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to the former, wherein the alleged conni “We have all reason to believe that, vance of the former is made clear, is in the when Santa Cruz arrived at Lima, the hands of a Chilian at Chile but that it is not wrath of Chile was not suspected; for six published, out of regard to American ho- days after (on the 21st), the Chilian brig nor! We consider matters somewhat dif- and was received, not only as the other
war, the Achilles, arrived at Callao, ferently in Europe, and should imagine that vessels belonging to friendly nations, but to make a public charge against a public amongst the Peruvian men-of-war, which man's character, is sufficiently assailing his lay dismantled and unguarded in that harhonor, and that his adversaries need not be bor. So little suspicion was at that time so delicate as to decline proving what they entertained of Chile's hostile intentions, love to affirm: provided always they have that one of those vessels had only two the proof, as they say. But though chal- men on board. lenged by the Lima government, they have harbor. master, Guarrido, the commander
" After receiving the usual visit from the NOT PRODUCED IT. Eheu, jam satis ! of the Achilles went on shore with one of
From the ability confessedly shown by his officers, and passed great part of the Santa Cruz, it may, we think, be fairly ar- day with the commander of the marine, gued, that the mode of the pretended assist with whom they dined, and parted in the ance to Freire, and his actual means, were Another officer went to Lima, and had an
evening in perfect good understanding.not likely to be considered efficient, or any interview with the Chilian Consul, Don thing better than a waste of money, by the Ventura Lavalle. The Vice-Consul at provident ruler of Bolivia ; and since, as the Callao passed the whole day on board the Exposé affirms uncontradicted, no evidence Achilles; and, in fact, the comers and the was brought forward to connect him with resident Chilians communicated with the the invasion upon the trial of Freire; and freedom allowed to parties of whose amity since the letter referred to has not been pub- no suspicion is entertained. Notwithlished by. Chile to substantiate that charge, standing this, the commander of the it bears,' in ordinary reasoning, no weight of the dismantled Peruvian men-of-war, whatever, unless against those who have the Arequipeña, the Santa Cruz, and the made it. Freire, the ex-President of Chile, Peruviana, and 'made to sea with them.”(!) appears to have been the Murat of the west-1-pp. 15, 16. ern world, lost in an attempt to imitate Napoleon. So far as we can find, of proof This, undoubtedly, is a novel mode of there is none whatever that Santa Cruz was simply seeking redress, which is the reason hostile to Chile; and even the expedition of assigned by the aggressors for this step; but Freire occurred, not under Santa Cruz, but if Chile was jealous of the growing trade of during Orbegoso's administration of North the United Republics, and felt sure that their Peru. But there is something very like commerce, which had, previous to the Union, positive proof of the hostility, on the other selected her port of Valparaiso as the first hand, of Chile to Santa Cruz; for, though point to touch at, should now be transferred no evidence can be adduced, still accusations entirely to their native free ports,—no seriare and have been made against him, from ous crime, surely for a government to take that quarter, and Chile has declared her in. due care of its own subjects,—then we can tention that Santa Cruz no mande en el Peru. understand the abstraction of the vessels in Let us glance a moment at the further acts question; which, in case of need, in the of Chile.
hands of their proper governmentwould That government sent a brig of war to have sufficed to defend the mercantile maCallao, which arrived a few days after San-rine of the Confederate Republic from any ta Cruz reached the capital.' We shall friendly interference of their neighbors. merely remark to our readers, that it is a The manner, too, of the deed was as flagitious known principle of the human mind, when as the matter; the resident minister from hostilely disposed towards any particular Chile being implicated in it:object, to have its attention awakened and its suspicions excitable, by all that passes re “Next morning, when this act of open specting it. And we affirm, therefore, that aggression was known at Callao and Lithe following instance of official neglect ma, the greatest alarm spread through could arise only from an absence of suspi-depredation should be committed. Every
the people, lest other acts of hostility and cion in the mind of Santa Cruz. In accord-class, and every individual, was seized ance, therefore, with the Peruvian writer's with terror, at an event so daring and unExposé
expected, and a thousand conjectures were immediately afloat. Amidst this
agitation, it was propagated and ascer* In the Eco del Protectorado.
tained that the Chilian Consul,* after ha-| gives him such privileges as to secure his
term abuse the confidence is in itself too inde-
and combined with the offenders; and he
was pointed out by the unanimous voice We freely admit that the Chilian papers of the people as the most culpable. The had good grounds here, apparently, for pro- to break the bond, requests of him an
government, nevertheless, still reluctant tecting against so unusual a step; but every interview. He refuses it, because he knows reader must hesitate to determine whether it that the object of this interview is to draw was really a flagrant violation of diplomatic from him an explanation of his conduct; immunities, till he has weighed the conduct and he refuses, under an insidious pretext, of the party concerned as himself preserving for the request had nothing incompatible or forfeiting the immunities, and heard the with the dignity of diplomatic rank; on following arguments in defence of the Peru- the contrary, Lavalle, refusing to comply vian proceeding:
with it, has overlooked one of the first du
ties of his charge; because, in the same “ The objects for which a diplomatic to diplomatic agents, these are bound to
way that governments cannot deny access agent is designed are, first, to preserve make themselves accessible either perand strengthen relations of amity and sonally or by writing; and any governgood intelligence between his government and that where he resides; secondly, to right to demand the presence of a diplo
ment has, on this principle, an undoubted see that their mutual conventions are ob-matic agent when this becomes
expedient. served; thirdly, to prevent any thing ta- We therefore contend that, under all these king place in the country where he resides circumstances, the arrest does not partidetrimental to the interests of his nation; cipate of the character which the Chilians, fourthly, to protect such of his country, as well as those unacquainted with the men as require protection. He is essentially a minister of peace, and the immu- valle having, by his connivance at the
preceding incidents, charge it with, Lanities allowed him are no more than the warrant of that security and peace for outrage perpetrated against the country, himself which the country expects from his rights as a diplomatist.
and by his subsequent conduct, forfeited him. He comes there as an agent of amity and peaceable relations, and he enjoys forget Señor Lavalle's trespasses, that no
“But so willing was the government to the confidence of the country, because the sooner was the non-existence of a plot ascountry believes he can never act contra- certained than he was restored to liberty, ry to these purposes, and in reciprocity and his arrest was less than a quarter of
an hour.”—pp. 18, 19.
* These italics are ours.
The Chilian minister wrote the same day
to state the order of his government to de-vian government, and perhaps, with the mand his passport, which looks like pre- intention of delivering them up again meditated, preconcerted hostility,—and to
when sufficient securities of peace be beg that it might be sent that day, August tured in the Arequipeña, who have not
otherwise given. Those individuals cap22, 1336; which was accordingly done, ac- been willing to enlist themselves under the companied by the following note from the Chilian flag, are allowed to return to the government of Lima ;
service of your government, and the same
consideration will be had with those on “North Peruvian State, board the Santa Cruz, when that vessel Protectoral Palace,
joins us. “ Lima, August 22nd, 1836. “I hope you will allow D. Ventura La"The undersigned, Minister of Foreign valle, Chargé d'Affaires of Chile, with his Affairs, has received the note of the Con- goods, and the Chilians who choose to sul-General of Chile, dated this day, in accompany him, to pass on board the which he informs H. É. of having received Achilles. God bless you ! orders from the government of Chile to
(Signed) VICTORINO GARRIDO." withdraw from Peru, and in consequence of which the consul-general requests to To this last note are attached the followhave his passport this very day.
ing pertinent remarks:“ The undersigned has been directed by H. E. the Protector to furnish the consulgeneral with his passport, and to state this document, that Garrido gives, as the
“It will be observed, in the first line of that, although the scandalous deed perpe: cause of his conduct, the inexplicable contrated at Callao last night by the Achilles duct of the Peruvian government. But authorizes H. E. to take the most prompt how did they know it was inexplicable and severe measures of retaliation against before they demanded an explanation ?a government which, by such an act of The Government of Peru had not been piracy, has become an outlaw in the rights called upon by that of Chile to give any of nations ; H. E., faithful to the principles explanations, and the act we have just deof moderation he has adopted for the ma: scribed was committed before any of the nagement of external affairs, will for the means by which civilized nations in our present abstain from any act of hostility days seek to obtain redress had been reagainst the Chilians resident in this state, sorted to; moreover, it was committed in or against the consul-general. But it is direct contradiction to the address of the his wish that the consul-general should be President of Chile to the assembly, in made to understand, that the government which it is declared, that until irrefraover which H. E. presides, possesses all gable proofs of the culpability of the Peruthe means, as well as resolution and ener
vian government were obtained, Chile gy, to demand a satisfaction equal to the would not proceed to any act of hostility: insult received, and to prevent the future we ask now, were these proofs found violations of his territory; and that, should when the Achilles pillaged the port of Calfresh insults be offered, or the Chilians lao ?
Have they been obtained since ? resident in Peru attempt to disturb the Where, and how ?”—pp. 20, 21. quiet of the country, the most severe measures will be taken. “Enclosing the passport to the consul.
The proposed intervention of the British general, H. E. wishes him also to be ap. Consul, at the request of the British merprized, that his quitting this territory must chants
, was acceded to; a conversation was take place to-day without fail.
agreed to on board his Britannic Majesty's "The undersigned concludes, assuring vessel the Talbot for cessation of hostilities, Señor Lavalle of his respect, &c.
till both governments could explain, 24 (Signed) Pio de TRISTAN."
hours being allowed for the Peruvian Presi" At four o'clock p. m. of the same day, dent's signature, and 50 days for Chile.the few officers and men of the Arequipe- The Chilians, therefore, took off the capturna were sent ashore in a lighter belonging to the Achilles, and the following note from ed vessels, and their Consul Lavalle relandGarrido, delivered to the minister of ma- ed, to arrange his private affairs, The Perine:
ruvian answer of consent was obtained im“On board the Achilles, two miles to mediately in the following note :leeward of the Island of S. Lorenzo, - August 22nd, 1836.
“Seeing no rational motives for enga“The inexplicable conduct of your go-ging the Republics of Peru and Chile in vernment has put mine under the necessity a war that would be prejudicial without of adopting, as means of defence, the being decisive, the government of Peru, measure of which you must have heard being immutable in their peaceful views, through other channels. It is the inten- and wishing to give every facility to such tion of the Chilian government to retain explanations as are necessary upon a subthe vessels of which I have taken posses-ject of so much moment, I approve of sion, as pledges of peaee from the Peru- this convention."-p. 23.
On the 30th September, the Peruvian count of Freire's expedition : 6th Mutual minister at Chile inquired whether the go- exemption for the Chilians in Peru, and the vernment meant to sanction the convention, Peruvians in Chile, from all forced contri. and received an answer in the negative, butions under the name of loan, and from based upon the following specimen of Chi- being compelled to serve in the army, in the lian diplomatic argumentation
militia or in the navy.
The 4th and 6th articles are presumptive There having been no war, there can evidence that neither state could complain be no preliminary convention of peace ; much of the other; and these, with the 1st, and the most clear proof of the existence were open to discussion. Acceding to the tries is our having taken, in the way of 5th, as regards its second part, would have pledges, the Peruvian men-of-war anchor- been publicly confessing what had been so ed at Callao. Such measures, far from publicly denied, and its introduction therebeing hostile, are reckoned amongst the fore looks like an intentional insult to bar legitimate means of reclaiming justice, farther negotiation. But the 3d of the stipuwithout having recourse to the extreme of lations is clearly of a nature to preclude all hostilizing the nation that has given cause
arrangement, unless as conquered receiof suspicion."-p. 24.
ving laws from the conqueror; and the
2d is even still more extravagantly ridicuBy way of a commentary, we may refer to the capturing and enlisting of these adversary for the independence of the latter,
lous—a foreign state stipulating with her peaceful relations when there had been no rendered nugatory by the very fact of that war; and to illustrate an argument most persons will think required elucidation, stipulation ! " four days after this (on the 16th) the Cun- the 21st of October, and the commander sent
The Chileno squadron arrived off Callao gress passed the following decree" :
in notice of his intention to that port with a “ The National Congress authorizes the
salute. Herrera, the governor, declined the President of the Republic to declare war
and stated that none could against Peru, in case of that government land except the minister and his suite. To refusing to make such adequate compen- this “ retort courteous' the Chileno admiral, sation for the injuries done to Chile, and to Blanco, replies by the following note, which offer such conditions as may warrant the which we look upon simply in the light of independence of this Republic: The Pre- the "quip modest." sident of Chile will make public to all nations the just motives which have obliged the Chilian people to adopt this extreme, ceedingly. To deny the Chilian squadron
“Your answer has surprised me after so many sacrifices made for the pre-admission to the port of a friendly state, servation of peace.”—p. 24.
and at the very time of its conveying a
minister plenipotentiary, seems to me an The Chilians now determined
act of hostility which I cannot account ing a plenipotentiary to Peru, but this ple- for, considering the relations of friendship nipotentiary was accompanied by a squadron (the old story again) which exist between of five sail, " because it was not just to allow Chile and Peru. You will please to tell the aggressing government (i. e. Peru!) to me the motive of this novelty, the most augment and concentrate its naval forces strange indeed, inasmuch as the ports of under the shelter of friendly intercourse.
is | Chile are open to all classes of Peruvian The Chileno squadron was therefore charg- enjoy in that country special hospitality
vessels,* as well as to individuals, who ed to keep the ships of thc different republics and benevolence. at a certain distance, until negotiations “Your answer will serve as a guide for should be concluded !
my future resolutions, which, without this The propositions submitted by their ple- serious precedent, could only be peaceful, nipotentiary were six in number, viz.-1st, and designed to strengthen the relations Satisfaction for the violence offered to Don of amily and cordiality between the two Ventura Lavalle: 2nd, The independence
countries.”—p. 28. of Bolivia and of the Ecuador (i. e. the preservation of the political equilibrium of the
The answer was sent accordidingly. Southern Republics) 3rd, A diminution of
"I have had the honour of receiving the naval forces of Peru: 4th, Commercial
your communication of this day, in which reciprocity, cach country placing the other you manifest great surprise at the squaon the terms of the most favored nation : 5th, The acknowledgment of the debt incurred by Peru against Chile, both during * It might have been added, and however obthe war of the Independence, and on ac- Itained.
dron being denied admission into this grant such a promise without their special port. This negative is but the conse- orders and instructions.”—p. 35. quence of the conduct of the Achilles on the 21st of last August, and of the non-ra The plenipotentiary then, at great length, tification of the convention concluded on the 28th of the same month, and which assured the Peruvian General de Tristan, had for its object the cessation of hostili- “ that, his mission being unconcluded, it is ties against Peru. It is surprising that most probable that the squadron will return Chile, instead of taking measures to enter to the coast of Peru, and prevent the re-union into an adjustment of this question, which and augmentation of the naval forces of that Peru has shown she desires, should send republic; that, in his note on the 3d, he had here a squadron, the presence of which not mentioned, directly or indirectly, the can by no means be held a testimonial of absolute departure of the squadron from the peace and amity, or fail to alarm. is under the shield of peace that the pros: of the government of Peru with respect to " Peru, Sir, wishes for peace, because it coast of Peru, but merely and indefinitely
its retiring from Callao; that any pretensions perity of nations grows. There is no sacrifice, excepting that of its honor, that the squadron might be made the
subject of a this country will not make to obtain it; preliminary agreement after their landing, but in the meanwhile I must inform you, provided Peru should ensure to the squadron that unless I receive fresh instructions the retaining of its present advantageous pofrom my government, I shall not deviate sition; and finally that he should wish to from this line of conduct."-p. 29.
ascertain if the minister, in employing the To this Blanco replies by requesting to words peaceful usages, had excepted from be at once admitted, with his fleet, as the
their meaning the conveyance of communiforces of a friendly nation ; as a proof of cations to the squadron;" and withdrew from
the coast. which, he observes
We deem it absolutely unnecessary to “ The embargo (EMBARGO !) of the Pe
add a word to these extracts, since never did ruvian vessels, besides being made accord-facts speak more clearly for themselves of ing to the most strict principles of justice, moderation on one side and presumptuous was, as you well know, the necessary con- insolence on the other. It could only be a sequence of Peru having made use of its government confiding in its own strength, in naval forces to destroy the liberty, and the justice of its cause, and the reasonableeven the independence of Chile, plunging ness of its views, that would bear so much it in all the horrors of a civil war.”—p. 30. of provocation from a state that could inTo this satisfactory statement the Peruvi- spire so little of serious alarm.
We need not touch upon the allusions to an governor somewhat drily replies, that
the conduct of the Chilian government at “ The instructions he has had with re- and we now turn to the manifesto of Buenos
home, for this forms no part of our subject; spect to the squadron under your command are not to allow it to come within Ayres against Santa Cruz. cannon-shot of the port, because govern We were not a little surprised at the ment, being the guardian of the national grounds upon which, we found by the Eng. interests, must not give occasion to the lish newspapers, the government of Buenos repetition of acts like that which you term Ayres bases its proceedings. We can disan embargo."-p. 33.
cover, neither in the extracts they furnish,
nor in the original document, any thing this correspondence
, perhaps unique in the beyond bare assertion, without attempt at annals of diplomacy. The Peruvian go rial portions of the official declaration of
argument or at proof. We give the matevernment requiring a promise that the Chileno squadron, in retiring, as proposed from war as they are given in the Morning Herald the coasts of the North and South Peruvian
of August 23, 1837. States, will not commit any act of hostility,
“ The government charged with the focapture, EMBARGO, or DETENTION, (are reign affairs of the republic, in the name these synonyms of peace ?) on the property and on behalf of the Argentine confedeof the said states and their subjects: to this ration, considering, the Chilian diplomatist replies,'
“That the occupation of Peru by a Bo
Jivian army, is not founded on any right, "I am sorry it is not in my power to ac- except that of an illegal, null, and crimicede to this new request, because you nal treaty, stipulated and signed by a must know that, although I am satisfied, Peruvian general, without power, and nay certain, of 'the peaceful and sincere without authority, to deliver up his counintentions of my government, I could not try to a foreigner;