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manides; for I can open myself a path be accordingly. Schanfara calmly observed, tween Sard and Yarba."

'Such were my deeds;' for in assailing

the Banou-Salaman he was himself wont He pursued his homicidal career, and to say, 'At thine eye,' and sent his arrow the Banou-Salaman sought for revenge on

into it. They now determined to kill him. the slayer in vain. He avoided the ambus-1 Where wilt thou be buried ? they asked.

Of his answer the Arabs have retained but cades of the sons of Ghamid, and was cha

three verses. sed like a fallow-deer, but still without suc “Beware of interring, for you are for

bidden to bury me; but rejoice, Oumm

Amir !* I have good news for thee:“Schanfara had slain ninety-nine of the "When they strike off my head, which tribe of Salaman, and but one was want-contains the better part of me, they will ing to complete his vow, when three men leave the remainder exposed in the field laid an ambuscade in the way to Obaydah, of combat. through which he was to pass.

These "Covered with slaughters that have were Ouçayd, the son of Djabir, the Sala- placed me under ban of the tribes, I look manide, and his nephew, with Hazim, the not here for a joyful existence during the Taymide. Schanfara came at night to the length of night that must pass over me,' place, and, perceiving some dark object(in the grave.)" without being able to distinguish, he sent an arrow at it, for such was his custom at We have room for the following extract night when travelling, if he saw anything from that ancient and singularly characterafar that awakened suspicion. His arrow istic composition, the poem of Schansara, tering from the wrist to the elbow, but the which is now for the first time correctly young man did not utter a breath. 'Schan-given. fara exclaimed, 'If thou art anything, thou hast it: if thou art nothing, at least I have Go, children of my mother, look for not failed of the mark. Hazim lay flat on me no more! Another race must be mine, his belly in a hollow of the path, watching another brotherhood than yours. All with the corner of his eye a favorable mo- awaits your departure. The moon burns ment to spring upon the enemy. Ouçayd in the heavens; your camels' girths are now gave him the signal, saying, 'Hazim, bound:-Go, then, depart, and look for me draw!' but Schanfara hearing him, cried no more! out, ‘I will draw for all,' and fell sabre in "Earth offers a retreat where the heart hand on Hazim, striking off two of his fin- is shielded from sorrows, a refuge for him gers. He, however, had leapt on his feet, who shuns the evil-doer.

Oh, by your threw himself on the assailant, and clasped lives! he who has discernment, who knows him in both arms. Ouçayd's nephew joined the path of the night to seek what he dehim ; but Schanfara threw them both, and sires, or fly what he abhors, for him the fell upon them. Ouçayd came up and dis- earth ever is free and wide. There, in armed the warrior, then, seizing one of the your absence, I have brethren still: the six legs that were struggling together on wolf of tireless speed; the smooth and the ground, he asked, "Whose is this ??— glossy panther; the hyena bristling its 'It is mine,' answered Schanfara. 'Be- hide. These are henceforth my companlieve him not, uncle,' cried the nephew of ions: with them every secret rests undiOuçayd, 'it is my leg that thou holdest in vulged; and the slayer fears not venthine hand.'

geance from the kindred of the slain. All “The adversaries of Schanfara, having those repel insult; all those are brave:mastered his person, took him to their yet are they less brave than I, in encountribe. “Now, then,' said they to the cap. tering the shock of the foremost hostile tive poet, 'recite us one of thy songs.' steeds: where prey is the object I yield,

Recitation,' answered Schanfara, 'suits however, to them, where the hungriest is only with enjoyment. The reply has be- ever the most eager. It is my generosity come a proverb.

that seeks to rise above them, and that as“They struck off one of his hands with piratiori alone renders me their superior. a blow so violent, that it fell at a consi-Three faithful friends shall supply with me derable distance, and quivered some time the place of men who cannot return good with a convulsive motion. He apostro- for good (service for services; and whose phized it thus :

intercourse affords me no advantage, not “Perish not by departing from me, oh even to beguile the time. These friends hand, achieving a fatal task! live forever are, a fearless heart, a gleaming sabre, in the remembrance of men!

and a bow of the Nab wood, long, re““ From how many valleys has it not sounding, yellow, strong, and polished; scared the dores!

garnished with rings to which the baldric “Of how many fierce adversaries has it not scattered the bones!'

Ouçayd, fitting an arrow to his bow, * Oumm-Amir, the hyena, so called familiarly exclaimed, “'At thine eye,' and pierced it by the Arabs,

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is bound. When the arrow leaves its become? Who shall first strike the blow? womb it groans aloud, like a mother be- If ye behold me, oh devouring cares ! like wailing the loss of her little ones.

the reptile of the sands exposed to the “I am not of those shepherds who dread burning sun, with body uncovered and thirst; who, fearing to quit the wells, pas-naked feet, yet learn ye that I retain pature their flocks in places trodden down tience: that I wear her as a cloak without by feet, and where herbage is no longer losing my hyena-heart; and that fortitude green. Their camels' colts are painful to serves me for sandals. behold, though the nipples of their dams “How often on the cold night, when the are not chained.

hunter for warmth burns even his bow and “I am not of those weak and dull hus- arrows, do I take my course through darkbands, who, constantly beside their wives, ness; cold, hunger, wrath, and terror my inform them of all that is done, and con- companions. Yes! I have made wives sult them on all to do :-nor am I of those widows, and children orphans, and reostrich-hearted who rise and sink, as if turned while the night was yet dark. borne on the wings of some little bird : “They say in the morning, 'Our dogs nor of those idlers, the disgrace of their growled last night-I thought, was it a kindred, and fit only for grimaces of love: wolf that prowled near, or a young hye- they who perfume themselves evening na? But they growled only a moment, and morning, and paint their eye-lashes and slept again, till I asked, am I a qata black: nor of the indolent, who hide an or a hawk, waking at every sound? Yet evil behind a good; who can neither fight now we see the fatal cause of that faint in war, nor show hospitality in peace; sound, and what can we think of the murwho bear no arms, and tremble at every derer? If a spirit (jin) came upon us by menace.

night, his visit has been fearful: if a man “I am not of those timorous travellers -but men cannot inflict such losses !'” whom darkness covers with alarm, when, wandering astray in the desert, its vast We repeat it: these historical illustrations plain alone lies before them; without path are more ancient and valuable than even the or track, and without a place for shelter.

ROMANCE OF Antar to the student of his. “When the horny sole of my feet strikes upon flints, it brings sparks of fire, and tory and of antiquity. scatters them with noise.

* To the cries of hunger I respond by successive delays; I disdain and weary it, till at length I destroy it. I turn aside my thoughts and forget it-I swallow in necessity a lump of dry earth, rather than Art. X.-Manifiesto de las Razones que accept hospitality as a debt. “I snatch but a mouthful, and set forth

legitiman la Declaracion de Guerra in the morning like the gaunt gray wolf,

contra el Gobierno del General D whom one solitude leads to another. He

Andres Santa-Cruz, titulado Presidente starts at daybreak, with hunger wrapt in

de la Confederacion Peru-Boliviana, his folding entrails, coursing against the Bunos-Aires, imprenta del Estado. (Mawind, plunging through deepest hollows, nifesto of the Causes that justify the and trotting in unceasing speed.

Declaration of War against the Govern"The dark-plumaged Qatas* arrive but

ment of General Andres Santa-Cruz, to drink what I leave, though they speed

entitled President of the Peru-Bolivian all night on the wing to slake their thirst in the morning. We had set out together,

Republic.) Buenos Ayres, 1837. led by the same want, or to reach the same well. The qatas with flagging wing are

It is not very long since we presented to like runners whose speed is chained (or our readers some particulars of the actual checked) by their flowing robes: while I, condition of Bolivia its rich internal producwhose garment is set by my girdle, pre- tions; its capabilities of foreign commerce; cede them without effort, as the head of its state of internal peace and advance totheir flock.

“Lean as I am, I choose my bed on the wards prosperity; the establishment of bare earth, and rejoice to spread on its institutions such as in all fixed and stable surface the projecting vertebræ of my governments are deemed the basis of social back. My pillow is this bony arm, whose happiness ; its efforts for the extension and protruding joints are like the huckle-bonest increase of a European trade; its formation of the gambler, thrown upon the field. of a civil code, adapted to the exigencies of

“Do war and alarms complain of Schan. the population; the full amnesty granted to fara's absence ? Whose victim shall I

Spaniards; the security offered to them in common with the subjects all other

nations to settle in that territory ; the hon* A bird proverbially swift.

+ Our child's game of huckle-bones is thus evi- orable exemption from national debt and denily of the greatest antiquity in Arabia. frauds; the opening of the norts; and,



lastly, the union of that republic with the its former elevation, though possibly in a two distinct states of North and South Peru; different form of developement; not by the a union not of government alone, but of amassing and hoarding of inconceivable interests also, which seemed to promise suc- riches in one single country, but, thanks to cess to the labours of the hand that had the extension and influence of commerce, been so actively employed for their national by difusing those riches through its chanconcord and prosperity.

nels minister to the general wants of It is painful to think that, however care- mankind, and principally through the mefully calculated the chances of human hap-dium of British trade. piness, and however skilfully adapted the The illusion, wherever it prevailed has means of this great end; whatever the bases been painfully broken in upon by the polion which are founded arrangements, that to tical events of the last few months. The dismortal wisdom appear to offer the most so satisfactions, jealousies, and wars that have lid securities for stability and success; still originated so recently in that quarter, bid an inherent principle of nature, inexplicably fair to dissipate altogether the dreams of entwining evil with good, introduces the future expectation, or to defer them to so canker into the very seed of the plant, to distant and indefinite a period as to be actugrow with its growth, and strengthen with ally beyond the flight of Hope. We have its strength; extending its influence in the looked, we confess, with anxiety for some germinating bud, and infusing into the ma- real ground of dissension, some positive tured fruit itself that “amari aliquid," which wrong that might be righted, that thus, by ever lessens or disappoints the hopes of en- the removal of the cause, the consequences joyment and the care of the cultivator. The produced by it might be obviated.

Whiltproof every moment springs up before our ever is tangible may be approached, whateyes, alike on the smallest as largest scale; ever is true may be shown; facts can be in the toil or provision for individual objects, dealt with, but fancies are tangents, that or accumulations, as in the efforts of nations recede continually from the point of contact. for improvement: from the cares of a The- Whether the statements in question belong lusson to secure boundless wealth for a de- to the former or the latter class it is our proscendant, to the reforms and revolutions that vince here to examine: if the difficulties change, how vainly! the face of empires, spring from positive injuries, these can and all is effort, and all is fruitless, till Hope ought to be redressed: but if they originate itself is acknowledged but as deferred Dis- in jealousy alone; if the internal and exterappointment.

nal prosperity of one state excites the sense

of an unfavorable contrast with its neigh"Pror race of men ! said the pitying Spirit, bor; or if the natural wish of one govern. Dearly ye pay for your primal fall;

ment to enrich its subjects by legitimate Some drops of Eden ye still inherit, But the trail of the serpent is over them all." means, such as opening to them the long

sealed-up channels of public trade, be simRegarding, we must confess, the state of ply an accidental and mavoidable loss to things in the portion of South America to the inhabitants of any former emporium of which we have alluded with no ordinary commerce; though these may suffer, they degree of pleasurable anticipation; and can surely have no right to complain of viewing the union of the three provjuces their more fortunate or more enlightened into a single government, forming the rival; still less to take up arms, that readiproper territory united under the ancient est resource of strength against weakness, scentre of the Incas; we were tempted to of passion against reason, of injustice and hope, from the results of their experience, oppression against legitimate rights. a restoration of pristine wealth and felicity A rule for our judgment is furnished in to their descendants of the present and future such cases by an authority to which none days. The sagacity that with them had can demur, since by their acts we shall included the richest districts under one know them;" and as the flourishing condisivay, and was satisfied to confine their real tion of the Peru-Bolivian republic has surdominion within those limits, at a time nished us with ground for the conclusion when the whole continent was open to them; that its government is wise and moderate, so together with the prosperity that attended we must exanıine the conduct of its two ansuch a course, till romance became reality, ta gonists, and first turn our attention to and even avarice was palled with treasure; Chile. all this pointed irresistibly to the conclusion, It has often been stated in the European that the richest portion of that southern papers, that an expedition undertaken last hemisphere, once more united under a wise July against the existing administration of government, would return to the height of Chile by Don Ramon Freire, a native of

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that country, and in exile at Lima, was the bour-master, which is a direct refutation cause of the quarrel, inasrnuch as it is al of this charge as well as of the other; for, leged by the government of Chile, that the if we may give credence to an official said expedition was a conjoint scheme of statement, published, circulated among Generals Orbegoso and Santa Cruz. This every class, and uncontradicted, we must statement has been frequently repeated also stores, they were put on board clandes

suppose that if Freire had any warlike in the Mercurio de Valparaiso and the tinely, and under false pretences.* At a Araucano, the one a popular, the other a time when the Republic was still convulsed government paper, but not verified in either with the shock it had received from interby any document whatever; so that it rests nal enemies; when every branch of the solely on the assertion that their information administration was in the utmost disor comes from good authority.

der; when contrabanding was so bareThe Exposé of the Peruvian Govern flour were smuggled ashore by daylight,

facedly carried on that even barrels of ment answers the charge simply. The it cannot be surprising that Freire should exhaustion of the finances rendering econio have been able to furnish himself with men my inevitable, and the defeat of Salaverry and warlike stores unknown to the gorendering the maritime force unnecessary,

vernment. Such things are possible in General Obregoso, the Peruvian president, every country, and even under the best determined to reduce the Marine. Accord? organized governments. The infant, Don ingly, two vessels, the Monteagudo, and the thorities of England, to wage a most de

Carlos. three years ago, eluded the aubrig Obregoso, were advertised in a Lima structive war in Spain ; and yet who newspaper, and chartered by a Don José would for a moment suppose that this had Maria Quiroga on a trading voyage, the been planned or countenanced by the Enfirst to Guayaquiı, and the second io Cenglish government ? Ambition, when blendtral America.

ed with the wish of vengeance, emboldens

man to undertake the most arduous and “The Orbegoso was a government mer- difficult enterprises; and Freire could not chantman, which had never been armed; have been free from either. He had once and with respect to the Monteagudo, the enjoyed the respect of his country, and harbour-master of Callao states in his re- been elevated to the

highest degree of report to the actual Minister of War and publican dignity: One of those political Marine, that, the agreement of chartering convulsions, so frequent in all the states of being concluded, he received orders to dis- South America after the overthrow of the arm her, und deposit her warlike stores in Spanish domination in that hemisphere, the arsenal at Callao, which was done, with not only deprived him of the presidency the exception of a dozen old twelve-poun- of the State, but also compelled him to ders, which had for a long time been kept seek an asylum in a neighboring Repubin the hold as ballast, and which being un- lic. Is it then strange that the ex-presi. serviceable were allowed to remain there.” dent should have kept upon his country

an invidious eye, and in his mind the de“It is also plainly asserted in the docu- sire of avenging the wrongs he had rement just cited, that their commanders de- ceived? But we are very doubtful with viated in nothing from the usual routine of respect to the equipment taken out by maritime traders, nor gave any order, ei- Freire; for in a letter of one of his assother writlen or verbal, which might raise ciates, written from San Carlos, (the fort his suspicion. The Orbegoso sailed first, at Chiloé), the want of warlike stores is having on board General Freire and his complained of, the writer saying, that he associates.”—p. 5.

does not reckon upon any other arms than “Freire did not make a secret of his in- | 400 muskets found in that fort. It will be tending to quit Peru. The Chilians, how- seen in the sequel of this narrative, that if ever, in corroboration of their charge Freire assumed a hostile position on Chiagainst Generals Orbegoso and Santa lian territory, it was not through the forces Cruz, have asserted, that Freire was open- he had taken with him, but through the ly furnished with men, arms, and ammuni- cowardice and demoralization of the gotion, and that the men were paid before they vernment adherents, and that when these left Callao.

withdrew their support he could not keep " It is, however, a custom of very an. his ground.”—pp. 5, 6. cient date in Peru to give a month in adyance to the crew, in presence of the har

The case of Saldanha and the Portuguese bor-master, a few days previous to the emigrant expedition from England against veseel leaving the port, in order that the Terceira, under the Wellington administramen may furnish themselves with clothing tion, is still more a case in point. and other necessaries. This and no more was done with the crews of the Orbegoso

* We correct, at times, the occasional slips of and Monteagudo, as is testified by the de- language by an evidently foreign pen. We have, positions of their commanders and mates, also, throughout, preserved, omitted, or introduced and by the just cited document of the har-! italics, as seemed best to our indgment.


-p. 5.



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During the voyage it seems, that the Monteagudo and Orbegoso were steering Monteagudo's creiv arose against Freire's towards the south, and the plan of the partizans on board, and proceeded to Valpa- Chilian exiles began to be suspected, he, raiso to deliver them up as prisoners

. " The without loss of time, informed the Chilian Orbegoso, ignorant of what had happened, of what had been communicated to him.

consul, as well as the authorities at Lima, continued her route, and arrived at Chiloé, With this motive the harbor-master was the destined point of the expedition." called to the capital; and, to prevent the

joining of any other ship to those that “The authorities of that place 'surren- were already at sea, he was instructed to dered without offering the slightest resis- order that no vessel should leave the port tance, and four companies of militia, with until his return. His absence was from some troops of the line, (we quote from the ten o'clock in the morning of the 8th of JuChilian papers,) joined Freire,' who imme- ly to six in the evening; consequently the diately took possession of the fort. The detention complained of by the Chilians, Monteagudo, having left the prisoners at and upon which they put so unwarrantaValparaiso, and received some reinforce- ble a construction, was merely a delay of ment from government, proceeded to seven (eight) hours. But how the ChiChloé, where she arrived on the 28th of lians can have ventured to say that this August. Freire, supposing her to be still was a measure to prevent the sailing of under the command of Puga, sent an or- La Flor del Mar, we know not; for it was der to that officer to land with his men and not known that the vessel was to sail for repair to the fort. This was executed by Valparaiso. Her commander had cleared twenty-six of the government men, who, out for Guayaquil, and her true destinabeing thus admitted into the fort, retook tion was concealed from the authorities at it. The party which had joined Freire on Callao until the very moment she sailed, his landing, being informed of this, re- which was on the 8th of July, about two turned to the legitimate authorities, and hours after the return of the harbor-masFreire, finding himself incapable of keep-ter.”—pp. 8, 9. ing his ground, took refuge, with two of his associates, on board a French wha

There is much reason in what follows: ler, where they were arrested. Thence they were taken on board the Monteagu

"When we take this circumstance into do, and conveyed to Santiago, where their trial took place, first in a court of justice, consideration, and

add to it the admission from which they received sentence of of the consul of Chile at Lima, that he death, and afterwards in a court-martial,

had suspected the machinations of the Chiwhere that sentence was commuted to ten lian exiles, and heard that they were to years' confinement in the island of Juan embark in vessels belonging to the PeruFernandez.”—p. 7.

vian government, we cannot abstain from " This is the story of the expedition of contending, that the duplicity of which the Freire, such as it is given by the Chilians. government of Chile accuses the Peruvian From the moment the Orbegoso left Cal- authorities is far more perceptible in the lao to the moment of the last sentence be conduct of the Chilian consul; nor can we ing passed against Freire, we have quoted help feeling that he greatly to blame for the statements of the very party interested the misunderstanding which has taken in sustaining the charges preferred against because one of the principal charges of a

place between the two countries. First, the government of Peru; and it is upon the same authority we now state, that nei. diplomatic agent being to see that nothing ther from the depositions of Freire and is done in the country where he resides his associates, nor from those of the other against the interests of his own country, individuals, either concerned in the expe the Chilian exiles ; secondly, because, had

it was his duty to watch the movements of dition or brought to the court as witnesses, he apprized the Peruvian authorities of does the supposed culpability of the Peru: what he might have learned on the subvian government appear, even in the most distant light. There is not one statement, ject; had he openly taken measures to asnot one circumstance, nay, not even one

certain the truth, and made known that word in corroboration of it !”—p. 8.

a vessel (the Flor del Mar) was in readi

ness to convey to his government the reThis

sult of his inquiries, Freire, even in the conclusive. We now come appears to the next charge:

case of being supported by the President

Orbegoso, would not have dared to carry “It was said, and is still repeated, by then no one could dispute the right of

his plans into execution, and if he had, the accusers, that, when the plans of Freire Chile to demand redress and satisfaction. transpired, measures were taken to prevent -pp. 9, 10. the sailing of La Flor del Mar with communications to the Chilian government.This is another misrepresentation.”—p. 8.

As to the asserted understanding between "When General Moran, chief of the de- Generals Freire and St. Cruz, it is stated by partment of Lima, was apprized that the their opponents, that a letter from the latter

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