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ference to modern remarks, since the pub- riety of other equally interesting and imlication of M. Wagenfeld's abridgement. portant points unexplained. We hear from Thus, we are personally flattered, by seeing him nothing of the discovery, nothing of that the Song of the Royal Scribe of Zidon, the convent, nothing of its name, of the MS., to which we ourselves took the freedom of the fac-simile, nor even of the doubts and objecting (No. xxxvii. p. 188,) as misplaced circumstances that have attended the whole in the mouth of a native, was (subsequently) process. Practised liars, we know, always uttered by a hostile warrior, whose swan- avoid the lie circumstantial, as the most like energies were called forth by death, difficult to support; but this never can rethough the exact tune to which the words ter to Mr. Frederick Wagenfeld. Nor are were sung, and the proper accompaniment, we furnished as before, with the Zidonian are unfortunately both wanting. We have, array and navy list, the double list of soveof course, no means of ascertaining the reigns, after the fashion of the Saxe-Gotha mode of notation in those days, nor the almanack, nor the geographical memoranstyle of the ancient Phænician Melodies, da. Possibly these will be published sepunless, with Sir W. Betham, we conclude arately, with Statistical Tables, and, for them to be Irish. If so, Moore, Stevenson, aught we know, a Trigonometrical Survey and Bunting, will be doubly welcome to us from the same hand. For all this, and for henceforth. We fain would suggest, how the country of the shepherds, we can afford ever, that some of the character on the Bab- to wait; but we must confess our solicitude ylonian seals, and which Mr. William to know how it happens that the German Price, in his Persepolitan researches, so lu- condensation is occasionally longer than the minously discovered to be a musical alpha- entire passage; or why the Inhalt

, i. e. conbet of the Pehlivi(!) would furnish the de- tents, is so olten verbatim with the comsideratum in question; and that thus the plete narrative. We are anxious too to "Book of the Songs of Zidon” might be learn why the German abridgment, the now published with advantage, arranged, Latin translation, and the Greek text, each and with variations, for the piano-forte : severally contain passages nowhere to be such a work could scarcely fail of becoming met with in the two others. Compare pp. popular,

32, 39, 45, 167, 186, and also 82 of the The posthumous knowledge which the German, with 158-9 of the original, and foregoing correction evinces is admirably these varieties are common throughout the illustrated by a passage at the close of the work. But the most astounding fact of all first book, p. 18, which we have subjoined, these marvels is, that the German abridgand in which Sanchoniatho (in a strain of ment is actually longer than the entire work, singularly German philosophizing), dis in the proportion of 107 to 101, (for we cusses the Cyclic poets and literature of the have had the curiosity to count;) and this, Greeks. We are not quite certain, howev- not merely from the greater compr. ssion er, that the merit of this foresight properly of the Latin and Greek, but from containbelongs to Sanchoniatho; since, as he abridg. ing more incidents than either of the origied his history from the books of Thoth, the nals from which it is derived. passage in question may be taken from the But our readers may wish to see some latter : and hence we cannot positively de extracts from the volume, and judge for cide whether it was Egyptian or Phænician themselves of the light it is calculated to ears that were familiarized thus early, in throw on doubtful points of antiquity :every sense, with Grecian mythology and "Sydyc also had children, the Dioscuri, or fables, a few centuries before Exodus and Cabiri, or Corybantes, or lastly, Samothrathe Cadmean importation of letters. ces"—the eternal seu of the Latin, and of

If so much courtesy was shown to our the original, being equally elucidatory of objection above cited by the original histo- whether these various denominations were rian, we are equally bound in gratitude to synonymous, as implied above, or only parnotice that his Greek translator has follow- tially so, as is more probably conjectured. ed the example. In the German Abridg Referring to the "Saturnia Regna,” Sanment, it is true, the proper names are given, choniatho, the Phænician, thus, and before as we noticed, in the Hebræo-Chaldaic the Trojan war, philosophizes on history in character, but Philo-Byblius himself has lofty disdain of anachronisms :politely expunged them subsequently from the second original MS., in which they are ' But the Greeks, beyond all nations the nowhere to be found! Thai M. Wágen- most polished and mentally refined, at feld ever got them at all, therefore, is to us

first, in truth, assumed several of these a matter of unfeigned admiration.

correct (details) as their own; till, wishThis gentleman, however, has left a va. Igraces of fable, they subsequently exag

ing to charm ears and intellects by the

gerated them beyond measure, by novel y passengers could traverse without wetting and multitarious additions, and an acces their feet, and which were pointed out by sion of ornaments. Hence Hesiod, and great columns erected on the banks.” the cyclic poets,* turning every thing into fable, claimed for Greece the wars, &c. of We must insert a specimen of the poetic; Giants and Titans, overwhelming, the namely, a lamentation, which we presume truth itself everywhere by their boastings. the Phænician historian either himself in. Our ears, accustomed from infancy to dited, or else copied from the Book of Songs, their fictions, and pre-occupied by notions whatever that might be, for his history; or, bued with the falsehood, retain, as I have possibly, took down stenographically from already said, what from that time gathers the speaker's own lips :strength and fortifies itself in the mind : so that to expel it becomes extremely dif “The wood rings with the voice of him ficult, and fact itself of no avail, while who bewails the fate of his brother. The spurious and fabricated narratives obtain heights of the mountains hear the wailing, its place and estimation.”

and the rocks re-echo it. Brother, arise,

this is not the time for slumber; let us go, We are favored with a collateral proof, that we may comfort our mother. But he we presume, of the biblical narrative res- neither hears me calling, nor beholds my pecting the cities of the Plain, as follows :

tears. A youth came to me, saying, 'Thy

brother has been devoured by wild beasts “ Amorius staid in the kingdom of Sidi- I find on thy face a wound inflicted by a

on the mountains; but, hastening hither, mus, who built the city of Sidumi in a fertile spot. This city was surrounded by sword; and well I know him who slew many springs producing asphaltum. This him with the sword; but me shalt thou he collected, and sold to merchants going find armed.'» to Egypt; and thus Amorius obtained ample wealth."

There is another of these lachrymatory But there was a great war in Egypt, and, effusions, where we find the Latin supplyTaaut remaining victorious, many of the ing an additional sentence to the Greek, inhabitants fled. The first troop of these and presume that Philo left the original fugitives, meeting those who were bringing passage for M. Wagenfeld to render, or that

he asphaltum to Egypt, employed them as possesses also Sanchoniatho's own MS., guides, and came thus to the territory of by which to correct the Greek version of Sidimi. Amorius bestowed on them some

the translator; for of course no one can, sterile land, which they rendered fertile, by after the preface, imagine these variorum digging a canal ; but having, it seems, built readings to be the lucubrations of the Gera temple to their gods, tivo images of bulls, man discoverer himself

. But we must pass and refusing to exchange these for the de- over this, to notice an incident where we ities of the country, he destroyed the

frankly confess ourselves unable to deter

men, and carried off the women, children, and mine whether the interest of the narrative, riches to Sidimi, whereupon,

the sagacity of the parties, the novelty of

the occurrence, or its importance to history, “Sidimus, beholding this wealth, seized be most admirable. The Armenian moun. it by force ; 'drove Amorius, who took the tains were inhabited by prophets, or sages, proceeding amiss, from the city, and col- of no ordinary talent, as the event will show. lected the asphaltum himself.' Amorius, Barcas had married the beautiful virgin retaining the bulls, fled to Chittium, but Nebrana, who indulged, it seems, the beaubeing near perishing with hunger by the tiful and virgin propensity of being drunk He answered, he should be punished every day (avà rãoаv mpépay thirt yevopevny roll through the medium of his own sin, and prov) but, falling sick, the happy husimmediately cast fire on the asphaltum; band, unable to procure a physician, thus all that inhabited the place were de- sent to the sages in question to learn what stroyed-Sidimus, his children, city, and remedy was to be employed in the case of cattle, so that not one escaped, and the this novel and unheard-of disorder. They plain of Sidim was submerged. In its

swered, that wine was a most salutary place stood a lake, ever clouded with vapors; without fish, and unnavigated by liquor, and easy of digestion, and that à vessels; the shores uninhabitable from man, coming home and finding his wife intheir sterility; fords everywhere which toxicated, might easily restore her by beat

ing her with any stick. But by the time

the scribe had returned to the king, Nebra• The original is—ivbev_ Hoíodos of te kunderoi na had already anticipated the simple remπεριηγημένοι θεογονίας και Γιγαντομαχιας ιδίας και | edy by dying, “drunk beyond measure." εκτομές, δίς συμπεριφερόμενοι εξενίκησαν την αλήθειαν. With such details of trifles, it cannot be

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VOL. XX.

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imagined that historical points should occu- tiquities may one day solve a question be py much attention with the historian Weyond the power of M. Wagenfeld to set a find that the art of swallowing the sword rest. The book of Taaut, we nevertheles was known in that day at Babylon, though suspect, would hardly contain the history omitted by Voltaire in his "authentic hisio. of those who lived after his death, and who ry of its Princess and Court: but we do were neither his cotemporaries, descennot find the problem of the Shepherd Kings dants, nor countrymen; nor was Taaut nesolved by this concise and authentic relation. cessarily gifted, we presume, like his com

We would suggest in passing, that an patriot Sanchoniatho, with the faculty of cient history usually narrated the acts of writing volumes some centuries after his the great and of nations, not little anecdotes own decease, to supply the lacuna of subof tea-table scandal in private life, nor de sequent historians through the medium of tails of the feats of jugglers and mounte M. Wagenfeld of Bremen. banks. The story of the bull, at pp.32, 33, wants nothing but the cock to establish it in our estimation ; and the passage respecting Cadytis (in the German) bears a marvel. lous verbal coincidence with the passage at p. 97 of the German translation of Rask Art, VI.—Curtosttiés Historiques de la on the Egyptian Chronology; the more re

Musique, complément nécessaire de la

Musique mise à la portée de tout le Monde. markable, as it must have been written some thousand years previous to the latter work. As there is so much that is really amusing

Par M. Fetis. 2 tomes. Paris. We formerly referred to the Greek, we and interesting in the records of past days now must notice M. Wagenfeld's Latin in remote countries, and as the zeal exhibstyle, which assuredly is not such as to ited by many experienced writers in bringraise his reputation for scholarship any ing to light bidden treasures on subjects where out of Phænicia at the present day; connected with art and literature so exactly see pp. 69, 77, and 125, for specimens, and tuo enim Taanto iisque,” &c. The veri-ele, although professedly on a mnsical subparticularly the passage beginning Mor: corresponds with the ideas of the enlighi

ened critic and reader, we may in this arti. similitude of the following is remarkable.

ject, crave the attention of the poet, the his“ After the death of Taaut and his de

corian, and even the learned; while we scendants, the Egyptian kings, waging treat, in rather a desultory manner, of the war against the shepherds dwelling near poetry and song of the olden time, endeavthe sea, were conquered. Many perished ouring to prove the eastern origin of both. in the contest. Those who fled, shut them Although but auxiliaries in the great selves up in a large city, where they were drama of life, melody and shyme have so besieged by the shepherds, and suffered highly contributed to the progress of civiliextreme misery, so that numbers died ofzation, by humanizing the mind, and prehunger. But when they were reduced to the utmost extremity and want of every paring the way for the acumulated advanthing, a certain priest invented scythed- tages of the present times, that we can hardchariots, and laid the invention before the ly estimate the great effect they have bad king. The king, causing 100 to be built, on the formation of character and the sucquickly conquered the enemy, and reco cess of enterprize. Connected with these, vored the whole country possessed for- we may notice the two volumes by M. Femerly by Taaut, driving out all the shep-tis, the title of which heads this paper, a herds. He could not, however, take the work exhibiting much sound musical impregnable fortress on the sea-shore. Thus the Egyptians, first of all nations, knowledge and extensive reading, and disemployed scythed-chariots.

playing that lively yet solid style, which * The conquered shepherds quitted characterizes all his writings. Instead of Egypt, and many turned to Arabia, where analyzing his volumes, the object we have were large uninhabited tracts

in view will be better advanced by giving Many went to the mountains, &c. to the all the information we can from memorangiants Many built themselves ci- da we have long been collecting, in the ties, infested the mountains, and, procuring horses and chariots,' spread fear | hope that some qualified person among our amongst their neighbors. The Indauri

literati

may be induced to take up the suband Asibuni derive their origin from them. Tject. All these things are described in the book Among the musical curiosities that the of Taaut."

passion for discovery has lately brought to This is a very convenient reference. The

* In the "Humble Suggestions to his Countryeager inquiries making into Egyptian an men who believe in the one True God," by Pril

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light, there are two that claim particular|companions, with the almost modern chantnotice. The first was among the Manu- ant air of “ J'ai encore à tel pastè," sung scrits du Roi* in the Royal Library at Pa- by the character of Robin in this curious ris, of four collections of songs and other work. It is conjectured that he learnt from pieces, by, a Troubadour of the name of the Italians tho principles of this art, which Adam de la Hale, known also by the ap- at that time were not even dreampt of in pellation of Le Bossu d'Arras, on account France. of his deformity, and the place of his na The next musical curiosity we shall notivity. He was born about 1240, and died tice, is one that carries us still farther back at Naples 1287. Like all the Trouba- into the dark ages and into the East; un. dourst of the twelfth and thirteenth centu- doubtedly the nursing mother of modern ries, Adam de la Hale was born a poet and poetry and romance.f Among the MSS. in a musician. Among these MSS., highly the British Museum there is one called important to musical history, are twelve of Cantici erotici Arabice cum notis 1st his songs for three voices, and six motetts. cæ,” No.3114 in the Ayscough Catalogue;* The songs have the form of the rondeau, it is a collection of very curious Arabic and are entitled Li rondel Adam. The love-songs, hymns, &c. set to music! The motetts are composed of the plain chant of | date of this volume is 1060; there is a a hymn or anthem, set as a bass to Latin Latin index, from the items of which a wri. words, upon which to other voices make ter in the late "Quarterly Musical Review," a sort of florid counterpart. Le ssu d'Ar. who discovered this curiosity, proves the ras, it appears, is the author of the most existence of counterpoint among that peoancient comic opera known to exist; it is ple. The specimen he adduces is a very entitled Le Jeu de Robin et de Marion, and rude one certainly; but when the scarcity, twenty-five copies have been printed by the or rather total want, of information at that society of Bibliophiles, of Paris, for distri- remote period is considered, this book must bution among its members. This work was be deemed a rarity worth translating,t not composed at Naples, about the year 1285, for the amusement of the court, which at that period consisted almost entirely of na * The Arabs had rhyme, according to Dom tives of France.

Calmet,“ before the time of Mahomet, who died The appearance of free melody in this

532, and in the second century used a kind of po

etry in measure similar to the Greek, and set to pristine opera is very extraordinary, when music.” (See Dr. Burney's History, vol. ii. p. we consider the time of its composition, and 227.) In a note to the above passage, the Doctor compare the dry, psalmodic, semi-barbarous observes, “If this were proved, it would fortify style of the Troubadours, Adam de la Hale's History of Poetry, vol. i.), that modern poetry and

Mr. Warton's ingenious idea (Dissertation on romance were brought into Europe from Arabia

at the time of the crusades Chivalry had the sunnu Koomar Thakoor, Calcutta, 1823, there is same origin; and if the wild adventures of knights a passage which, is considered as authority, will errant, with which the first romances were filled, settle the long-disputed point as 10 which is the are oriental, the rhymes in which they are clad greatest personage in a concert-the singer, the may be derived from the same source." composer, or the conductor :

† There is a Latin introduction to this book, as " The divine hymns, Rik, Gatha, Panika, and follows :-"Compingere sic solent illos libros in Dubshubieta, should be sung, because, by their quibus miscellaneæ volunt annotare, et præsertim constant use, man attains snipreme beatitude. He quæ ad Poesin el acute dicta pertinentwho is skilled in playing on the lute (veena), who

" In exteriore libri incissura habentur hæc:is intimately acquainted with the varions”tones Ad latus dexterum, literis majoribus, Dominus ac and harmonies, and who is able to beat time in Possor. Ad lalus superius, Ali Bey Esanturii, music, will enter without difficulty upon the road sive Cymbalista. Ad latus sinistrum, A Musicis to salvation."

C. accepta collectanea libri Imperatoris Muham* See a more detailed account, with specimens med Anno (vti ego conjicio) 1060. of the three-voice song, page 218, of the Harmoni

Among the subjects of Songs in the Index, are: con for 1827. The MSS. are numbered 65 and

“De Expeditione Babylonica;" 66, Fonds de Cange; No. 2736, Fonds de la Val

"Carmine ex Warsagi ;" liére ; 7604, Anciens Fonds.

“De expugnationibus civitatis Babylonica ;" † In a late number of " The Musical World,"

" In quendam rebellem nomine Kaidar;' it is stated that Colin Muset, the Jongleur, has the

“ Telrastichon Arabicum, quod super gladio repntation of having invented the Vaudeville,

Mahommedi Prophetæ inscriptum fuisse and round or dance song. Other authority ascribes

tradunt;" the invention to Olivier Basselin, of Vire, who besides many on the Turkish and Persian expelived in the beginning of the thirteenth century. ditions, which would surely prove of some interest He was a fuller, and resided in the Vaux, or val. to many who are studying the history of those leys below Vire, where he and his workmen used

countries, to sing songs of his composition as they spread out

I Vol. viii. p. 308. their cloth along the banks of the river. Some of

Ś The spirii and good feeling which influences these, being published, were called Vaux-de-Ville, every other government but our own in the cause afterwards contracted to Vaudeville.

I of literature is manifest from the announcement

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only for the poet and musician, but even the struments ? Who is to say in what style historian, as it cannot be too strongly insist the best poetry of that people was written, ed on, that "we must look for the state of whether in rhyme, blank verse, or a mixed our forefathers in their ancient rymes, which measure partaking of both ? Certainly served as their memorials and annals.It there is no recorded instance of either the is well known to the student of oriental lit- Greek or Roman writers using rhyme, but erature, that the language and poetry of they dealt largely in tropes and figures, the Arabs had attained a high degree of mostly drawn from natural objects, so did cultivation even in the sixth century of our the Eastern poets; they used the most outcra,

There is little doubt, from an inspec. rageous hyperboles, and offended decency tion of their musical instruments, that poe- in their mythological allusions, so did the try went hand-in-hand with

song; and

any Eastern poets, long before the Roman era. one who has looked over that superb work, And notwithstanding all the refinement, the

Murphy's Arabian Antiquities of Spain," profound erudition, and the classical Latini-
must feel convinced that architecture is ty of the great poets and historians, yet as
equally indebted to this primeval nation for far as imagination is concerned after all
beauty of structure and elaboration of or- the highest ingredient of poetry-we have
nament, which have (variously modified) the best authority for believing that the Ara-
served as patterns to very many architects bians possessed that quality in an extraordi-
of succeeding ages. The indefatigable nary degree:-
spirit of inquiry that now pervades every
class of writers must surely tend to bring

" Obvious reasons may be assigned to light, at no distant period, some more cer- why imagination should be susceptible of tain proofs of the taste, ingenuity, and

culture at a period when the intellectual sical knowledge of that extraordinary na powers, which require the aid of experition, and may tend to confirm a favourite continue in infancy, and the very peculi

ence and observation, must necessarily hypothesis of ours, that the music of the arities which, in such circumstances, its Egyptians,t Greeks, and Russians, is de productions exhibit, although they would rived from Arabia.

justly be regarded as blemishes in those It is well known that the Romans traded of a more refined age, may interest the extensively with the Indian markets, and philosopher, and even please the critic, as from thence as far as Ocilis on the Arabian characteristical of the human-mind in the

earliest stages of its progress.” coast; may they not have imported some of the Arabic music, poetry, and musical in

No modern poet has given to the world

imagery more splendid, vivid, and effective, in our 36th number, of the publication of a series than that used in such profusion by the Per of oriental works, with translations, in 410., by the sian, Arabian, and Hindostanee writers : Imprimerie Royale at Paris.

* There is another work on Arabia which is seldom met with, by Sam. Ockley; it is entitled History of the Conquest of Egypt, Persia, Syria,

* Names of the musical instruments in Arabia:; &c. by the Saracens. Watts (in the Bibliotheca Arghan (oigan); Assaf, Berbekia (species of lute) Brittannica) mentions that, in the latter part of this Bouk (horn of chase); Tsai, Dab, dab, (drum) work, there is an entertaining account of the man- Dirridge (do.); Zendge (drum); Zill (cymbals, ners and customs of the Arabians. The Antho- ivory, castagnets); Siriané, Sefakis, Schahin, logle Arabe, by G. de Lagrange, Paris, 1828, is Schebbour (horn, of the Hebrews); Schebbié, well worth consulting, by those who may have Schebbabe, (flageolet); Schoulbak, Schoulschoul, leisure and inclination to pursue inquiries on this Schizan, Saffarè, (flute); Thahl (drum); Artab subject; likewise Bibliotheca Arabica, by Schuur- (species of lute); Azf (stringed instrumeni]; rer; and in the Cotton MSS. (British Museum) Ghirbal (lambour de Basque); Kossah [flute]; there are some Arabic:- Nero, B. x. 776, B. 18. Kadhib (Chalumeau or Alp horn]; Kinrim Galba, A. ix. x.

[harp]; Kiz, Kieber, [kind of drum); Kiran (lute † Mr Campbell is of opinion that there is some or mandoline); Kitsarat, Kierhé, Kiemhr, Kincontradiction in the accounts we have of the state maré, (guitar, Kinnor of the Hebrews] ; Kious of art and science among the Egyptians." Their stymbale d’airain); Kitsar (guitar or harp, the temples echoed not to the sound of instruments, Katros of the Hebrews); Kiaz (six-stringed inand their sacrifices were performed in silence; staument); Mizher [lute] ; Mizmar (flute, the yet it is incredible that music and poetry should Nizamroth of the Hebrews); Mossasik (kind of have been proscribed among them, as Dío Chry- lute); Mousikal (Pan's pipes); Mizef (stringed sostom asserts. They had pipes and lyres,* and instrument); Nakib (Alute, the Nakavim of ihe a people possessing instruments. yet destitute of Hebrews]; Hounboukat [kind of Aute] ; Heirat vocal and verbal melody, is a thing unimaginable: [shepherd's pipe); Vann (psaltery); Venedge so that the song among them, which Herodotus [lute. mentions, could not have been their only one."

† “ The similes form a very peculiar feature of Letter to the Glasgow Students.

the Iliad. Of these there are more than 200, and

there is hardly one of the number that has not * M Champollion sent to the Louvre a harp, been imitated nearly as many times."--H. N. Cole3ft. 8in. high, with some of the strings, a drum, ridge. like ours, tabor, &c. from Egypt.

I Dugald Stewart.

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