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mutton badly roasted ; and then comes cho- ble ; and sometimes persons are seriously colate. At 2 o'clock, for dinner, appears an wounded in the fray. ollu podrida (puchero is the name in Peru :" --and in Spain likewise if she had known laugh, and ogle the women : these pay little

At mass the men remain standing, talk, any thing of the matter :--) “ of incongruous elements; beef

, lard, mutton, attention, have no book : sometimes they boiled with rice, seven or eight kinds of ve- criticise dresses, chat to their negresses, who getables, and all the fruits that come to hand; are placed behind them; and are occasion. apples, pears, peaches, plums, grapes, &c.- ally laid out on their carpets, sleeping or A concert of false voices and discordant in- holding conversation. struments is not more revolting than the sight, smell, and taste of this barbarous admixture. naked, the church-music horrible; fiddles,

The monks are filthy ; the Indians halfThen come crabs prepared with tomatas, rice, raw onions, and pimento : meat with grapes,

&c. joining in with the organ; the singing peaches, and sugar: fish with pimento: salad too is bad; and the churches are used only with raw onions, eggs, and pimento. This as places of meeting. with other spices in abundance mixes in all Coloured eggshells are in great request at their food. Water is the usual drink. Sup- the Carnival as projectiles, and often filled per at 8 o'clock consists of the same meats as with ink, honey, or oil, “ or even more revoltdinner. Propriety in the usages of the table is not knocked out, and “ I saw three or four who

ing matter.” Many people have an eye better felt ihan in cookery. Even now in many houses there is but one drinking-glass

had so suffered; but the Arequipanians pre. for all the guests. The dishes, the covers

serve their furor for this amusement." All are not clean ; the filthiness of the slaves is this and more, it seems, is worse there than not the sole cause: like master, like man; elsewhere ; which is certainly untrue. and the English slaves are very clean. It is

A great change however has taken place good taste to pass a morsel from your own in the usages and habitudes of Peru during plate on the point of a fork to those to whom the last four or five years. Paris sets the you wish to show politeness. The Europeans fashions, and only some rich and ancient now fallen into desuetude: yet it is but of families oppose its authority; but ladies still late years that the pieces of olla and fish, and go to mass in black, and the mantilla. The wings of poultry, dropping with sauce, made very dances of Spain are superseded : parts the tour of the table carried on forks by the of operas are sung in the saloons ; novels slaves.

even are becoming frequent; men of fortune “ Dinner-invitations are rare at Arequipa smoke, read the papers, and play, pharo. oying to the dearness of every thing, and invitations to evening-parties came into vogue

“ The men ruin themselves by gambling, the so soon as introduced.

The only

women by dress :" the latter are fond of things I found good at Arequipa are the cakes travelling abroad, and prefer foreigners to and comfiture, made by the nuns. Thanks natives as husbands. to my numerous, relations, I never failed of We give some curious but authentic par. these during my stay."

ticulars respecting the Llama : The theatre is of wood, badly built, and “ This is the only animal associated with affording but indifferent shelter from the rain; man and undebased by the contact. The it is too small and sometimes overcrowded. Llama will bear neither beating nor ill-treatThe performers are bad ; there are seven or

ment. * * * They go in troops, an Indian eight actors, the outcasts of Spanish theatres, walking a long distance ahead as guide. If

tired they stop, and the Indian stops also. If and two or three Indians. They play every the delay is great, the Indian, becoming unthing; comedies, tragedies, operas, all equal. easy towards sun-set, after all sorts of precauly ill, and when deficient in cloaks wear silk tions resolves on supplicating the beasts to shawls

. Cock-fighting, rope-dancing, and resume their journey. He stands about 50 Indian posture.masters, draw crowds. A or 60 paces off, in an attitude of humility, French performer of this class and his wife waves his hands coaxingly towards the Lla.

mas, looks at them with tenderness, and at gained in Peru 30,000 dollars.

the same time in the softest tone and with a Religious processions take place every patience I never failed to admire, reiterates month; scenes of gross licentiousness, which ic-ic-ic-ic-ic-ic. If the Llamas are disposed she conjectures, occur in the churches on to continue their course they follow the In. grand solemnities. A mixed crowd of men dian in good order, at a regular pace and and women of all colours and races besiege very fas:, for their legs are extremely long, the Mount Calvary of the Crucifixion, root but when they are in ill humour, they do not up the trees and rocks, expel the soldiery, even turn their heads towards the speaker

but remain motionless, huddled together, and take the body down from the cross while the blood flows from it. The people, the with looks so tender, so melancholy, that one

standing or lying down, and gazing on heaven priests, the cross, the olive. branches, form might imagine these singular animals had pell.mell a tumult and confusion inconceiva. I the consciousness of another life, of a happier

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VOL. XXI,

13

was

existence. The straight neck and its gentle of inattentive spectators, but cannot deceive majesty of bearing, the long down of their those in his intimacy, and who have much always clean and glossy skin, their supple communication with him." and iimid motions, all give them an air at once noble and sensitive. It must be so in Whatever truth there may be in this, there fact, for the Llama is the only creature em. is not too much good-nature, or even can. ployed by man that he dares not strike. If dour, as to his generous acts; and the veil it happens (which is very seldom) that an is kindly lifted for the world by one who, Indian in a passion wishes to obtain either by bound by blood, gratitude, and friendship, force or threats what the Llama will not wil.

indebted for her "intimacy'' and “raplingly perform, the instant the animal finds itself affronted by word or gesture he raises ports suivis” to his hospitality alone. his head with dignity, and without attempt

The sketch of the wife even exceeds that ing to escape ill-treatment by flight (the Lla- of the husband. She gave Madame Tristan ma is never tied or fettered), he lies down, an idea of Madame Maintenon; and was turning his looks towards heaven. Large“ made for the regent of a kingdom, or for tears How freely from his beautiful eyes, the mistress of a septuagenarian king ;" this sighs issue from his breast, and in half or good.natured alternative is followed by a disthree quarters of an hour at most he expires. tinct intimation that her devotion, humility, Happy creatures ! who so easily avoid sufferings by, death! Happy creatures ; who gentleness, submission, domestic affection and appear to have accepted life only on condi. duty, kindness to the poor and to children tion of its being happy."

generally, timidity of manner, simplicity of

garb, sweet smile, and pleasing voice, wit, The respect shown them, amounting abso. eloquence, sensibility, and doubtless her finc lutely to superstitious reverence, may not eyes also, are all artificial; her manners are arise entirely from their utility. Sometimes

a model; and yetthirty or forty of them impede progress in the most frequented streets; but the passen

" At the first glance, Joaquina inspired me

with instinctive aversion. * * Her conduct gers stop and make way for them :

is the admiration of all who know her; for, “One day about twenty of them entered in Peru, what is most admired is, falseour court-yard and remained six hours: thc hood." Indian was in despair; our servants could not do their work; no matter, the inconve

Madame Flora was greatly adnjred there nience was borne without any one dreaming herself

. This amiable personage proceeds of casting a cross look at them. The very to say of Doña Joaquinn, “ religion is not children, who respect nothing, dare not touch with her that affection of the soul which manithe Llamas. When the Indians load them, fests itself in the love of our fellow-creatures.two approach and caress the animal, hiding The niece undoubtedly forms a splendid conhis head, that he may not see the burthen on trast with the aunt--whose real character is his back; if he did, he would fall down and afterwards given as hypocritical, ambitious, die: it is the same in unloading. If the burthen exceeds a certain weight, the animal cajoling, remorseless, selfish, and more ava. throws itself down and dies.

The ricious than even her husband-proud, pom. Indian of the Cordilleras alone possesses pous, a gambler and a glutton, spoiling and enough patience and gentleness to manage neglecting, her children, who, by the way, the Llama. It is doubtless from this extraor. “ displayed no indications of talent of any dinary companion that he has learned to die kind,” though the eldest was sixteen. This when overtasked."

we presume is the religion manifested by love Then follows some nonsense about this of our fellow.creatures; but neither here nor being a moral strength (force moral !) in the elsewhere is there a syllable to bear out the Peruvian Indians, amongst whom Madame atrocious insinuations which we have marked Tristan has frequently remarked it,” though above in italics. in all her minute journal it never once occurs,

Even of Dk. Joaquina's sister Manuela, unless as told by another.

who as the wife of Madame Flora's dearest After bestowing high praise on the acknowl- friend, a French officer in the Peruvian ser. edged talents of her uncle, the present Secre- vice, is loaded with praise of most kinds, we tary of State in Peru, we learn that,

look in vain for one virtue ; though we find

her described as "extravagant to prodigality, “To all these brilliant qualities, he joins and of a gaiety at once weak, stupid, and tri. one passion, pre-eminent and rivalling his Aing.” The cause of all this virulence i% untamed ambition. Avarice makes him com- found in the fact that Don Pio refused to mit the harshest acts, and his struggles to doubt his own senses, or believe, as we have conceal this degrading propensity, make him sometimes act with great generosity:

noticed already, her extravagant pretensions These accidental generosities may well throw --so far as to give her the 20.000 dollars an ambiguity over his character in the eyes she proposed as the terms of her regard, she

making a merit of not requiring 800,000 have known that in cases of perplexity a man francs, which was the portion of each part naturally consults all his family and domestic of his family. With this instance of her goul advisers. It seems that on more than one oc. modeste, as she happily phrases it, she threat. casion when a crisis was at hand and the ened to publish his inisdeeds to the whole city least step might have committed him, D. Pio the next day; but staid at his house as long had the sagacity to take to his bed, even with. as suited her, receiving every mark of atten. out consulting his admirable niece, and leave tion and affection from Don Pio, his wifo the cogitators of the place to act as their Joaquina, and Do. Carman; having, how. wisdom might deem best. The authorities ever, stipulated formally before hand with a displayed extraordinary foresight; 2800 sa. truly touching sentamentality, that " gaiety bres and 1800 muskets were got together for should not be expected from her."

a force of scarcely 800 men, with belts and An'amusing scene follows when’in Janua- rolls of blue cloth," for a uniform like the ry 1834, a fresh revolution broke out at Li- French grenadiers." These were heaped ma, and there were three Presidents at once. any how in un old chapel, the roof of which In the confusion that ensued Don Pio was let in the rain ; but not a single cartridge was marked out for plunder, in the shape of con. to be found, any more than shoes or caps. tribution ; but he had the dexterity to avoid The authorities had bought the useless remains it in great degree by making a voluntary of a cargo, the needful portion of which had gift to the government before his name was been previously purchased by Santa Cruz, put down. It fared differently with other, for Bolivia. Our readers will probably agree and it seems worse misers than Don Pio, who, with us that if this chief, now, but not then, mulcted in enormous fines under the name Protector of Peru, bas put a stop to all this oflcans, went fainting under the load of the misrule, and established peace, order, domestic sacks of gold upon their own shoulders , fearful and foreign commercò (as we showed in a re. lest slaves, if employed, should steal a piece cent Number) he is realy a blessing to the or two in the transit. Doña Carmen repair. Peruvians; and we can understand the dis. ed to the balcony to chat and jest with, and like entertained against him by those and at, these miserables, who stopped before the those only, whosc object is public plunder. door to rest in their progress. All pretend. Madame Tristan merely mentions the name ed pov erty while literally groaning under of this remarkable man; but we may the weight of their riches. One of them we add from the best sources of private inform. find confessing his reluctance to go to prison ation a few particulars relating to him. only because his wife might rob him in his Santa Cruz, the Protector of Peru, is dark, absence, or else he would have preferred and originally of Indian blood, of which he being burnt alive to giving up a single mara. has the good sense, singular in that country, vedi. He wept bitterly; and accepted a cigar not to be ashamed. He has even converted from Ds. Carmen, given by way of consola- what a narrower mind might have thought a tion. He was dressed in rags and carrying Inisfortune into an advantage, by thus binding 19,000 piastres as his contribution. Accord- the Indians more firmly to the state. His ing to the charitable Flora, D". Carmen's manners and address are pleasing and gen. motive for going to the balcony was “ to vent tlemanly, a rare distinction in that country ; her hatred of the human race" by mocking and, what is still more to his credit, he is both these miserables ; she does not state her own amiable in private life and generally well. motives for accompanying her ; but neverthe informed. He may be considered perhaps less intimates, as usual, a comparison very the only man of real public talent in the coun. much to her own advantage, because she was try, at least so far as has been displayed; and philosophizing on the advantages of circula. with a simplicity and straightforwardness ting these miser's hoards! Unfortunately which augurs well in matters of buisiness, for her philosophy, a slip of the pen soon after overlooks every department of the state, and informs us that she sympathized with all the visits corruption and treacherous dealings feelings of her reviled cousin in this affair. with the utmost severity. He has probably

It was Don Pio de Tristan's brilliant on some occasions carried the principle of qualities and talents doubtless that induced ruling with the strong hand too far; but in a him to select Madame Flora as his counsel. country which the weakness of some, and lor throughout the whole of this conjuncture : the cupidity of other of its rulers had redu. and the compliments she attributes to him, ced to such an ebb of misery, and where the as addressed to herself, are fulsome enough. well-meaning feebleness of his immediate We know not whether the excellent practice predecessor had so relaxed the reins of gov. which she had l'habitude de faire upon for- ernment that peculation was universal and mer occasions, is introduced here for this treason undisguised, we can easily think the effect; but any one of less vanity would very fault a public advantage. The general.

ly honest and peaceable character of the Pe- or pass precipices he lost a great number of ruvians has under his administration recov- Indian soldiers, who threw themselves into ered much of its former tone, and the recent the water, or down the rocks, in preference to instance, where an invading army, outnum- leading

a military life.

“In Peru every soldier brings as many wobered and surrounded, was allowed to es.

men as he pleases : they form a large body, cape upon nearly the terms offered by the preceding the army by many hours to obtain Protector before the war began, evinces provisions, cook, and prepare quarters. * * moderation, as well as a degree of military These Ravanas are armed. They load the skill which previously we sometimes heard mules with the cooking-utensils, tents, and denied him." If the Protector had been self. baggage : they bring along a multitude of ish and incapable, as some pretended, and children of all ages with them; keep the

mules at a hard trot, follow them on the run, the Peruvians themselves as dastardly as

pass thus over mountains covered with snow, Madame Tristan affirms, could they have so swim rivers, with a child or two on their easily put down the Chilian force, a race re. backs. ** If they encamp near an inhabited markable for hardihood and a bold love of spot, they go in detachments to demand proadventure, evident in their forming the visions. * * * If refused, they fight like lion. very best seamen of the southern hemis. esses, and by their fierce courage are always phere?

victorious. They then pillage and devastate The expedition, long prepared, and stated These women who attend to, wash and mend

the place, and carry off and divide the booty. officially as in perfect equipment, sailed un- for, the soldier, have no other pay than the der Blanco, who knew the coast.* They right of robbing with impunity: They are landed, and plundered natives and English, of Indian race, and do not speak a word of till our Consul stayed the pirates. The Pe. Spanish. They are not married and belong ruvians, invited to join them, crowded to their to no one, but are at the service of all that Ruler's standard. He marched promptly choose. They have nothing of their own, with disciplined troops and many hundred but live with the soldiers. * * * When the volunteers upon the invaders, who fled with. army marches, it is generally on the courage out fighting, shut themselves up in Arequipa, sistence depends. ** It is worth noticing that

and intrepidity of these women that its sub. and proposed terms of peace. "S". Cruz pub. while the Indian prefers suicide to a soldier's licly declared the basis must be non-interfer- life, the Indian women embrace its fatigues ence; and Blanco, finding his commissioner and dangers voluntarily. I do not know that hesitating, and his army in extremities, has a stronger proof can be cited of the superior. tened to the spot on the 17th and signed the ity of women in the infancy of nations and terms that day. Their army thus liberated advanced in civilization, if the same educa

would it not be the same amongst those more by the treaty UNDER BRITISH GUARANTEE, tion was given to the two sexes!” Chile has refused the conditions. We may observe on this head, that since

There is probably no stronger proof; con. the treaty in question was concluded under sequently, there is no proof at all, of the suthe mediation of Great Britain, whose activi. periority of women in the infancy of nations, ty of intervention deserves the highest praise or in the infancy of argument. That of from the parties themselves and the English Madame Tristan would not have been much merchants in that quarter; and since the the worse if she had known any thing of the army was liberated from its entangled posi. matter before she reasoned on it. li is quite tion by ihat treaty, Great Britain is bound to clear that the Indian loses his liberly when a see that Chile in rejecting it retains no such soldier, and it is also clear that the Ravana advantage. The high tone assumed on a obtains liberty and licence of every kind; to previous occasion in South America by our say nothing of the difference between her government leaves little doubt upon this reckless habits and the soldier's fixed duties. point.

How Madame 'Tristan, of all the world, over. We now return to Madame Tristan ; and looked the advantages of licence, we cannot the extent to which we have suffered this ar. possibly imagine. ticle to run warns us to be brief. A singular We have no space for the battle of Can. proof of Madame Tristan's logical powers galla in which the two armies, mutually afraid, will be shewn in the following extracts, curi. according to their historical eulogist fairly ous in themselves.

ran away from each other at the same mo. « The Peruvians are anti-military; all ab- who signed the recent treaty with Chile, hear.

ment, and during the battle. San Roman, hor the state of a soldier ; the Indian even prefers suicide to the service. My uncle slat- ing by accident in his flight, that his foes had

during the twenty years warfare in evacuated Arequipa, ed to take advan. Peru, every time that they had to cross rivers tage of his unknown heroism by turning

his face towards the city, which he reach. . See No. XXXIX. for October last. led seven days after he had thus inno.

cently gained the victory. His antagonist, | a moment of resentment, she might treat her Nieto, not satisfied with quitting the army, uncle as an enemy :" and accordingly, she took shipping at the port of Islay and placed " sacrificed the position it was easy for her the sea between himself and his less fugacious to have assumed”-she can only mean of troops. In the day and night immediately Escudero's mistress and quitted Arequipa after the battle, says Madame Tristan with and her lover, who she informs us was con. surprising exactness, if not accuracy, the ri. sidered very ugly. val flight of the armies had placed eighty-four The women of Lima are taller and more leagues between them, each traversing forty- strongly organized than the men. At eleven two in ignorance of their adversaries' dis. or twelve they are fully developed, and genecomfiture. Forty-two leagues is 126 miles, rally marry at this age. They are winning being twice as much as is possible, in that rather than beautiful ; for the major part fair, mountainous country,

though some are brunettes, but never swarthy. After having by her gaiety and gravity,': With dark eyes and hair, and admirably as she tells us, “charmed the conqueror," formed, the charm of their countenances the gentle Flora tried her skill upon Escu. combines pride and languor. Their costume dero, the secretary and aide-de.camp of one is unique. It was found there by the Spanof the three rival presidents, Gamarra, or ra- iards, and exists nowhere else. ther the Senora his wife ; the real ruler, but in her weak husband's name. Madame

“ This dress, called saya, consists of a pet. Tristan had, it seems, conceived the idea of ticoat and kind of sac (manto), covering the imitating this lady at all points ; and as Fis: shoulders, arms and head : it is made of dif

ferent materials. * * * The fair natives pre. cudero was weary, she says, of the yoke of tend that to be able to make it one must be the latter, Flora began * to perceive that he born in Lima. To make an ordinary saya was the only man in Peru capable of second. requires twelve or fourteen yards of satin ; it ing her ambitious projects.” And as the de- is lined with taffeta or with some slight cotton sire “ de contribuer au bien,” which from stuff. In return for your fourteen yards of foregoing circumstances we are tempted to satin, the mantuamaker brings you a short render-enlarging her estate-the only good petticoat about three quarters long and

which, she ever looked for, had constantly, she says, down to the ancles. It is so scanty at bottom

, been the passion of her soul," she thought if that it only permits one foot before the other, she inspired Escudero with love, she could in very short steps. It is plaited entirely from obtain great influence over him.' The lady top to bottom, very small, and with such herself must unquestionably be the best judge nicety that it is impossible to discover the whether any, and what, loss of character seams. These plaits are so firm, and give might follow; but notwithstanding all the such elasticity to the sac, that I have seen talent and clear-sightedness that had marked some sayas that lasted fifteen years, and

still her political instructions to Don Pio de Tris. the shape and yield to all the motions. The

preserved sufficient elasticity to display all tan, we may doubt whether the Peruvian manto is skilfully plaited, but made of slight nation would have been satisfied with the materials, it does not last like the petticoat, sight of a French Aspasia at their head, and nor withstand the continual motion nor the not have doubted, in their “embrutement” humidity of the breath. * * The saga is of whether a second marriage during the life. black or fancy colours. ** * The manto al. time of the first husband--for she

half con- ing everything but one eye. *** Oh! how

ways black, enveloping the whole bust, hid. templated this also-would have been quite graceful, how enchanting are these Limanese as creditable to the state as it would have with their black sayas glittering in the sun, been agreeable, she assures us, to herself, and tracing forms real in some cases, false in But from this brilliant consummation they others, but imitating nature so well that it is were saved by a sentiment! She was afraid impossible to have an idea of artifice. How of becoming "dure, despote, and equally elegant the movement of the shoulders when criminal with those actually in power." There they wear thé manto so as to conceal the was another point, too, still less likely to suffer to be seen! A' Limanese in a saya,

whole figure, which yet for an instant they strike a vulgar mind. We have seen, though and in a fine robe from Paris, is not the same but partially, how she treats her uncle every woman: in the Parisian costume would be where throughout the book. It seems now vainly sought the seductive charmer met in that she always loved him tenderly; and the morning at the church of Sainte Marie. therefore “ was afraid of sharing the supreme

*** Many strangers have declared to me power in the country where he lived" -he the magical effect produced on their imagi. "who had done her such injury”—and the nation by the sight of these women. *

These errors of imagination do not seem imreason for this sublimity was, as this modest probable when we witness the follies and exand pious specimen of practical virtuo un travagances which the fair Limanese induce hesitatingly declares " before God,” lest, “ in strangers to commit; it might be attributed

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