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when the want of rain was felt, a Gallic | no longer. It is only in the chronicles of
maiden used to seek for a venomous plant, the time that we can discover the traces
called belinuncia; after she had found it, of those finished manners, the mellifluous
her companions cut down branches of songs.”
trees, and accompanied her to the first
river, into which she plunged her vegeta Against our supposition that the Russians
ble offering, whilst the others dipped their (and we may add the ancient Celts) derived
branches in the stream to sprinkle her their imagery and music from the east,
body with the sacred fluid."

Pinkerton, we remember, in one of his
We could proceed to many other striking works, furnishes some collateral

proofs that analogies noticed by Guthrie, to show the the northern Celts had flutes, guitars, harps, great similarity between the rites, customs, trumpets, and other instruments, of their and manners, of the Russians and the Asi: own invention ; and he supports his opinion atic nations, but two more will suffice.

by stating that the names of most of them In a remark on one passage of these

are purely Celtic. Using the same kind songs, Mr. Guthrie alludes to the similarity burden of a song, in a Spanish invention,

of reasoning, we might say that the phrase, of the Noël (short vocal pieces) in parts to because the Spaniards call bordone, the conthose sung at the Russian feasts Koleda ; a kind of saturnalia, celebrated about the cluding verses of a song chorussed by the saine time, and he entertains no doubt of company; whereas we know that the same their high antiquity. These people have thing exists in other countries under difalso borrowed from the Romans and modern ferent titles, carol, roundelay, virolay, all Italians many of their customs and plea- meaning the chorus or burden.

In all their ancient musical exhibitions, sutes.

gesture and action accompanied the music. “The Russians, like the ancient Ro- In this lies the grand secret of the art in mans, dine in one room and eat their de- former times: melody, rhyme and measure, sertin another, exactly the bellaria or com- aided by appropriate action, must have pro. missatio of antiquity, and I cannot help duced effects which neither harmonical thinking the Russian name is happily elaboration, nor the augmentation of instruchosen for it; they call it slatkaie zabav- mental power, can ever attain. Simplicity, lenia, the sweet pastime.

“There seems another striking analogy, feeling, and appropriate expression, are so
for I make no doubt that the nuptial filam diluted, overloaded, and mingled, that the
beaux were formerly of fir or pine (our real elements of musical effect lie buried
hutchuika) before the Christian priests in- beneath the accumulated heap of modern
troduced wax tapers, exactly the tæda improvements.
pinea of antiquity.”

From what has been said, it will be con

ceded that much remains to be discovered In “ The Present State of Russia trans before our hypothesis can be fully proved. lated from the High Dutch, 1723,” we If, however, ihe few hints we have ibrown glean some few particulars of their dra- out should induce one competent person matic performances. "The Princess Na. only to look further into the subject, sure we talia once had the direction of a tragedy are it will be an interesting, as in all which, as as well as a farce, were of her probability it will prove a satisfactory, study. composition, a compound of sacred and Content with the humble office of pioneer, profane history. The piece was interspers- we cheerfully endeavor to clear the way for ed with the drolleries of Harlequin."

others, trusting some day to find it "true that Count Segur seems to think that these the wonders of the romances of the knights pleasantries were a revival of those of for of the round table and twelve peers of mer times.

France were transported by Odin from Asia “Under the reign of Boris, Russia be France, and into Russia at the time the

into Scandinavia, thence into England and came sad and sullen; the minstrel who Normans settled themselves in that counhad been wont to traverse the country now disappeared; their songs of war, of try.” the chase,* and even of love, were heard

As it is seldom in this Review that music forms a subject of consideration, we can

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* To those who are curious in such matters we may mention that there is a work extant entitled, * “The words of this piece were said to be "Origin, Progress, and Present State of the Rus- strong and persuasive, partaking alternately of sian Hunting Music,"-in German, by Hein- hope despair, and they were accompanied by rich, Petersburg, 1797, in which the whole system such gestures as made ihe whole intelligible to of this class of melodies is defined and explained. us." See Capt. Jones's Travels in Russia, 1797,

† See article Russia, For. Qua, Review, 1827,

neva.

not close this paper without a just tribute Musicus Autodidactos. 4to. Erfurth. to the memory of Dr. Burney, that clezer 1738.” British Museum. dog, as Dr. Johnson was facetiously pleas Del Resorgimento d'Italia Sig. Betied to call him. It has lately been attempt- nelli. 2 vol. 8vo. (Bassano).” British ed, for about the two hundredth time, to

Museum. revive the hyper-critical assertion, that Dr.

La Galerie de l'Academie Royale de Burney stole all the best parts of his Gene- Musique. 8vo. 1754.” British Museum. ral History of Music from Sir John Haw "Le Beuf (L'Abbé) Traité historique et kins. We have taken pains to ascertain the pratique sur le Chant Ecclésiastique. 8vo.

Paris. 1741." British Museum. falsehood and expose it, and if these parties will look at the 5 vols. 4to. of Hawkins, bequeathed by him to the British Museum, they will find an extract from the Gazetteer of Sept. 23, 1776, announcing the publication of Sir J. Hawkins's book that day, and Art. VII.--Histoire de la Littérature Alat page 21 of the Preliminary Discourse, lemande depuis les tems le plus reculés he says, "at the beginning of this present jusqu'á nos jours, précédée d'un parallèle year (1776) the musical world were favor. entre la France et l'Allemagne. Par ed with the 1st vol. of a work entitled 'A A. Peschier, 2 vol. 8vo. Paris and GeHistory of Music,' by Dr. Burney." Not

1836. to mention this volume, which contains the most elaborate and best digested treatises

This work is intended to fill up a void in extant upon ancient Egyptian, Hebrew, and modern philology, hy giving, in a moderate Greek music; in his preface the Doctor compass, a comprehensive history of Gerexpressly tells us, “ Printed materials lie man literature, from the first rude specimens open to us all; and I spared no expense or of the language to its present high state of pains either in acquiring or consulting cultivation. The literature of Germany is them. With respect likewise to MS. infor- now one of the richest

, and certainly the mation, and inedited materials from foreign most prolific, in Europe; it is the literature countries, few modern writers have perhaps of a country reckoning some forty and odd expended more money and time, undergone millions of people—a country which holds, greater fatigue, or more impaired their together with France, the balance of the health in the search of them than myself;" Continent. It is well to look to this latter by which (if there is any belief in the de- fact, namely, that Germany, with its two liberate assertion of a man whose honor was great monarchies and its other kingdoms never impeached except in this frail in. and principalities, is now more than ever the stance) it is evident that the materials for his great focus of continental diplomacy. Ruswhole work were gathered but not arranged. sia itself, the great scarecrow of newspaper As to Sir John Hawkins' judgment, we politics could not attempt any thing serious, give one of his MS. notes: let the amateur at least in western Europe, but as an auxilior professor decide. Singing follow's so ary of one or both of the two great German naturally the smallest degree of proficiency powers. On the other side, if we look to on any instrument that the learning of both the rational progress in modern society and is unnecessary!1" The following is a list to the spreading of liberal institutions, we of works on the department of music upon find nearly one half of Germany under rewhich we have been touching; they are all presentative governments, which, although accessible to the inquirer, and contain much they may not have attained the expected desirable information hitherto overlooked.

perfection which some people attribute to

the Spanish constitution in 1812, are still, it “ Bévues, erreurs, et misprises de diffé- must be aeknowledged, many steps in adrens auteurs célébrés en matières Musica- vance of the real absolutism of the late Ferles. Par M. Lefebure, 4to. & 12mo. Paris. dinand VII. In short, Germany, notwith1789" British Museum.

standing the grumblers both native and foDe representations en Muisque ancien- reign, is a tolerably happy, thriving, moral, nes et modernes. Par Le Menestrier. 12mo. well-informed contented country, at least as Paris. 1681." Do.

much so as France, and England too. Entretiens sur l'Etat de la Musique Surely such a country and its people, their Grecque au quatrième Siécle. 8vo. Paris, 1777.” Library of the Royal Institution.

manners, opinions and language, and their

literature, which is a reflection of all the " Lettre critique et historique sur la Mu. sique Française, Italienne, et sur les Bouf- rest, ought to be attentively studied by the

| —by fons. 8vo. British Museum.

feels an interest about the general concerns

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of mankind. And yet the language and the monly styled, or, more properly speaking, literature of Gerinany are known both in Romande Switzerland; a land of transition France and England only to a chosen few. between Germany and France, which withIt is astonishing to see the ignorance and out being either French or German, yet parthe indifference that have prevailed, especial. takes of the moral temperament and intellec

That ly in France, until very recently, concern- tual character of boih countries. ing a nation which cannot even be said to be south-west corner of Switzerland, the Vaud, separated from it by the Rhine, for both Geneva, and Neuchatel, the country of the b:inks of that river in Alsace and Lorraine, ancient Burgundians, is like a stepping-stone which are provinces of France, are inhab- between France and German Helvetia, ited by people of German stock, and speak- which latter is itself one of the out-posts of ing German as their vernacular tongue. real Germany. With much of the sound

Madame de Stael was the first who broke judgment, sincerity, and bonhommie of the through the wall which prejudice had rais German character, the natives of Romande ed between France and Germany. Her Switzerland unite the liveliness of imaginawork, “L'Allemagne," although consisting tion, the quickness of repartee, and the of separate sketches, and not forming a con- social refinement of the French. They can nected history, yet eloquently and powerful- therefore appreciate what is valuable in both, ly written, appeared at a time when a wil. and as they belong to a neutral country and ful man wished to fashion all human mind have no national prejudices against either, to a mould of his own. Official reproof and they are likely to be more impartial than eiexile were the rewards of her truly fearless ther in their judgments. But besides this, attempt; for at that time there were real our author has qualified himself for his ungrounds for fear from the displeasure of Na- dertaking by a residence of some years in poleon. Savary's coarse and vulgar sneer Germany, by having visited its principal ciremains an imperishable memorial of the ties, by having mixed freely in German 60system by which the mind was fettered in ciety, by having formed connexions in that those times, through the will of one who country, and becoming in fact almost natuhas been styled the son and champion of the ralized in it. His work bears in its dedirevolution, and who is still looked upon by cation the name of a distinguished and some credulous people as a favorer of liber- highly estimable German writer, Baty. Peace came, and it was no longer trea- ron La Motte Fouquè, which is of itself a resonable to study and admire the productions commendation. The first volume begin of the German or the English muse. Since with an introduction of sixty pages, with then Herder, Schiller, Göthe, Niebuhr, the title “Germany and France." It is an John Paul Richter, Hoffman, and others, original sketch of the disparities between have been translated into French. The the two countries, and is not the least interRevue Germanique and Revue des Etats du esting part of the work. We will quote a Nord have made known the contemporary few passages, which will give the reader an progress of German literature. But still idea of the author's turn of mind and of his how little is known of the great majority style. of German writers, of the learned lucubrations of so many professors of the hundred

«Man is the same everywhere ;' such Gerinan universities and colleges—the pro

has been one of the wise saws of certain found civilians, the abstruse metaphysicians, critics, who, looking at the mere surface the accomplished scholars, the indefatigable general tendencies which are common to geographers and historians, who toil and la- almost all nations. It may be true that on bor for the benefit of future generations ?- the threshold of life men resemble each Savigny, Thibaut, Ritter, Heeren, Boeckh, other; the cradle is the common starting Neander, Schlosser, Böttigger, O. Muller, point of all; but the resemblance stops Hammer and many more, to how few are

there. Climate, manners, habits, religion, they known out of the limits of their own

education, all tend to break the uniform

mould in which nature seems to have cast country?. A work was wanted to class by order of dates and of departments of litera- life, the individuals, one after another, se.

As men proceed along the road of ture the best among the innumerable writers parate themselves from the mass, and each that Germany has produced, in order to im- attains a distinct physiognomy of his own. part some idea of what they have accom- These characteristic features which conplished in their respective walks. This is stitute originality in man, form also the what the book before us has in some degree elements of the individuality of nations, performed. The author, M. Peschier, was of creation. It were a most interesting

which is one of the profoundest mysteries happily situated for such a task. He is a subject for study, to seek out the causes native of Western or French, as it is com- which stamp each people with a peculiar

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character: but this is too vast a field of of thought and of action, by minds alert inquiry for our present work, and we must and supple like their bodies, by a warlike content ourselves with stating here some instinct; to which they owe their brilliant matter-of-fact observations. Two great laurels, and lastly by their taste for pomprinciples exist simultaneously in Europe pous ceremonies, brilliant festivals, and -on one side the spirit of order, stability, splendid monuments. Opposed to this exand unity; on the other the love of pro- istence, wholly external and practical, gressive ideas, of variety, and movement. stands the genius of meditation, which beThese two principles exist together, but in longs to the nations of the North; a chavery different proportions in each of two racter more grave, more reflective, of a neighboring countries which are divided more abstruse nature, an imperative want by the course of the Rhine. In Germany, of diving into one-self, and analyzing the outward calmness and repose prevail, but most sugitive sentiments of the soul. Man, in the moral and intellectual world within, in Germany, is a world in miniature, in there is a continual stimulus for progress which, notwithstanding the discoveries and change. This moral activity, this already made, there remains still some constant desire of extending the sphere of unexplored spot, some frequented and unthe human mind, have earned for Germa: cultivated nook. ny the name of the country of thought. “In France, the rage for politics per.. In France the principle of stability, of fix-vades all classes of society. Proteus like, ity, prevails internally ; but externally it assumes all forms, and protrudes into every thing is under the influence of move- every conversation. But politics fill little ment and variety. Germany has become space in the ordinary existence of the long since the land of intellectual progress, Germans; they are too careful of their while France is the centre of the political material welfare, too fond of a peaceful and social movement ...

The and comfortable home, too accustomed to Germans look upon ideas as the source of an inward life, to have, generally speakall our impressions, whilst the French, ing, much relish for the stormy scenes of placed at the other extremity of the moral public life, for the struggles of the bar, the scale, believe in the sovereign empire of hustings, and the parliamentary debate. sensations over the development of the in- This natural taste of the Germans sor retellect. This dangerous dogma is one of tirement, domestic life, and the silence of the articles of faith of Condillac's philoso- the cabinet, accounts for their reserve and phy, and we all know the influence of that coolness in the social relations, and for metaphysician and his disciples upon the the absence of that free and communicaphilosophers of the eighteenth century, tive gaiety which imparts a charm to who did not scruple at last to strip manof French conversation. Variety and the his soul, and the universe of its Creator. desire of pleasing effect greater wonders Thus, while the head is perhaps too busily on the left than on the right bank of the at work in Germany, and the mind, by Rhine. We often miss in Germany the dint of soaring higher and higher, loses it- elegance of ton, the urbanity of manners self at times in the misty regions of an un- and of language which are so natural to productive contemplation; on the other the French; even the appearance and carside, the doctrine of sensualism, adopted riage of the people in the former country by the French, has led them once already are somewhat stiff and starched. But by a rapid descent to the most deplorable their apparent frigidity is owing to basheffects of a desolating materialism. By fulness, and, instead of a common-place reducing every thing to the miserable pro- gallantry, they have the true politeness, portions of our fragile and perishable na- which is that of the heart; for it is the nature, and trying to explain, mechanically, tion which has most benevolence and corthe phenomena of our intellect, they came diality. The women of Germany are not to consider, in the end, the noblest facul- gifted with that vivacity of spirit and moties of the soul as material and physical bility of imagination which render French gifts. Virtue was no longer the offspring women so fascinating; they have neither of heaven, refined feeling was owing to the prompt repartee of the latter, nor their weakness of organization, and people fan- wonderful sagacity in deciphering the cied that they had discovered, in the pre- most recondite mysteries of the human dominance of certain fluids in our animal heart, nor the tact which gives an original economy, the courage which produces the and refined turn to the expression of evehero, and the self-devotedness which in- ry thouyht. But the women of Germany spires the martyr. They were on the point possess other qualities which endear them of establishing a course of diet and sani- for ever to those who have once deserved tary treatment in order to stimulate or their confidence and obtained a place in modify talent, of putting a strait waist- their friendship; they possess a frankness coat on the poet, and confining genius in and simplicity of heart, a candor of feela lunatic asylum. Such a system cannoting, and an evenness of temper, owing to be favorable to poetry, etc.

a natural fund of indulgence and general "The French are characterized by their benevolence, which is soon perceived in quick intelligence of the affairs of the their intercourse with strangers. world, their diplomatic shrewdness and The prevalent qualities of the French, perspicacity, their mobility, their rapidity are wit and sagacity, but the Germans

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have more soul and more imagination. | kind. Owing to this spiritualism, to this
The former are more sensible of faults prevalence of the soul over the other fa-
than alive to beauties; more fond of art culties, the Germans, even in the midst of
than of nature; quick of impression, they the illusions of their fancy, have always
are also quick in shaping their thoughts, bowed with respect to the great dogmas
but they are likewise, at times, exclusive, of immateriality and immortality, which
wilful, and superficial. The Germans are form the key-stone of the structure of re-
more reflecting, grave, and conscientious: ligion.”
they conceive slowly, and are circumspect
in forming their judgment. Hence it was Through the remainder of this interest-
to be expected that the theory of the fine ing introduction our author traces the influ-
arts should have assumed a very different ence of the national character in the differ-
character among each of the two nations."

ences existing between the German and --Introduction, p. 1–14.

French styles of conversation, their music, The author, in noticing the various their poetry, and lastly their drama. The ses of the French critical art, speaks with whole parallel is remarkably well kept up just praise of Montaigne, Pascal, Nicole,

and clearly defined. Arnauld, and Fenélon. In the 18th centu

After recalling in the first chapter of his ry, however, literary criticism, in France, history the scanty memorials of the ancient gave way to a presumptuous dogmatism, Germans, drawn chiefly from the masterly an impertinent frivolity of judgment, to

sketch of Tacitus, who seems to have been which Voltaire himself lent his then para- of the destinies of that unconquerable race

inspired by a kind of instinctive foreboding mount influence. Our age has seen the revival of a better taste, in proof of which which stood alone opposed to Roman despowe may mention Madame de Stael

, Benja- tism and Roman corruption, our author min Constant

, Guizot, Villemain, Barante, points out the most important distinction beThierry, with a chosen band of young wri tween classical liberty and the liberty of the ters, who follow the track of those

, regard- of antiquity, liberty was collective and not

Among the nations of less of party prejudice and clamor.

personal. The masses were first ranged “As for the Germans, (our author goes into independent political bodies, every inon to say) they move on in the front rank dividual of which was nothing by himself, of the most forward among the nations of but only acquired importance only as a Europe. To criticize the works of the fraction of the great whole. They were great masters, whether in literature or the not free-willed men, but citizens, the slaves arts, is not with them a common vocation, of their country for life and death.” The the 'solution of a mere grammatical or word "patria had a despotic influence; it rhetorical problem ; it is an important and almost apostolic mission. They are not was a sort of divinity to which every thing satisfied with passing judgment on the must be sacrificed, and for which any crime creations of accidental genius, but they or cruelty might be perpetrated without remust re-ascend through the course of ages, morse, and every self-denial or privation and explore the sources of the true princi- endured. There was something grand and no. ples of the art; those principles which are ble, at least to the imagination, in this devoapplicable alike to all times and countries. tedness but it was any thing but individualli

A great critic in Germany stands on a par with a great orator or poet; he berty,the liberty of a rational and responsible enjoys equal respect and equal applause. being. It was fit for men who had no definite He feels what he writes, he sympathizes idea of any thing beyond the grave. In our with a noble thought, a fine action, a ge- own times,men of a similar mind have sought nerous sentiment; his criticism is lofty, to revive this classic liberty, with the magic eloquent and inspired. Germany, in short, words patria, glory, &c., with which they is the country of æsthetics."-pp. 20, 21. " ,

have certainly effected astonishing, but unof Germany, studious, hard labouring profitable and merciless deeds, and only for men, miners of thought, who pass years,

a short space of time; for they found that sometimes perhaps half a century, in so the masses were not so docile as those of litary retirement, without their names be- ancient Rome or Sparta, in their blind ening heard of. They care little about popu- thusiasm and stoic resignation. Men, in larity or fashion; they work, not for a our days, are apt to inquire for what they party, a coterie, a saloon, but through real love of science, supported in their task by dearest ties, and their peace; and an empty

are called

upon to sacrifice their lives, their their enthusiasm for the good, the beautiful, and the useful— for all that is great and word does not always afford to them a con generous in the heart of man-in order to vincing answer. Christianity has greatly pay what they look upon as a sacred debt contributed to effect this moral change: it towards their country, and towards man was Christianity that first recalled man to

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