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way, in the support of the authority of re "In studying the critical philosophy the vealed religion. The religion which he · Critique of Pure Reason' was of course the himself has given us in the celebrated work first work that Stilling read; he found no formerly referred to, is a system of pure found himself at once freed from the incu

difficulty in making out the drift of it, and Christianizing Deism, recognizing indeed bus of determinism that had weighed him the possibility, but not admitting the actuality down so long. In this work Kant proves

, of a supernatural revolution. The piety by the most irrefragable arguments, that which he preaches is no religious feeling in human reason can boast no knowledge the common sense of that word, but merely beyond the limits of the sensible world; a reverence for the moral law. The only that in supersensible things it no soon peculiarity of his ethical religion seems to er begins to argue from its own princibe this—that he admits the corruption of hu- ples than it stumbles on contradictions, i. e.

contradicts itself. Kant's Critique is in short man nature and the necessity of regeneration a commentary on the words of St. Paul.-in the same degree and to the same effect 'The natural man understandeth not the that Christianity does. But the corruption things which are of the Spirit of God, for of human nature, as Coleridge says, is a fact, they are foolishness unto him,' &c. of which regeneration is the necessasy con

"This discovery lifted Stilling's soul as on sequence. Both these things may be admitted wings. Hitherto he had laboured in a thouswithout acknowledging a supernatural revolu- and ineffectual ways to reconcile reason, this tion. But whatever Kant's private opinions ficulty was removed, reason was confined with

divinest gift of God, with religion; now the difmay have been (and notwithstanding the pious in its proper province, and revelation appearimaginations of some people, our strong con- ed to be ibe only natural and true source of viction is that he was a Deist*) it is certain all supersensible knowledge. Stilling took an that his system was by no means necessarily early opportunity of communicating with exclusive of, much less opposed to, a belief in Kant himself on this subject; and in a letter Christianity as a revealed religion. This we received from the philosopher, there were the see practically in the case of J. Stilling, whom following remarkable words: we shall now hear upon the subject. The only solace in the Gospel, for it is the inex.

* • Hereio also you act wisely to seek your following passage is interesting, not only as baustible fountain of all truths, which, after exemplifying the experimental influence of human reason has measured out its whole do. the Kantian philosophy on Christian faith, main, are to be found there and there only.' but also as containing an excerpt of a letter “Afterwards Stilling read Kant's 'Critique from Immanuel, showing how far his philos- of Practical Reason, and then his . Religion ophy was from wishing to deprive others of within the bounds of pure Reason ;' and in a spiritual consolation that perhaps he often

these works he at first imagined he had found

something like the truth; but on more min. felt the want of himself.

ute inspection he perceived that Kant placed * This is distinctly admitted by the most able the Gospel, but in the moral principle. The

the source of all supersensible truth, not in and energetic, and at the same time the most deficiency of this principle might seem to honest translator that the Königsberg philosopher has yet found in this country, Mr. Semple. In appear sufficiently from ihe uncertainty of the appendix to the Metaphysic of Ethics, trans- its application, and the great variety and lated by that gentleman (Edinburgh, 1836), we

even contrariety of its development among find the following passage.

“Kant was a' Ra- different individuals and races of men; and tionalist; he invariably admitted the possibility it it be said that the pure, not the corrupt of a revelation, but maintained that such historic- moral principle is to be taken as the source of al belief could be nothing more than a mere ve- moral and religious truth, then I answer that hicle towards the ethical

. As a rationalist in the pure moral principle is the mere form, the deed he was, by his very assuming of such a bare capacity of knowing good and evil; but name, compelled to abide within the bounds of where can you point out to me any mortal all rational insight. Hence he never did, as the naturalists do, deny and dispute the possi; the living type of this pure moral princi

man whose concrete existence I may take as billity of revelation, nor yet the necessity of such a thing as a divine means towards the introduc- ple? We are all equally the children of ertion of a true religious faith. He left, on the ror; we all equally mistake, as lust or whim contrary, ample roorn for super-naturalism, and may seduce, evil for good and good for evil. even said, the ethical faith leaves a man always If the moral principle is to be in any wise open for the historical, in so far as he may find practically useful as a guide of human acthis last conducive to the enlivening of his pure tions, then the true, the good, and the beautimoral and religious sentiments, which belief ful must be presented to our minds ab extra can only in this way have any inward moral from a pure infallible source, otherwise it re worth, as it is then free, and unextorted by any mains for ever what it is, a mere undefined threat."

The meaning of which in common English is this: that if Christianity be nothing capacity to be; and it is sufficiently manifest more than a republication of the religion of na- that the history of man exhibits nothing that ture, or rather a public authoritative proclama- can come up to the demands of tbis postulate, tion of the moral law, Immanuel Kant has no ob- unless it be the Bible," &c.-Stilling's Lejection to believe in it, if he finds it convenient, ben, 5ter Thiel.

Upon the same foundation of Kantian phi- Jover the whole world. One of the princi. losophy the following short appeal proceeds. pal seats of the Pietists has long been El.

berfeld, in Westphalia; not far from this “Awake! open your eyes, and seo the Stilling was born, and here he spent ten seriously that to cure that unnatural disease painful years of an existence

, curiously which eats up the vitals of humanity, a su

swinging (as the existence of sensitive peopernatural remedy-revealed religion—is ne- ple is apt to do) between the ecstacies of cessary !! Cease at length to put questions heaven and the torments of hell. Stilling's to your reason that your reason can never father was half-tailor, half-schoolmaster in answer, for the answer to these questions is to a small country village of Westphalia; and be found not in speculation, but in history; he himself was now a tailor, and now a -rests not upon thoughts, but upon facts, schoolmaster, as the necessity of bread and which only a madman can doubt, for their the disposition of circumstance compelled. immediate consequenees lie before every man's eyes !”- Das Heimweh, 2ter Band. To set forth how the poor, weak, unfriend. Werke, v. 243.

ed, pietistical tailor.boy, led by strange

jumps, and curious cross-ways of provi. This appeal to fact and history recals to dences, rose from one degree of dignity to our mind a doctrine many years ago pro. another, till at last he became Aulic coun. pounded by Dr. Chalmers, that in preach- cillor to the Grand Duke of Baden, operator ing Christianity the external evidence alone of cataract to all the blind of Germany, and is to be built upon, the appeal to the inter- worshipful Father in God and writer of nal having no other effect than to make a apostolic epistles to all the pious Herrnhujudge of him whose only duty is to listen. ters and Moravians in Christendom; and It is much easier, argued the reverend doc- how he achieved all this through the course tor, to convert an Atheist than a Deist, be. of a long lise (from 1740 to 1817) without cause the mind of an Atheist is blank, and losing one pleasant line of that primitive you may write what you please upon it. simplicity of character, the great virtue of This is somewhat in the spirit of Cardinal the pious race from which he sprung; such Bellarmine, who would not allow Plato to is the simple purport of one of the most sin. be read in the schools, in case some dream. gular auto-biographies that the history of wrapt student should mistake the Phædrus literature can boast

. No mere Englishman for the Gospel of St. John. But the dou can have any idea of the transcendent simtrine of a supernatural revelation is a theory plicity of this book. A German Methodist, which then only comes into existence, when living exclusively among Methodists, reada combined view of the inward spiritual ne- ing Methodistical books, dreaming Methocessities, and the outward spiritual history distical dreams, seeing and bearing nothing of man, renders it necessary to assume it. but Methodism during the first twenty years

We have allowed ourselves to take for of his life, is a phenomenon of a very pecugranted, in the preceding observations, that liar kind, worthy to be taken notice of by such of our readers as may honour these all thinking men. An inhabitant of Venus, pages with a passing glance have already or any other blessed planet, suddenly transformed the personal acquaintance of Jungported into the British House of Commons Stilling, from Mr. Jackson's English trans. in the midst of a debate upon the Irish lation of his auto-biography. It does not Tithe question, could not be more completefall within our province to expatiate upon a ly confounded by the jabber of parties, than theme that has already become the common the commonest voices proceeding from a property of the English reading public. world that lieth in wickedness startled the To those, however, who have not seen Mr. pious hearing of the boy Stilling. Where, Jackson's work, the main line of the pious for instance, shall we find a sancta simplici. tailor's terrestrial Fates may be easily indi. tas equal to the following? cated. Stilling was a shoot of that pious

Henry was about eight years old. He race called in foreign phrase, Pietists; who sat on a chair and read a book, looking, as from the days of Jacob Böhme up to the was his fashion, very serious ; and I believe most recent fanaticism of the Prussian in honesty that up to that time of life he had Muchers have been peculiarly abundant in never yet indulged in any thing worthy the the North of Germany. The student of name of a laugh. Stähler looked him in Church history will at once bethink himself the face and said, Henry, what are you doing here of Arndt and Spener, Francke and the there so seriously?!

"'I am reading.' Halle school of theologians. The names • На you learned to read so young ?' of Dippal, Hochmann von Hohenau, T'ier. “Henry looked him in the face, expressed stegen, &c., are of a more narrow reputa surprise, and said: “That is surely a foolish tion. Count Zinzendorf, however, is known question; am I not a man! And straight

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way he began to read aloud, with great flu- of an insatiate selfishness, is, and must re. ency, giving at the same time the proper em- main, the only true wisdom of man.t phasis and expression to every word. Stäh

Except a few edifying tales, Stilling's bi. ler was astonished. "May the devil take ine,' said he, 'if I ever saw the like of that? ography is, we believe, the only work of this When Henry heard this oath he

author that is known to the English reader.

sud

sprung denly up, trembled, and looked fearfully There is however another very singular volaround. When, however, he saw that the ume, into whic no German scholar will for. devil did not make his appearance, he said, get to look, who wishes to obtain any insight "God! how gracious art Thou!' Turning then round to Stähler he said, • Man! hast + Though somewhat lengthy, we think ourthou seen Satan ?' • Nol replied Stähler. selves bound here to insert, for the sake of com*Then never call on him again,' said Henry, pleteness, Göthe's characteristic of Stilling, as it and went into another room." --Stilling's Ju- is found in the 9th book of the Dichtung und gend.

Wahrheit. Göthe became acquainted with Stil

ling as Strasburg, when the hitherto tailor, at Truly the hero of this tale is a very Ger the age of thirty, was preparing himself, by a man of the Germans; and shall we wonder regular course of medical study, for the celebri

ty he afterwards acquired as an oculist. "Among that when such a guileless simple soul as the new arrivals,” says Göthe," was a man who this, remaining guileless and simple to the particularly interested me. His name was Jung, end, overcame the world and the wicked the same who afterwards became known under ness of the world by the sheer might of ing a certain antiquated appearance, and a blunt

the name of Stilling. His figure, notwithstandthis honest simplicity, he was irresistibly ness of manner, was delicate. A bag-wig was compelled to attribute his own advancement not able to disfigure his significant and pleasing to the special guardianship of a benevolent countenance. His voice was soft without being

providence ? Our profane modern speech, weak, and when he was moved by enthusiasm indeed, would prefer to ascribe all disposi. nearer acquaintance I perceived in him a man of tions of the inward as of the outward world sound, clear understanding, based upon emotion, to a strange concatenation of circumstances; (ein gesunder Menschen Verstand der auf dem but the beia rúxn of old Herodotus sounds Gemüth ruhle), and liable to be influenced by inas well, and we have no objection to the ance of the emotional'in his character, was the

clination and passion; but this same preponderterm special providence if wisely used.* origin of an enthusiasm for the good, the true, Let a man beware, however, how he comes and the right in all possible purity. His life had to look upon himself as the pet-lamb of the

been singular, simple, yet crowded with events Almighty. This can only make himself ergy was an indestructible faith in God and a

and manifold activity. The element of his envain, and religion ridiculous. We do not divine assistance flowing immediately from him, conceal our opinion that there is a conside ana manifesting itself in an uninterrupted guarrable leaven of this silliness in Stilling's from impending evil. Jung had had experiences

dianship of the individual, and open deliverance autobiography, especially in the latter part of this kind not a few, both previous to his arrival of it, which we wish sincerely had never in Strasburg, and recently, since commencing been published; but then Stilling is a Ger. his medical studies ; and to such a degree did man, and we have experience enough in time has he had security of subsistence from one the character of that truly honest and most quarter to another, he nevertheless continued to loveable people, to know that a German devote himself to his studies with the utmost earmay both say and do many things that have nestness, and lived in a manner as cheerful as it the air of foolishness and yet not be a fool. been a charcoal-burner, but he followed the vo

was moderate. In his youth he had well nigh We do not pretend to explain all the strange cation of tailor, till the knowledge which he aethings that are set forth in Stilling's life; quired for himself in leisure hours enabled him the wonderful interpositions of which he to try the more dignified employment of a schoolmakes so much parade seem, for the most turned to the trade, from which, however, he was

This attempt miscarried, and he repart, to prove more of his own folly than once and again called away by different persons, the wisdom of God; but we are willing to to whom his engaging character had recombe taught one important lesson from the mended him as a fit person to perform the duties spirit that pervades this, as indeed it does all tion and the formation of his character, he was

of a family tutor. But for his essential educathe works of this pious German. To wait indebted to that race of men who seek salvation upon Providence, to receive humbly and at their own hands (auf eigne Hand ihr Heil sur improve wisely those good gifts of God chen), and by the reading of the Scripture and which the heaven-storming Titan demands and pious exercises, attain to a grade of spiritual as a right and uses merely as the nutriment culture truly wonderful. For inasmuch as the

religious interest by which they are led, rests *"When I make an axe, I make it to cut, and ness and benevolence, and the varieties of cha

upon a foundation of the purest morality, kindliI cut with it; and when God makes a man for racter among men of such limited circumstances any purpose, for that purpose he uses him."- are tut few, whereby their conscience is for the Stilling's Grandmother,

most part kept pure and their spirit cheerful

master.

into the nature and character of German authentic documents that the strange history Pierism. “ Theobald, or the Enthusiast,” of religious aberrations can boast. Perhaps though put into the shape of a novel, is in no man ever possessed such qualifications reality a true history of the character and for writing a book of this sort as Jung Still. doings of the Westphalian Pielists of the last ing, for he was himself a Pietist by nature as century, with regard to which Stilling could well as by education; and when he exposed concientiously say—"et quorum pars magna the folly and madness of their ways, he did fui ;” and as such it is one of the most so in the spirit of friendly warning and wise curious, and at the same time one of the most precaution, that every occasion of evil speak

ing might be removed, and the mouth of the in this way there arose a culture, not artificial, as gainsayer silenced. Herein he prefigured some mighi imagine, but truly natural; and in the policy of O'Connell, whe first taught the ture, that it embraced all'ranks and all ages, and multitudes systematically to evade the laws, was in its nature essentially social; whence it without daring the bold front of resistance. came to pass that these people in the circle that Thus Stilling laught the Pietists to separate understood them, were gifted with a natnral elo- themselves from the world, without running quence, that uttered itself on all matters of the heart with the utmost propriety and grace. Such a muck against it; remarking wisely, that it was the case with Jung. În the company of those was enough for a humble-minded Christian few who could sympathize with him, this man that the light of God should shine within his was not only tull of an amiable communicative soul, while the visible glory without might ness, but truly eloquent. In particular he told the history of his own life in the most pleasing minister to the vanity of a saint. It was the manner; and there was a peculiar vividness and duty of a Christian man, he said, to respect truth in his descriptions. I asked him to write even the prejudices of those whom he signifhis biography; and he seemed pleased to follow icantly called, the “ orthodox heterodox;" my advice. But in mixed society Stilling never felt quite at home; he was like a somnambulist much more to avoid injuring the cause of true walking upon the top of a house, whom you evangelical piety, by mixing up the practice must interrupt, or he will straightway be precip- of it with childish and superstitious observ. itated to the ground; like a smooth stream, to which if you interpose any impediment it will declare against all sects and separatism of

ances. Nay, the pious man went so far as to straightway roar. His faiih could tolerate no doubt, his conviction no raillery. Inexhaustible whatever kind; here, in showing himself to to communicate, contradiction froze the virgin have arrived at true practical catholicity of stream of his eloquence. On such occasions I soul, and differing from the vulgar declaim. kindness I received his most sincere thanks. i ers against sectarianism only in this, that he was, indeed, no stranger to the sentiments that conceived the self-styled Church to be often were the soul of his existence: I had had ample times only a great established sect, ten times experience of them in some of my own best more pernicious than any other sect, jusi befriends: their naturality and naivelé rather pleased me; and in this way I of all his fellow- cause it was great and because it was estab. students at Strasburg most easily tolerated is lished, When we add to this truly, catholic peculiarities. The religious bias of his mind I spirit of mind a quiet observant eye, and a delighted to contemplate i and his belief in ex- conscientious truthfulness of character, we traordinary providential interpositions I did not shall see how admirably fitted Stilling was contradict. My friend Saltzmann also treated him with great tenderness; and this was the for the task which he undertook in “ Theomore remarkable in Saltzmann, as he himself be- bald.” This singular work-superior in inlonged to that class of rational and sensible terest, we think, even to the autobiography Christians, whose religion properly consists in a rectitude of character and in a manly indepen

-can be designated no otherwise more bitly dence, and who have, therefore, a naiural aver-than as a rank fermenting bed of religious sion to lose themselves in emotion which is apt emotion, wherein many noxious weeds grow to become cloudy, and in enthusiasm which ends rampant, but also a few flowers of most deli. in obscurity.” This is a morceau truly Göthian in all re-cale and surpassing beauty.

This variety spects; calm, clear, benevolent, with a slight findeed, and contrast, form the true charm of amiable ringe of indifference and self-compla- the work ; it gives it a peculiar character cency. We may observe with regard to Göthe's which it could only have derived from such share in the autobiography affair, that when Stilling afterwards penned the first part of it, a man as Stilling. For while the principal he entrusted it to Göthe, thinking it wise to leave motive of the writer was to expose the mon. the publication of so singular a performance to strous extravagances into which a religion of the discretion of the world-wise young poet. mere emotion necessarily leads its votaries, Göthe, who was very fond of Stilling, took the he is at the same time continually on his whole responsibility upon himself. The book was published, the success was wonderful; and guard, lest that which was intended to warn Stilling received from Gölhe an honorarium of his friends from folly, should seem merely some hundred gulden, an Elijah-morsel amid calculated to give food to the malice of his much need (he was for a long time closely pinched), and just efter the pious man

had been praying enemies. Hence the beautiful traits of pure to God the whole morning for relief.

Christian character - with which this web of VOL. XXI.

20

es.

pietistic follies is interwoven. Take, for in. I was allowed to preach when and where he stance, the following short sketch :

pleased. At length his zeal and unwearied

application consumed him : but his death "Hasenfeld was a long meagre man, with was more glorious than his life. He had a piercing eye ; he was the son of a corn. waited several days 'with the utmost compodealer, not a corn-Jew, however, but an hon. sure, expecting his dismissal from the body; est man; and by early inclination he devoted to those who asked for his health, he always himself to the siudy of theology. After fin- gave the same answer,--. My things are ishing his studies at the university, he preach, packed, and I am ready for the journey.' – ed with great power, not like the doctors of At length, as his pulse began to sink, he fix the law, and filled the whole country with his ed his eyes steadily upon the window, and reputation. On one occasion the following with a hollow but •strong voice, cried out remarkable circumstance occurred. The Hallelujah!'—that was his latest breath.** chief magistrate of the town where he was preaching kept a mistress, and lived in such What does the reader say to this? Is a licentious fashion as to be a cause of annoy, there not a living poetry in this methodism, ance to the whole community. Hasenfeld for which you shall search in vain even in knew this and in the middle of his sermon the pages of Wordsworth and Southey ?was so carried away by a pious enthusiasm, Some people have celebrated Gölhe's death, as that, turning suddenly to the magistrate, because he died as he lived, crying out he said, with a voice of thunder, ! And you, too, sir magistrate! it is not righị that you

“ More light!" and others have admired the keep a mistress!'. This did not cure the evil composure of David Hume who stept into certainly ; but it was a noble exhibition of Charon's boat with a copy of Lucian in his moral dignity, for which the worthy licenti- hand ; but here we have a poor despised ate could afford to pay. He was arrested and German' Methodist looking quietly at the confined in goal twelve weeks, and fed on grandeur of the sun, and breathing out his bread and water; bút his pious friends sweetened his bread of tears with many kindness- pure soul in the triumphs of a loud Hallelujah.

After his release from prison he was in- Truly there are many beautiful scenes in the terdicted from preaching, at least in the pul- history of man's mind, that are not to be pit ; but the people dragged him out of his found in the orthodox chronicles of the retirement forcibly, and would have him to Church, or in the pages of a fashionable nov. preach. He consented, and went to the el. church, but the magistrate ordered a policeman to stand on the pulpit stairs, and not al. Stilling's works, which we think may be able

We can afford merely to name another of low him to enter. What did the licentiate do ? He cried, with a loud voice, Let us go reader. We mean his Dialogues of the dead,

to command the attention of the English forth without the gate bearing the shame!' The whole congregation followed him, and a or “ Scenen aus dem Geister-Reiche," as he more effective sermon was preached in the calls them. Besides the usual element of church-yard than ever was preached in the pure Christian feeling which ennobles all Sl.l. church.' Hasenfeld was a very.learned man, ling's works, there is a good deal of fancy and as his honest enthusiasm had marred his displayed in this ; and the student of Church prospects in the church, God provided a place for him, and he was made rector of a cele history also will find there much illustrative brated gymnasium. His love of truth, how. of the opinions and practices of the the Neoever, was the cause of much suffering to him logist and other learned men in Germany, even in this situation ; he had no idea of pay- with reference to religion. Stilling's system iny any regard to symbols and confessions of punishments in a future world is extreme. in his study of the Bible; it never entered his ly ingenious; and his description of the difimagination that men calling themselves ferent regions of Hades, from lowest TartaProtestant Christians should have virtually imprisoned the Holy - Scriptures within the beautiful than consistent with reason and the

rus to highest heaven, is not less poetically arbitrary limits of human creeds; he was accordingly discovered to be a heretic, and received opinions of a great part of the Chris castigated and scourged till the blood came

tian Church. We must mention, however, from him.* But all this availed nothing ; that in all matters regarding a future state, Hasenfeld had a friend in high quarters, and Suilling takes the liberty of dissenting from his We doubt whether to take this literally. Bui Catholics and the Universalists ; he is heretic

pritestant brethren, and holds with the Roman the stiff old orthodoxy of the Lutheran Church was capable of any thing, and the civil despotism al in two regards, not only believing in puro was always at hand to second the ecclesiastical. gatory, but also denying strenuously the eter. In other parts of Stilling's works there are but tog nity of hell punishments. Into the service many traces of the prostration of every shape and of.ihis double heresy he brings both Greek ing the early part of the last century. The wise and Hebrew, with mnch anxious learning, for despotism of Prusia was unknown before the French Revolution : the rolienness that preceded

*Theobald der Schwärmer. Werke, vi. p. 119.

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