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were the images of the goddess; in some ", of which more presently. Again Turns places rude, representing merely a trunk, Chros) and Tovis (105) Tunis, (the Tunis of without head or feet; or in other places is our days,) a town near Carthage, which ! was turretted, armed, many breasted, car- had written in Phænician characters mian, I ried about with great ceremony on certain had explained as the Temple of Diana, i. days, worshipped in Pyratheioi by the e. the Artemesian. That the Upsilon, i. e. Persian priests, and virgins who prostitut- the obscurer sound of the sixth Ethiopian ed themselves for gain : in some places vowel, was pronounced similarly by the sacred cows were kept in honour of her. Carthaginians, and written by the Greeks
Thatthis same Diana was worshipped by and Romans in Punic characters, where the Phænician Athenians our inscription it was either the changeable schwa or segol, shows. Her Carthaginian worship will be is evident from numerous examples. discussed at greater length hereafter. But Secondly, Tingis, in Mauritania, which there are also other and not obscure, traces word is written aan on the coins generally asextant of her worship and even name, nin, signed to the Spanish Sexti, I think I have in the proper names of Phænician 'and myself discovered. Among these names are Punic men and places. If indeed, accord-two which have the n double; and this might ing to a custom sufficiently received among persuade us that the writing was nun Tévvis, the ancients, and even among the Phæni- or Tiyy's: But this does not seem to have cians and Carthaginians, proper names been the genuine and native pronunciation were usually bestowed on men by which of the name, although so pronounced occathey confessed themselves to be worship-sionally. pers of this or that Deity, then, by an
From this extract we shall leave our ellipsis of the word (a bd), the very names of the Gods were assigned, as Alonymus readers to draw their own conclusions: we Abdalonynus. Towns also, by a siinilar cannot, however, refrain from directing:heir ellipses, then were accustomed to adopt attention to the immense mass of erudition the name of the Diety they worshipped.* displayed in it, and we have given oply a But of the former kind these examples are few of the authorities. With respect to the cited: first, the Shield of Tanaitis ; of this etymology, Akerblad has suggested that it power, which it was usual to represent armed, and therefore assimilates to Bello may very probably be the Neith of the na, sufficiently appropriate to the worship- Egyptians, with their feminine article Ta per of the same. I cannot omit the remark prefixed, and signifying, according to Mün. that in Pocock's transcription of this title ter, Mercy, Compassion, the middle letter seems rather to be than The second inscription is of a similar na2.; but experience has proved to us what ture to the former, and its import is, that it little value can be assigned to these tran- is the monument of scripts. Second, Tennes, King of Sidon, as it appears, instead of the more ample
"Ben Khodsho, son of Abd-Milcart, son of form ningy. Third, Mutten is the same
Abd. Shemesh, son of Tagginez, of Citium." name as Myttonus of a Sidonian king, The four names are in the Greek part of probably muttanith, a man of Artemis ; the inscription translated respectively, Nuas mutto-baal, a man of Baal ; mutto-ash- menius, Heraclius, Heliodorus, and Stepha. taroth, a man of Astarte ; perhaps, in the fourth place, Masintha and Massinissa attention to the second name, which is a
We need scarcely point our readers' from masinith, opus (ta) Neithægt omitting
common Carthaginian one. The third inThus in the Old Testament, Ashtaroth, a city scription will not detain us, as it is little of Peræa. (Deut. i. 4 ; Josh. xiii. 12), so called from the worship of " Astarte, more correctly characters, of the Greek words 'Epørn Busavría.
more than the representation, in Phænician Beth-Ashtaroth.
Nebo, the name of a city and mountain, from The island of Malta is the next spot that the worship of the god Nebo, or Mercury. arrests our attention. It was early colonized
Amungsi the Egyptians Amûn, j... Thebes, by the Phænicians, and afterwards, in the Mendes, Bubastis, so called from deities.
Among the Greeks, Athenai, from the Wor- time of the first Punic war, by the Carihaship of Athena.
ginians; consequently, as we may easily With us, Radegast, Jüterbog, towns of Saxony, imagine, several inscriptions have been from idols of the same name, worshipped there found, but most of them in very imperfect by the Slavi.
+ The letters My of the Egyptian game Neith, condition. One monument, however, which are found also in the proper name (non) Asenaih; is bilingual, consists of the bases of tivo canSeptuag. Aseneth; Alex. MSS., Asseneth; borne dalabra, one of which is preserved in the by Joseph's wife,the daughter of Potipe har, Gen. Museum of the Public Library at Malta, CME-nbit, i. e, adorning Neith, Opus. ii. 209, and the other at Paris, wbither it came as Parth. Æg. 1, 56, or, as I prefer it, AC-Neit, de a present from the Grand Master Rohan to voted to Neith, Thes. ling, Heb. T. 1, p. 130. Louis XVI. Of this inscription several Other Egyptian proper names comprising the interpretations have been given, and it is by Neith ; Psammenitus, taught by 'Neith, Pa- hard to say, with the exception of two,which aneith, devoted to Neith. Proclus in Tim. 31. lis the most absurd. One interpreter, plea
santly called, by Gesenius, “ tribus Anticy famong others, Palermo, Sy racuse, and Herris insanabile caput,” renders it as folloivs: aclea may be mentioned. The inscriptions Urinatori (magno) urinatorum magistro
that are found there are, for the most part, (deo) duci et (deo) absorbenti in die quo) in very bad condition; whereas, on the consublevarunt (anchoram) et natarunt et exier- trary, their coins and medals are extremely unt (ad verbum) navigarunt e Tyro, porium well preserved and well made. reliquerunt eum, coeperunt invenire corali We shall now turn our attention towards um: exierunt iterum e Tyro, ecce vastare Africa, and there Carthage occupies a preLydam.
eminent station. It was not, however, in We give it in the interpreter's own Latin, Carthage alone that the Phænician language professing our utter inability to comprehend, prevailed; on the contrary, it was more or and the same we may say of the next. less in usage along the whole coast, from * Fluebat libertas, fluebat sors, inimicus Tripoli and Leptis
, as far as Tingis, (Tanimperabat ? hostis absorptus est; tunc in- gier,) and the Pillars of Hercules. It'niust sculptum, perverse eum effecisse, Cossuram not be understood, however, that the Phe. rubum (desertam) remex eius deus eius prae- nician language and alphabet were the cipitavit eum equus (vel equitatus) cius ema- only ones adopted in that vast and extensive ciavit eum ; pasti sunt Cossurenses, cum de region. Another, the Lybian, flourished ficeret corpus et aspectus eius inimici.)” at the same time with it, as is amply attested
The interpretation given by Gesenius is by a bilingual inscription found at Tacca, as follows:
and likewise by the sixteen verses in the “ Domino nostro Melcarto, domino Tyri. Pænulus. The first ten of these are Car
first scene of the second act of Plautus's Vir vovens (est) servus tuus i.e. sum ego) Abd-Osir cum thaginian, and the latter six Lybico-Phæni. fratre meo Osirschamar,
cian. We shall conclude our present artiambo filii Osirschamari, filii Abdosiri. cle by calling our readers' attention to this Ubi audiverit.
celebrated fragment of a great language, the vocem eorum, benedicat iis."
only one indeed in which is found a conThe first name, Melcartus, is, as our
tinued discourse. With the exception of readers are probably aware, the Phænician Vallancey, O'Connor, and Sir W. Betham, Hercules. We may also notice, that this who have laboured hard to prove the Irish inscription affords us evidence, were other
Celtic and the Car:haginian Phænician to wanting, to prove that, if not adored as the be one and the same language, it has been Egyptian name of Tanith, before alluded to pretty generally admitted by philologists Osiris was at least familiar at Tyre. The
that ihe only key to this fragment in Plautus Greek part of the inscription contains the must be sought for in the Hebrew; it being same sentiment , but more shortly expressed; think fairly enough, that the Phænician and
assumed, as we have before stated, and we it is as follows:
the Hebrew were identical. But it may be «ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΟΣ ΚΑΙΑ ΣΡΑΠΙΩΝ ΟΙ
said, how comes it that the speech is in three ΣΑΡΑΠΙΩΝΟΣ ΤΥΡΙΟΙ
different languages? It may readily be ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙ ΑΡΧΗΓΕΤΕΙ.”
answered, that the intention of the drama. Here we may observe, that Abd-Osir istist was, that the actor representing the part represented by Dionysius; and that Osiris, of Hanno should repeat the speech in only and Dionysius or Bacchus, were considered one of the languages; and should select the same, we have proof from Herodotus, that in which he was most skilled, whether Diodorus, and Plutarch. There are very that might happen to be the Punic, the Ly. few coins found in Malta, and those doubt- bian, or the native idiom. Another point ful, and most probably belonging to the that may be assumed is, that the three parts neighbouring island of Gaulos, or the pre- have the same or nearly the same import; sent Gozo.
that, in fact, they are translations, more or Sicily, we may easily conceive, was an less literal, of each other. According to early object of Carthaginian colonization. Bochari's collection, the Phænician is to be - There they built many opulent cities; read in the Roman character, as follows:
“1. N'yth alonim valonuth sicorath jismacon sith
9. Binni id chi lu hilli gubylim lasibit thym
10. Body aly thera ynn' ynnu yss' inmoncor lu sim.” This he renders in Latin thus:“Rogo deos et deas, qui hanc urbem tuentur, ut consilia mea compleantur : prosperum sit ex ductu eorum negotium meum. Ad liberationem filii mei a manu praedonis et filiarum mearum. Dii (inquam id praestant) per spiritum multum qui est in ipsis et per providentiam suam. Ante obitum diversari apud me solebat Antidamarchus, Vir mihi familiaris : sedis eorum coetibus iunctus est, quorum habitatio est in caligine,
(i. e. mortuus est.) Filium eius constans fama est ibi fixisse sèdem, Agorastoclem (nomine.). Sigillum hospitii mei est tabula sculpta, cuius sculptura est deus meus : id fero. Indicavit mini testis eum habitare in his finibus. Venit aliquis per portam hanc: ecce eum: rogabo numquid noverit nomen (Agoras.
It will be seen that there is very consid.ling, which Gesenius has successfully laerable correspondence in the import of Bo-boured to remove. He reads the passage chart's interpretation and that of Plaulus, as follows:still there are several objections to his read“1. Yih alonim valonuth
siccarthi simacom syth 2. Chym lacchu yth tummy.
sthyal mytthibariim ischi 3. Liphocaneth yth byn achi
iadidi ubynuthii 4. Birua rob syllohom
alonim ubymysyrthohom 5. Bythlym moth ynn
ochoth li velech Antidamaschon 6. Ys sid dobrim ihyfel.
yth chylys choa them liful 7. Yth binu ys
dibburi hinn ocutnu Agorastocles 8. Yth emanethi hy chyr saely
choc syth naso; Bynni 9. Id chi llu hily gubulim
lasibit thym 10. Body aly thera ynnynnu ysl ym moncor lu sim." His version of which is"1. Superos Superasque celebro huius loci,
2. ut, ubi abstulerunt prosperitatem meam, impleatur iussu eorum desiderium meum 3. servandi filium fratris inei e manu praedonum et filias meas 4. virtute magna, quae diis (est) et imperio eorum. 5. Ante moriem ecce amicitia (erat) mihi tecum, o Antidama: 6. (qui erat) vir contemnens loquentes farua, strenuus rubore, integer in agendo: 7. Filium cius est fama hic (esse) cognatum nostrum Agorastoclem : 8. Poedus meum, (i.e. tesseram foederis,) imaginem numinis mei, pro more fero, indicavit 9. Testis, quod bae regiones ei (sunt) ad habitandum ibi. 10. Servi ad ianuam : ecce hunc interrogabo, num cognitum ei sit nomen."
As a means of comparison, we refer to, lust. The author of this Phænician treatise the original of Plautus, which is manifestly was Don Francisco Perez Bayer, tutor to a free and metrical translation of the former the Infante, Gabriel de Borbon, and a man portion. This interpretation is, in our mind, of astonishing learning and research. He decisive of the consanguinity and mere dia- was also, it is now beyond a question, the lectic varieties of the Hebrew and the Phæ- real* author of the edition of Sallust, attri. nician. It must remain for future ivquiries buted to the Prince. The errors which this to examine from what great stock they learned writer fell into necessarily from the themselves have branched.
general ignorance of the lime .on such subThe limits which we have prescribed to jeets, have been corrected by Gesenius in ourselves will not permit us to trace the this translation. language on to the continent of Europe; The monuments discovered during the re. we shall conduct our readers to the second cent investigations on the Carthaginian soil work heading our article.
have thrown, as might be expected, great The Paläographische Studien consists of light on this hitherto sealed question. To two parts: the first, a translation of a trea. add to our information on the subject of the tise on the alphabet and language of the Punic Rustic Writing, or Numidian writing, Pbenicians and their colonies (Del alfa. is the object of this work. beto y lengua de los Fenices y de sus Colonias,) which was published at Madrid in
+ The Journ. of the Asiatic Society preserves 1772, as an appendix to a translation of Sal. '(alas!) the vulgar tale.
Numerous monuments with Phænician, or identi:y of language, writing, and religion, rather Punic inscriptions, have been found between the Numidians and Carthaginians, within the last fifteen years in the kingdom of by the evidence of proper pames, &c. ; thus Tunis, and in the region of North Africa, connecting all with the Phænicians, and which belonged to Carthage and Nurridia. proving the extension of this people along a They are written in a character which in large part of the north coast of Africa lying some measure differs from that of the other westward of Carthage. inscriptions.
We shall be pardoned a few words on the These African monuments are divisible general subject of letters-making Gesenius into two classes. The first consists o monu the basis of our remarks. ments in which the writing is like original The question has often been asked, whePhænician. These have all been found either ther the square Hebrew characters or those among the ruins of Carthage itself, or at least upon coins is the oldest ? in the neighbourhood of Carthage. Hence An alphabet, reputed to have been formed Gesenius calls this kind of Punic writing from pictures, originally existed, but all trace Scriptura Urbana. He refers as examples, of it is perhaps hopeless now. The He. to an inscription now at Leyden, represented brews, however, have preserved two simby Hamaker in his Miscellanea Phænicia, plified forms; the coin-inscriptive, and the Plate I. No. I. ; to another discovered by square. Falbe, the Danish Consul, and described in The former is discovered on the coins of his Emplacement de Carthage ; and to four the Maccabees, and may fairly be deemed published by Hamaker, Diatribe Monumen- the earliest known Jewish alpliabet, modified torum Punicorum nuper in Africâ reperto- necessarily by time and circumstances in rum interpretationem exhibens. Leyden, Palestine. We need not refer to the Sama1822.
ritan. The Palestine. Hebrew writing closely The second class of these African in. resembles the Phænician ; and it may be obscriptions consists of those which have been served that from their near relation to each found in provinces at some distance from other, or perhaps absolute identity, if Carthage, partly belonging to the kingdom of these are not original characters, there is Numidia. They are written in a more loose little evidence of the existence of this last. and negligent manner than the others. The Both bear a strong affinity to the Greek al. letters consist of fewer strokes, so that those phabet. which are similar become undistinguishable ; The Hebrew square characters, bearing just as five of the Estrangelo Syriac letters traces of the older form, are Assyrian. become undistinguishable in the Cufic. This Both this and the coin-inscriptive charac. less-distinctly characterized writing, is called ter are obviously connected with the Greek. by Gesenius Scriptura Rustica, or Numi. If we glance, however slightly, at these dica. The Spanish coins show the same alphabets we shall be satisfied that there is no negligence in the manner of inscribing cer- real difference between the ancient Greek, tain letters of the alphabet : the peculiarity of Phænician, or Pelasgian. The singular the Nurnidian writing, which is found on idea of Müller, therefore, that because the the coins of Juba 1. and II., consists Greek alphabet did not contain a regular se. in the prevalence of the same negligent ries of characters from one other alphaber, it manner in all the letters. These inscrip could not have been derived from any, we tions, whether from the provinces of Car- have examined in a foriner Number.f On ihage, or from Numidia, belong to the time the contrary, we do not hesitate to affirm, when those countries were under the domi- that so far as appearances sustain an opinion, nion of Rome.*
there is not a single alphabet in the world The first example of the Scriptura Rus. that may not be traced with more or less protica, produced by the Professor, is that of a bability, if not of certainty, to a single source. sione from Lepris, formerly in the British There can be no difficulty in reconciling tesMuseum, now a: Virginia-Water. It formed timonies differing only in appearance, as to part of a triumphal arch, and exhibits the the source of the art of writing, by examin. Latin letters AVG. SVFF. for Augusta-ing the real denomination and composition of LIS SUFFECTUS, the officer of honour to the the nation contesting the claim. The fan. Imperial House. Under these le.ters is a tastic sources attributed to the Hebrew al. Punic inscription, which Gesenius explains phabet do not deserve serious consideration, to signify, "The IMPERIAL HOUSE OF ROME for how is beth like a house, and daleth like STANDS FOR Ever.'
a door? Two parts wanting out of the four The general result is to show a general in the latter case to complete the simila.
* Journ, of As. Soc.
† October, 1835.
rity ; and resh approaching to render the as- / ing of that time is the square character ; ihe sertion farther questionable.
smaller alphabetic forms not existing then: The difficul ies that have arisen from the so far as we c:in judge, therefore, it could want of proper arrangement and examina- not have been borrowed from them. On tion of the alphabetic systems of various na. the contrary, this smaller kind might well tions, arising partly doubless from their num- have been borrowed from that, which it so ber, bu still more from an unfortunate and strongly resembles; and an additional pre. idle prepossession of opinion that each na- sumption in favour of the Oriental origin is tion was best able to afford the soundest au- derivable from the fact that many of the thorities for the relics of its antiquity, may Zend letters seem but cursivé varieties of be now altogether or almost entirely dissi. the Cuneiform. This we have undoubted pated, by what might long since have been evidence now was of the age of Darius AT attempted ; viz. a comparison of the several LATEST. If indeed, as we have already re. systems with due reference to their chrono.marked, we compare the two, we shall find logical connection, as far as practicable. that the Greek small character is merely an
We must be understood distinctly to af improvement of the Zend, and turned the firm, that ample evidence exists of the pro. other way. gressive changes of alphabetic form amongst We cannot attempt, in the few lines that nations the widest separated, as deduced are left us, to dwell upon the analogies that from one common souice; and that this pro. offer themselves spontaneously to our mind; gression is distinctly traceable as a connect. but we conceive every difficulty will approach ed series with very few interruptions. We as nearly as possible to an elucidation if we admit there are exceptions at present: it is doubt the generally received opinions re. possible there may be really such ; but we garding the earliest introduction of letters feel satisfied in declaring further our fullest and their inventors. The question now left and most deliberate conviction, that these ex. us is most importantceptions are not such in fact, but simply WHO WERE THE PHENICIANS ? proofs of the general rule. The variation of letters, and application of one shape to another sound are all, or nearly all, to be account. ed for by what is now a series of ascertaina. A new Translation of the Tales of a Thouble facts; and that those which we cannot
sand and One Nights ; known in Eng. absolutely explain are fairly presumable as
land as The Arabian Nights Entertaincoming under the same principle, and that
ments; with copious Notes. By Edward
William Lane. London. 1838. any doubt left can exist only so long as our ignorance of the state and changes of pro.
The vulgar scorn that delighted to exhibit nunciation amongst certain nations exists, its own ignorance in an outcry against the and no longer.
most delightfully varied, wild, and fascinatThe Greek Boustrophedon has served to ing display of human fancy in the world, has obscure, it may now be brought to assist the passed with the ignorance ihat engendered it. philologist ; for by this we find that, whether It is not in fancy alone that the Arabian written dextrally or sinistrally, characters Nights exceed every thing previously known
to Europe in the shape of imaginative flights. were read with equal fluency. And hence The truth of the delineations of situation and words that exbibit precisely converse ar. feeling, of catastrophes wrought by love and rangeinents of letters, whether in Asia or Eu. lyranny, the tremendous influences of serrope, may be fairly presumed identical.- vility and despotism, are brought in these, The Rünic inscription was read only by the most glorious of fictions, to our bosoms, adopting a portion of the Boustrophedon and insensibly impress the best of moral principle.
lessons on the infant mind by displaying the
effects of the worst institutions. To pass all the rest, as being unquestiona.
In the midst of unparalleled gorgeousness bly preserved and authentic, we need only or overwhelming might, the wealth of naturrefer to vne of the most in doubt, the Zend. al and the spells of prelernatural powers, a However suspicious its history, the value of tone of truth and simplicily pervades every the writen characters are recognized and page, and amidst all the remote or the impos. established by comparison with other systems sible, awakes in us the glow of sympathy not of sound, as with the Japanese digamma, the less than of admiration. It was to these tales Quichua, the arcient and modern Celtic ; to ed frequently, to relieve the heavier labors
that the brilliant intellect of Canning turnsay nothing of the systematic process of the of the state, and he quited them, according to Cuneiform. That it can be subsequent to the his own account, always with renewed admi. Greek of Alexander's invasion, and borrowed ration and regret. thence, is impossible, since it contains sounds not use] by the Greeks, and the Greek writ
Tales of enchantment! though the world may