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to vertigo. The ardent wish of seeing their , her to vent her venom upon all she has seen features, which they carefully conceal, causes or known, and drag the faults of her dearest them to be followed with eager curiosity ; relatives before the world. The only relief but it requires great skill in sayas to follow a lady in this costume, for they all look alike. to the pervading dulness of the book is de. Oh! I defy the loveliest English woman, * *

rived from the malignance which gives a de. I defy equally the most seducing French wo

finite tint to every uninteresting scene, anxman ** to contest with a Limanese in her saya. ious to waken a feeling, though only by exThe Spaniard herself * * would appear but aggeration or positive falsehood, and this cold and distant to a Limanese in a saya. often in its basest shape, insinuation. Yes, I would fearlessly proclaim that in this Poverty can be little excuse for her, since costume they are the queens of earth, if heau- it is its worst manifestation, poverty of spirit. ty of form and charm of looks can suffice. We know in all iterature no other instance The saya is the national costume; women of all ranks wear it: it is respected as part and of seeking society and courting friendship parcel of the manners of the country like the and confidence only to betray them, and for Mosleman's veil. From the beginning to the the sake of selling a book. The persons end of the year the Limanese go out in this and things, however, that Madam Tristan has disguise, and whoever should dare to raise the seen, are too remote from the general routine manto that covers the face of a womanen saya; of thoughts and interests to awaken much cu. would be pursued by public indignation, and riosity even for scandal respecting them. severely punished. The costume so changes the person and even the inflections We do not hesitate to say that any one, writof the voice, (for the mouth is covered,) that ing with the same wish to outrage truth and unless there is something remarkable in feeling, must be equally successful; for if the height or figure, recognition is impossible. topics which delicacy restrains the rest of Even to the husband his wife is unknown in mankind are to form the staple of one writer, this habiliment: she meets him, ogles him, the boldness may strike the unwary as re. notices him by manner, induces him to speak, sembling truth, though only because it is an enters into conversation with him, receives ices, fruits

, cakes, makes an appointment, and unusual daring of malignancy and false. then leaves him to begin the same game with

hood, an officer passing. *** Her husband on her The unnatural junction of the Abbé La. return asks no questions, for he is fully aware inennais and Madame Dudevant, the joint that if she wishes to conceal the truth she opprobrium of morals and religion, has led will tell a falsehood; and he has no means to ihe recent attempt in France of forming of ascertaining the fact. Thus the ladies go a new school out of the wrecks of St. Simoalone to theatres, assemblies, bull-fights, balls nianism, supported by the worst and most promenades, and on visits. fume has the immense advantage of being at pestilential portion of the doctrines maintain. once economical, appropriate, convenient, ed by the two writers above mentioned. But and always ready, requiring not the smallest the talents of these Neophytes are of the low. trouble.”

est class ; and when they attempt to separate

from their teachers, and to form a c!ass of There is another, and still more striking themselves, their proper weakness and igno. practice in this singular style of dress. If a rance becomes conspicuous as regards genelady puts on an old saya, unsewu, worn out, ral principles or isolated facts. In truth and ragged ; an old manto, and an old cors. such doctrines can take only with the lowest age, she is never accosted. She is approach. scale of intellect, or the utmost perversion of ed with timidity, and it would be even disloy, licentious feelings. The struggle of the al to follow her; for it is rightly supposed senses is with these people simply what Bufthat if she is disguised it is for important rea- fon has called, the domination of the mate. sons, and that no right exists to examine her rial principle ; but carried to the utmost ex: closely. This mode of dress is called dis. tent, in order to bring back society to the frazarda, and is considered perfectly respect level of savage life, to licentiousness under able.

the name of simplicity. The reader may conceive how Madam Madame Tristan, we hear, is about to Tristan enjoys and argues upon the freedom visit England in the rage of pauper proselyt:

The description is evidently ism; and the announcements therefore of written con amore."

her personal charms and moral tendencies We have now completed our task, but at may be intended as an advertisement of adfar greater length than the merits of the wri. vantages and terms. Into what decent so. ter required at our hands; and, were she ciety she can be admitted we shall not inquire,

ne, would leave her to utter and deserved for who will carry to their own homes the oblivion. It is clear that the disappointment vipers of domestic treason and demoralizaof pecuniary and other, we wish we could tion? She calls herself a Pariah ; happily say matrimonial, speculations have induced chosen name, which Madame Tristan in

of the saya.

zons.

consistent ignorance imagines to be the sen. | lowed, or is borne out, by recent German limental purist of St. Pierre. Had she real, geographers, who also place the Bay of Vin. ly known any thing of that miserable and cent Pinçon near to Cape North or about outcast Eastern race, she would have felt | lat. 2° 15' N. Still these very maps define how well and truly the appellation expresses the French possessions in Guiana as bounded the absence of every virtue, and the low sink by the Yapock, or properly Oyapock, which of abject infamy to which we are courted to enters the sea at Cape Orange : and if, as is degrade ourselves by the precept and exam. probable, the ambiguity of two rivers of the ple of the fair Heteroclite.

same name*gave rise to the difficulty at first,

we would ask how it happened that France, Peru, Guiana, and Navigation of the Ama at the time when the asserted authority was

at hand for reference, and error, if any ex.

isted, easy of correction, retired to the limits Closely connected in a commercial point of Cape North, and in the Treaty of Vienna of view with the subject of Peru, and still was satisfied to receive back from Portugal more with that of our relations, present and the territory conquered from her to the river future, with Brazil

, we are called upon before Oyapock, defined expressly as BETWEEN THE concluding this article, by the recent intelli

. 4 AND 5 DEG. LAT. N., ė. e. near Cape gence from Guiana, once more to claim at- Orange. Admitting all that France would tention from the Public and the Government, claim by the Treaty of Utrecht in her acrespecting the navigation of the Amazon ceptation of its terms, she lost all claim to River. In our XXXVIth Number (for Jan. every portion when it was conquered from 1837) we dwelt strongly, both upon the her before the treaty of Vienna ; and since advantages available for British enterprise by she omitted at the time of this last treaty to throwing open the course of that gigantic assert her former claim in any shape, it is stream; and the benefits that would accrue clear that she held it as utterly untenable to Brazil herself from civilizing and cultivat- then; and, since it is not specified, but exing that enormous tract, rich in the full per. cluded, in the restoration of the remainder, fection of every produce, and practicable for it is equally obvious that she has no pretence commerce by the active, social, and gentle of right now; for, when equivalents were habits of the Indians inhabiting the interior. weighed in restoration, neither giver nor re. We showed that this boundless and fertile ceiver held this tract as being in the category territory,--watered by innumerable rivers of of equivalents. the plain in every direction, across the whole It is clear however that our enterprising continent to the western side of the great neighbours are fully sensible of the value of Cordillera of the Andes, and by the numer the commerce we ourselves have so greatly ous streams that take their source in these neglected ;, and this is evident from the exmountains and render that vast portion of the travagance of the sole pretension they bring world a lavish wilderness of unfortunately forward to support their title. Its value ne. idle luxriance,-might by timely care, and a vertheless is not generally known. Father slighi exertion on the part of Great Britain, Acosta, in his Itinerary from Quito to Para open a wide field for commerce ; inferior only in the reign of Philippe III. of Spain, gave 10 that of the discovery of America itself, or an account of the tribes of Indians inhabitof the route to India by the Cape of Good ing the whole line of this territory, and his Hope. We insisted on the precedents of statements have been amply confirmed by Spain and Portugal in the case of the Douro, more recent travellers, such as Mawe and and suggested the convenience of a British Smythe. settlement in or near some one of the nu• It is not merely the range of the Amazons, merous islands situate in the mouth of the though spreading across the whole breadth of Amazons. The Times newspaper, with its the continent between 0 and 5 degrees of S. usual vigilant energy, has pointed out the lat. that is embraced in this question, nor even encroachment made by France to obtain the additional bend of the Marañon from the possession of the territory at the entrance of 4 to the 11 deg. of lat. S. The Ucayalithis important stream. Our limits and the late and Beni flow through the fertile valley of the ness of the time will not now permit our exam. Western Cordilleras, the richest portions of ination at length of the claim set forth upon Peru, from La Paz, S. lat. 17, northwards the basis of the Treaty of Utrecht, (Art. VIII.) into the Marañon at St. Joaquim; and the ceding to Portugal the territory of the Ama vast stream of the Madeira in a course of zons and Cape North to Yapock in the bay 1800 miles connects the navigation of the of Vincent Pinçon ; but we must in justice Amazons with the famed silver mines of remark that the Dutch map, said to have regulated that point of the treaty, has been fol

Yapu merely signifies a stream.

Potosi, through the rich soil of Moxos and portion of the country in question, and a Cochabamba. The old official reports of the complete list of its productions. And when, Peruvian viceroys to the Spanish government, in conjunction with the foregoing commercial found in the Secretary's department at Bue considerations, we look to the advantages of nos Ayres, have been freely extracted by a free and rapid communication with friendly Mr. Woodbine Parish, late English Consul, ports in the Pacific Ocean, for shelter and with his usual enterprise and attention to the station for our cruizers on the look out after interests of his country.

Russian encroachments along the western “ When this communication is realised,” coast of America, we shall rejoice to see says that able observer, “Europe will dispute Chile and Peru, relieved from the madness for the unrivalled sugar of Cuzco, the coffee of the present objectless contest (unpopular of Huanuco and the Yungas of La Paz, the in both countries) by British intervention, cocoa of Appolabamba and Moxos, rivalling and feeling in common with the rest of that that of Soconusco, the best in the world.” continent the value of our trade in their in. The Geographical society has placed these terior. We trust to see them evincing their extracts in its Journal; and M. Angelis, an gratitude to the hand that would quell their Italian, has published several portions in a idle dissensions, and this by uniting the grow. periodical work printed at Buenos Ayres, ing strength and resources of the second and still unfinished.

named

power, and the naval skill of the first, This immense market for our trade and in common cause with their supporter, against manufactures, affording too articles of the the common enemy. first necessity and highest luxury in return, From the political part of the question we has been hitherto all but closed by the weak- purposely abstain at present, inasmuch as ness and inertitude of the Brazilian Govern- the vote of the French Chambers two years ment; and this at a time when any outlet for since for the occupation of Portuguese Guia. our goods was invaluable. Three centuries na, will necessarily produce explanations in had left former speculations in the dust of Parliament as to the course pursued by our oblivion, when the union took place of all Government since that occurrence was anPeru under its present able and enlightened nounced. ruler, who has offered fresh inducements and full security for trade. The infinitely more expensive scheme of Wheelwright would, if carried into effect but touch, if we may use the expression, the worse surface and poorer portions of the Peruvian territory, viz. the western coast alone, We have great hesi. Art. X.-Aux Canadiens. Chanson. (To tation in receiving the statement of coals the Canadians. A Song.) Paris, 1838. found at Concepcion for the steam communication, as they are entirely unknown to in. When treating, in our last number, of politi. telligent and disinterested residents of the cal theories and constitutions of government, place; but it is probable that a thin stralum and slightly alluding to the illustration of of LIGNITE, known to exist there, has been those disputes which is afforded by the North mistaken for coal, and hence the erroneous American Revolution, we were not aware speculations set forth in the appendix to Mr. how soon the attention of all England would Scarlett's volumes.

be directed to questions of constitutional A steam communication of the Amazons right, between a parent state and her colo. could scarcely be objected to by Brazil in the nies, arising in the same quarter of the present day, when any assistance to support globe. her feeble authority in Para would be so im. The recent events in Canada have brought portant to her existence; and thus Europe into discussion questions of as much imporwould be brought in contact with the New tance in theory as in practice ; and the inWorld precisely in its most valuable, most terest of the discussion is heightened by the exigent, and most neglected portion. But position in which it has placed the politicians without the assistance and weight of the En. who have to manage it on the part of English Government, all efforts even purely gland. The assertion of the supremacy of mercantile, must for years be fruitless, or the mother.country, the denial of the absoadvantageous only to our more active neigh-lute power of the purse, the enactment and bours.

execution of coercive measures, have fallen We have given in the Number referred upon a set of ministers who boast, justly in to* ample details of the nature of a large some instances, in others most idly, of their

political, if not lineal descent from those * XXXVI.

Whigs, by whom the cause of the Ameri.

cans was espoused in the reign of George tinguish between the observations which we III. We shall not inquire at this moment have borrowed, and those in which we have how correctly the outbreak in Lower Cana. merely coincided with others. da is compared with the revolt of Massachu Those who are fond of tracing govern. setts ; but us the exainple of the thirteen ments to their supposed origin, will not fure provinces is naturally cited, we would in the get that Canada was a conquered province. outset disabuse cursory readers of history, The constitution may in one sense be said to of some popular notions concerning our be founded upon an original contract, if the American war. That eventful tale is often articles of capitulation and cession be taken told simply thus:-Lord North, the Tory to constitute that agreement. But without minister of George III., imposed taxes on reverting to the fancies which we exposed in the American Colonies, theretofore a loyal our former number, it is only necessary to and contented people. They resisted ; ihe observe, that there is no allegation of any minister, and still more the King, insisted breach of the agreement by which Canada upon

the

supremacy of England, and sent came into our possession. Toleration of troops to enforce a compliance with her de. her religion was all that was promised ; this, mands. The Whigs in the English Parlia. and more than this, has been uninterruptedment mainiained that the Colonists were in ly enjoyed. If the rights of the Canadian the right; the Americans made a vigorous people were to rest upon the circumstances resistance; and their successes and our con. under which their allegiance was transfersequent disasters, and the voice of the suf- red from France to England, a free or repfering and indignant people of England, resentative constitution would certainly not compelled the Tory ministers to submit, and be among them. acknowledge the independence of the United In 1774 a constitution was given to Can. Siates.

ada," then constituting the one province of This story, perhaps in no part absolutely Quebec; by this instrument the free exerfalse, overleaps precisely the circumstances cise of the Roman Catholic Religion was which are most important at this moment, secured, and the French law in civil cases, because they regard the commencement and which had been temporarily superseded, was early events of the Colonial contest.-Amer- restored : of these provisions, which were ica was first taxed by a Whig minister, the intended and accepted as concessions to the assertion of supreme right was made by a natives, it would be unnecessary to speak, minister and a party eminently and boastful. but for one or two remarkable passages in ly Whiggish, the independence of the Colo. the debate upon them in the House of Com. nies was most scornfully repudiated by the mons.f most eloquent of the opponents of taxation. It was objected to the Bill, that in placing The war was not undertaken against the re. the government in the hands of a governor monstrances of the people, nor was it for a and council, it erected a despotism in Cana. long time unpopular.

da. Lord North's reply was, that the " Whether or not we are now at the com- ber of English settlers who must choose the mencement of a struggle, which after a Assembly,” if one were constituted, was protracted war will end in the establishment, very small. And it was thought cruel to in spite of our efforts, of a second American have an Assembly chosen by so small a Republic, we do not pretend to conjecture; body, govern a large one. No one who but we hope that those who live to the con- spoke appears to have contemplated the pos. clusion wiil not forget the commencement, sibility of giving any share in the election to but will recoliect that the free constitution of the Canadians themselves. There was much Canada is suspended, and the decisions of talk of English liberty, but none of the free. the representatives of a people set at nought, dom of mankind. Yet the speakers were by the disciples of Locke, and the admirers the men, who soon afterwards espoused the of Sidney, and by those professing Whigs cause of America, upon the principles of who have recently asserted, and pretended Locke; and at no very distant period pa. to act upon the doctrine, that the will of a negyrised a revolution based upon the inpeople, signified ihrough an elective assem. alienable rights of man. And the other prinbly, is and ought to be supreme.

cipal ground of opposition to the bill was, With these preliminary remarks, we in. that it established in this French Colony too troduce our history of the present controver- much of the French law, and of the Romish sy.

We fear that both in our narrative and religion. I our observations we must commit plagiaries : The merchants of London trading to Can. but the narrative is necessary, notwithstand

* Act. 14 Geo. III. c. 83. ing that it has been well given in speeches

+ Parl. Hist. xvii. 1357. and pamphlets ; and we cannot always dis Colonel Barré, xvii. 1361.

14

num.

VOL. XXI.

66

ada, and the Corporation of London, peti... "M. de Lotbinière.- I never heard it par. tioned against the Bill as suspending the En. ticularly debated, nor any objections. glish laws, establishing arbitrary power and

“ Mr. T. Townshend.-Does he think the

Canadians are not more desirous of a more favouring the Roman Catholic Religion free government than a Governor with a They called on M. Morin and others to Council, the members of which are appointspeak in favour of the English laws being ed, removed, and suspended by him? exercised in Canada." General Carleton • M. de Lotbinière.—They would certainalso (afterwards Lord Dorchester) and Mr. ly desire a freer government. Maseres, (the late Cursitor Baron,) were ex• “ Lord Beauchamp.-- But if some of the amined as to the dispositions of the Cana. noblesse were admitted into that Council, dians to receive English institutions :

would they not then be well satisfied ?

"M. de Lotbinière.- They might then be “ Mr. Mackworth.--Did they disapprove satisfied. the trial by jury?

“ Lord North-Would the noblesse be de"General Carleton.---Very much; they sirous of an Assembly in which the bourgeois have often said to me that they thought it were admitted to sit in common with them. very extraordinary that English gentlemen selves? should think their property safer in the de • M. de Lotbinière.--I do not apprehend termination of lailors, shoemakers, mixed they would object to that, if it was the king's with people in trade, than in that of the pleasure so to have it." judges.

"Lord North.-Did they express wishes of The Bill passed, but in the following Ses. having an Assembly?

sion, the British inhabitants of the Colony "General Carleton.-Very much the con. petitioned* against it upon the same grounds trary. In the conversation I have had with

as their brethren in England, alleging morethem, they have all said that when they found what disputes the other Colonies had with over that their number and importance had

been underrated. the crown, they would much rather be without them; and when they supposed that an

It was in 17917 that the Corstitution was Assembly, if they had one, would be chosen granted, which is now in discussion and in from the old British subjects, they expressed jeopardy. It has lately been said, but we an horror at the idea of one.

know not upon what authority, that this Con. " Mr. T. Townshend.- Would not the Ca- stitution was devised by Lord Grenville ; nadians think an Assembly a great benefit ? “ Mr. Hay (Chief Justice of Canada): - Mr. Pitt

, then the minister acting at that

however that might be, it was introduced by Very far from it; they are too ignorant a people to understand the value of a free gov. time, as we believe, in perfect harmony with ernment. They are exceedingly obedient; Lord Grenville who had been recently introwould obey the king's command, let it be duced into his Cabinet. By this new Cou. what it may: if he ordered an Assembly to stitution, or rather Constitutions,- for the meet they would go; but they would not province of Quebec was now divided into know what to do when they came there; the the two provinces of Upper and lower Canfact is, they are not capable of that governo ada, -it was avowedly intended to assimilate ment: they do not expect it, it is contrary to all their ideas, to all their prejudices, to all the form of government in these Colonies, to their maxims; their idea of a House of As. the Constitution of England. The Governor sembly is that of a house of riot and confu- stood for the King; a Legislative Council sion, which meets only to impede public appointed by the crown, for the House of business, and distress the crown, all which is Lords; and a Legislative Assembly, elected a system extremely contrary to the ideas and by the people, for the House of Commons. I principles of the Canadians.

And this assimilation was carried so far, that “ Mr. Townshend.-Do you know if the Canadians are desirous of having an Assem- power was given to the crown to create bly to repsesent them in the government of hereditary members of the Legislative Counthe province?

cil, of which the other members were to hold "M. de Lotbinière.*—They are very de- for life. sirous of it.

There are few greater admirers of Mr. “Mr. Townshend.-Why then have they Pitt than we are; yet we must admit, that not made representations to that purpose ? • M. de Lotbinière. Because they under of a Colony to that of an independent State,

the notion of assimilating the Constitution stand, that if they were gratified with an As. sembly they would in consequence have the

was radically wrong.

It arose, with his expenses of government to support, which in e present state of the province would be

* Journal, xxxv. 384. much more than they can support.

+ Act 31 Geo. III. cap. 31. “Lord North.–Did M. de Lotbinière ever * The qualification of an elector was fixed at hear any material objections to the establish- forty shillings in land in the country districts, ment of a Legislative Council ?

and a house of five pounds in the towns. The

division into the representative districts was left • A Canadian, and one of the noblesse. to the Governor.

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