (reckoning terly when assassinated. The Duke of 1000 whites, 20,000 coloured, and 480,000 Fort-Royal cried out to the last, Vive blacks); but M. Ritter considers these numHenri Christophe roi d'Hayti.'
Duke bers too high; that Christophe's portion
does not comprise more than 160,000, inclu- take place in the church, but his partisans ding the military (15,000 men,) and that who repaired thither were courteously asthe coloured race are also overrated, they sisted to traverse the building to the oppohaving greatly diminished under negro su- site door, for their exit, being entirely rePremacy:
The males of this part he com- lieved from the labor of giving their putes at but 30,000, there being from 5 to 6 votes. The government candidate was women in every house. The general po- thus elected. pulation of the island since the Union, as he If any thing, however, could give addiaffirms, by later calculation is found to con- tional strength to the certainty felt in Eusist of 700,000 souls; this is probably cor- rope of the purity of ballot votes, it would rect, as a medium, but we believe there is be, we presume, the fact, that the first
gogreat reason to doubt the accuracy of every vernment candidate was elected by a maexisting statement on the subject, as they jority so satisfactory as to have five more differ from 360,000 to 1,000,000, and there votes than there were voters present; and seem to be no means of verifying by census. the phenomenon had the merit of recurThe military force amounts now by the best rence on a larger scale, the second candiaccounts to somewhere about 30,000 effec-date proposed in the government interest tive troops, bold, hardy, and fairly trained to outnumbering his own voters by twenty arms; the fleet consists, as we learn from votes. the same source, of but a few sloops or We are happy, however, to record the schooners, though there are an admiral, a progressive improvement of the natives on vice-admiral, and captains, lieutenants, &c. various points, since the time that M. Ritter in due proportion.
visited them, and even since Mr. MackenThe natural productions of Hayti, and zie. The revolting licentiousness of Chrisparticularly its Flora, are extremely rich; tophe and Dessaline had corrupted the inof the latter M. Ritter goes into details, for ferior classes by the open profligacy of the which we must refer the reader to the vo- court; the police was indifferent, education lume itself. The plates are slight, and of was at a low ebb, the post was signally imlittle value as works of art; but they are perfect, the roads and bridges few, and in from the drawings of a native, and give the worst possible condition, the press idle, faithful representations of the scenery. and the newspapers latterly abolished. All
We may add here a few particulars this has, by degrees, been ameliorated, from other authentic sources than M. Rit. though there is far from any approach to ter's volume.
perfection at the present day. The free coThe English nation, it appears, is fa- loured race, too, that had been held by the vourably regarded by the Haytians, and French absolutely as public property, in indeed looked upon both in the light of a spite of their freedom, and in consequence natural ally and a commercial friend; but subjected to compulsory service in the miall European and other nations whatever litia and militia-police, prevented from bearare prohibited from proprietorship of land ing the names of their white parents, exthere, the 38th article of the Constitution cluded from the public service and liberal of 1816 expressly excluding aucun blanc, professions, even as apothecaries and schoolquelle que soit sa nation, from putting foot masters, and obliged to pay a tax for rein the Haytian territory, à titre de mailre pairs of roads, have now assumed a fair ou de propriétaire. A native Albino, ive station in society, and led the way to much presuine, would be equally excluded; but it improvement. The historians of the counseems that all Haytian citizens are to be try have sprung from this class, and histocalled blacks, even though some of them ry is the basis of national elevation. are whites.
The position of Hayti is perfectly novel We add a whinsical illustration of the in political history, but its advancement in working of the Ballot system and Univer- civilization may not impossibly be retarded sal Suffrage, from a land where they are to by the result and even progress of the nebe found flourishing in all their glory. gociations now pending with France. On
Criminals, idiots, and domestics, are the there we must bestow a few words, premionly persons who cannot give a vote, but it sing, however, that the tranquillity latterly appears that there is a mode of nullifying, enjoyed by Hayti is still far from having or rendering nugatory, this privilege developed to any extent the sources of her where it is possessed. Some emigrants domestic prosperity; and that an utter imfrom America, which supplies Hayti with possibility of ineeting the demands of the a reasonable proportion of citizens yearly, mother country may, if these are insisted wished to elect a Methodist preacher as on, as they seem likely to be, produce a one of the representatives. The elections crisis in the island. Notwithstanding their
terror of commotions so deeply recorded in blood in their short but sanguinary annals, Art. v.-Sanchuniathonis Historiarum the name of France is far from endeared 10 Phæniciæ libros novem, Græce versos a the Haytians, and their indignation at the
Philone Byblio, edidit Latinaque verterms of the treaty acknowledging their in. sione donarit F. Wagenfeld. (The dependence is embittered by the recollection Nine Books of Sanchoniatho's History of the troubles incurred in achieving it. of Phænicia, translated into Greek by It is not a little remarkable that the French Philo-Byblius; revised and accompanied and Dutch, the one so courteous and ur
with a Latin version by F. Wagenfeld.) bane, the other so cautious and phlegmatic Bremæ, 1837. at home, should so entirely change their
Our readers will recollect that, in our 37th national characteristics in their colonies, Number, we noticed, with severest censure, and run into extremes of so dark and fatal an absurd farrago of ignorant puerilities, a tendency.
put forth by one Frederick Wagenfeld, of The expedition now preparing under Bremen, who was, " like Cerberus, three Admiral Mackau for Hayti, and which is gentlemen at once,” and brought forth his reported to take out MM. Maler and Des authentic volume without an authentication, Cases, as negociators for the payment of save the auspicious omen of a hundred alithe French claims of indemnity which they ases, of name, place, &c. Strongly as such themselves had arranged with the govern- a mode of proceeding might claim our conment of 1820, can scarcely be attended with sidence, we were not at the time, disposed success if it urge the acquittance to the full to give it all the credit which the ingenious amount of so many millions of francs. A discoverer of lost histories demanded for very large deduction and a considerable ex- bis bantling. We even asked, as did the tension of time may enable the Haytians to Arab sceptics of Mahommed, a few more liquidate a part, but we venture to predict miracles io confirm those already offered to that neither the national resources nor the us. The sequel proves we were not wholnational feeling will allow the execution of ly unreasonable, for, En, iterum Crispinus! terms so onerous as those proposed by their the complete work of Sanchoniatho is prestill hated former masters. Beyond the sented to our eyes, and affords, not precisemischief of coast attacks, the islanders have ly in truth the line of marvels that we had little to fear; their own obstinate courage, recommended, but others equally numerous, the heat of their climate, and the formida impossible, and satisfactory.
What can a ble array of diseases, varying with every single critic, whose only weapon is his pen, month, are the sure safeguards of Hayti perform against a host, a joint-stock compafrom European aggression.
ny of Historical Spectres; a partnership We must here close our notice of this in- of Ghosts and Men, with wands, jugglers, teresting volume, which will probably soon snakes, swords, and other things to be swalmake its appearance in English. Since the lowed; of Entities and Non-entities, who, authority of Boyer was established over under the firm of Sanchoniatho, Philo-Bybthe island, improvement of course has not lius, Wilde-Wagenfeld, and Company (of failed to accompany political emancipation. how many we know not,) commence busiThe black, recovering from his degradation, ness as booksellers of the nineteenth cenbegins to feel the value of personal inde tury, in some possibly Preadamnite Row, and pendence; cultivation and commerce are take out a patent for reviving History hermaking rapid strides, and Hayti promises self, after the most approved principles of fairly for civilization; but though the blacks the Humane Society? With such an array of the other islands may regard its freedom against us, we must yield of course; recant with anticipations of assistance, it must be conviction, deny proof, abjure reason, and long before Hayti can pretend to render be satisfied for the rest of our lives to dem. them any
serious aid. At present this is onstrate falsehood, and feel grateful for those impracticable, and we ourselves know with bland obscurations which so agreeably recertainty that the applications secretly made lieve our aching eyes from the inconveni. on this head have been entirely discounte- ent radiance of truth. Let us hope that nanced as hopeless and impossible by the the present volume is only the precursor of enlightened President.
others similar; that, from their extant frag. ments, Berosus, Abydenus, Alexander Polyhistor, Manetho, Lysimachus, Hecatæus, Hanno, and so many other writers whose loss we deplore, may be completed, restored, and referred to their proper classes, by the plastic labours of this German historical
Cuvier; and that, together with the lost | ers of his former statements : to show that portions of Polybius, Tacitus, Herodotus, Germany was not Portugal, nor Bremen Ammianus, &c. &c., band of heroic sis- the Convent of Santa Maria Merinhao; nor ters may rise, like the resusticated nuns at his native post-office a foreign messenger; the will of Robert the Devil, to dance upon nor a modern water-marked paper an anthe theatre of antiquity in honor of Mr. cient roll, (like that of Ezekiel, somewhat Frederick Wagenfeld. Or if only the irre- bitter of digestion ;) nor Quirl and Son of trievable and most apocryphal of such Osnaburgh still living paper-manufacturers, works demand the care of the publishing but extant in the sixth century; nor his own committee aforesaid, we may trust to see self-contradictions mutual corroborations ; the supposed originals of the Mosaic nar. nor he himself, instead of a tangible man, rative, the possible book in which Job wish- a kind of quintiform essence, resolving, as ed his words to be written, the memoranda occasion required it, into Sanchoniatho; from which Isaac is imagined to have writ. Philo-Byblius : Joannes Perreiro, Eques; ten that poem, and the letters(?) which Bel F. Wilde; and Frederick Wagenfeld. It lerophon bore from Prætus to Jobates. If, is possible, however, that this multifarious however, it is Egypto-Phænician narrative unity suspected the world might arrive at alone that we may expect, the books of such a conclusion without his assistance. Thoth and the thiriy-six thousand volumes Assuredly he has given none, for thus runs of the Hermesians will satisfy us for the the preface of F. Wagenfeld, of Bremen :present.
This reported discovery of the original “Last year, when I edited some exmanuscript of Sanchoniatho naturally cre-tracts from the Commentaries on Phæniated great excitement in the literary world; his native tongue, and rendered by Philo
cian History, written by Sanchoniatho in and the interval suffered to elapse between
into Greek, some learned men, after provthat discovery and the publication of the ing the authenticity of the original, anvolume before us has added, what was nounced, both in private and public, that probably wished, something of interest to the text was the ancient writer's, true and the promised novelty, but not exactly in the authentic.” shape most calculated to ensure success; for though a high name in German Scho.
We confess we read the German opinlarship ushered the reputed abridgement of ions that were published very opposite to the work before the public, yet doubts were
this; but of course a native's interpretation every where expressed, and scepticism, as
should be more accurate than ours. He we formerly stated, was rife as to the au- then proceeds to state that the professor we theniicity of the production.
The German have alluded to, (and whose name, since his papers devoted to literature avowed their son has made the due amende to the public, disbelief of the story of discovery; those of we need not re-print, though our hero France treated it with contempt; in Eng. makes no delicacy about it,) greatly assistland the tale was scarcely noticed, and an ed him in explaining the more unintelligiEnglishman it was who ascertained the ble, and substantiating the incredible, porfact, that the convent in Portugal reputed tion,—no trifling task, we opine, as the to have preserved the volume, had no exis matter stands, and deserving not less gratetence whatever. In addition, as we noticed ful mention than certain other assistance to our readers, the son of the professor who from the same quarter, which M. Wagenhad aided the publication itself, gave, alu feld has omitted altogether to refer to. From most contemporarily with its appearance, a
the celebrity and talents of his coadjutor, series of letters and documents, including M. Wagenfeld conceives the facts arrayed the judgment of several eminent German against himself to be of no consequence; scholars, disprovivg the pretended circum- and sagely, therefore, dispenses with the stances, and discrediting the book with the labour of resuting them, “lest he might public. The complete work has now ap
seem to waste his oil and his ink!" (ne olepeared however, and, we are bound to say,
um et operain perdidisse videar;) a conclu. in a form, and under circumstances, that car sion with which we cordially agree. ry their own conviction. Our readers shall
We are gratified, however, to find that the judge for themselves.
shade of the departed historian is not insenIt was certainly incumbent on M. Wag- sible to the remonstrances of friendly criti
cism. enfeld, who, during the years 1835 and
With a knowledge of German and 1836, figured in as many habitats as a Per- English, extremely praiseworthy in a Phesian is non-age, and under as many
nician desunct so many centuries before ei. names as a Japanese in the process of ma
ther language existed, Sanchoniatho has turity, to make some reply to the impugn: remodeled bis veracious narrative, in de