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On the day of transgression, sen- smoking: and when the people tence was pronounced upon the saw it they removed and stood afar criminals. In all its parts it was off. And they said unto Moses, terrible, but our concern is with speak thou with us, and we will the curse expressed to Adam, unto hear: but let not God speak with whom God said, " Because thou us lest we die.” But whence did hast hearkened unto the voice of their terror arise? Was it not from thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree a guilty cause similar to that for of which I commanded thee, say, which our first parents fled to hide ing, thou shalt not eat of it: cursed themselves among the trees in the is the ground for thy sake ; in garden. They felt themselves to sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the be transgressors and dreading the days of thy life. Thorus also and wrath of that Omnipotent and just thistles shall it bring: and thou Being, whose covenant they had shalt eat of the herb of the field. broken, they entreated that God In the sweat of thy face shalt thou would not any more speak unto eat bread till thou return unto the them without the intervention of a ground: for out of it thou wast Mediator; and this event in Jew, taken : for dust thou art, and unto ish history most beautifully illusdust shall thou return.” Infidels trates the importance of the mediahave objected to the tree of know. torial scheme in the moral governledge, as the seal of the covenant ment of the world. of works, that it was unworthy of From this brief historic review God to punish so small a transgres- of the design of the covenant of sion, as plucking and eating a fore works, we may advance, secondly, bidden fruit, with a penalty so to notice the parties concerned. dreadful as that of death. But it On the one side, we behold is worthy of remark in this view of the self-existent Jehovah, Creator the case, that Adam was under no of all things, and their rightful temptation to commit those crimes, governor. He, therefore, justly which now constitute the trans- assumes the rank and authority gressions of his descendants against of a lawgiver, and it was his the moral law. Some other test of prerogative to prescribe the terms obedience, therefore, was suitable of the covenant.

His unerring as the seal of the covenant of works; wisdom qualified him to and it is utterly vain to urge the range its conditions

its conditions ; his alsmallness of the test against the jus- mighty power rendered him able tice of God; since it was more to enforce and fulfil them ; his easily kept, and, therefore, in pro- omniscience precludes the posportion to the smallness of the test, sibility of evasion; his goodmust we estimate the lenity of the assures us, that the covelegislator, and the greatness of the nant in its original constitution offence.

was calculated for the benefit It is further observable, that the of his creatures; while his truth covenant was' republished at Sinai and justice secures the fulfilment with peculiar solemnity, and in of all its conditions according to that circumstance, as well as from the principles of strict equity. The many portions of New Testament parties on theother side were Adam Scripture, we have decisive proof, and his descendants. Our venethat it is in full force against all rable first father was a holy man; the descendants of Adam, except and was by his Creator pronounced those who are relieved by the cove- very good.” In this holy state, nant of grace. We read, that “all he stood as the federal head of all the people saw the thunderings, his descendants. It seems probaand the lightnings, and the noise ble, that had he maintained a sinof the trumpet, and the mountain less perfection, all his posterity



would, by virtue of their union to gift is of many offences unto justifihim, have been confirmed in a cation. But while we consider similar state, but, if not, that at Adam as the covenant head of the least, sin would have descended in whole human race, and, therefore, the line in which it originated. It by his transgression, as entailing is, however, unquestionable, that rúin upon them, we must not be the posterity of Adam were so im- unmindful of the fact, that all nianplicated in his acts as a federal head, kind are born under obligations to that in consequence of his trans- fulfil the requirements of the covegression, the whole race weré nant, although they labour under brought into a state of general a moral incapacity for obedience. ruin. By one man sin entered It would be most absurd to süpinto the world, and death by sin; pose, that Adam's transgression on and so death passed upon all men, the one part, or any of our perfor that all have sinned.” Hence sotial sins on the other, can annul again, it is written, “ In Adam all the obligation of the creature to die.” It is only on the principle obey the divine law, or exonerate of this direct federative relationship, men from the duties of the covethat we can account for the impu- nant under which they are placed tation of Adam's sin, and this is by the Creator. This would be to yet more evident from the fact at suppose, that men by their sins tested by inspiration, that none of had rendered themselves indepenthe sins of Adam's subsequent life dent of God, and had verified the were imputed to his posterity, the promise of the devil, “ ye shall be imputation of sin being merely from as gods." Man, therefore, necesthe first transgression. That first sarily remained under obligation sin destroyed his federal relation- to yield perfect obedience to God ship, and while it brought ruin while he rendered himself incapaupon all his descendants, it reduced ble of it, and being thus incapacihim from the rank of head of the tated, he was doomed to suffer the covenant to the situation of a pri- whole penalty of the violated covevate person under that covenant. nant. That this was the case, is evident We advance to another leading from the language of St. Paul in branch of the subject, thirdly, In the Epistle to the Romans, v. 15th the requirements of the covenant and 16th verses. “ But not as the of works. It must not be supposed, offence, so also is the free gift. that because eating of the forbidFor if through the offence of one den fruit was the act that brought many be dead, much more the ruin upon man, therefore no other grace of God, and the gift by obligation was included in man's grace, which is by one man, Jesus primitive condition.

We find, on Christ, hath abounded unto many. the contrary, that according as And not as it was by one that breaches of the principles contained sinned, so is the gift: for the judge in the law of the ten- commands ment was by one to condemnation, occurred, they were strongly cenbut the free gift is of many offences sured, and severely punished. Fraunto justification.” In this passage tricide was as criminal when Cain extracted from the common English slew his brother, as it is at this Bible, the sentiment is not very day; yet St. Paul says, “Sin is not perspicuously expressed; but in the imputed, where there is no law." Latin Vulgate, in Beza's Latin This, therefore, will lead us at Testament, and in some of the old once to the conclusion, that the English versions, the sense of the principles of the moral law were original is very correctly retained. well understood by Adam, although The sentence on occasion of oite at that time not formally prooffence was to condemnation, but the mulged; indeed, in his state of innocency they must have been in- must be fenced with its penalties, corporated into his moral constitu- and every covenant with its own tion, as the moral law is but the sanctions. God's covenant, theretranscript of the Divine will, and fore, has its penal clauses, and God made man in his own image. they are such as correspond with But as man was under no tempta- the dignity of the party prescribtion to transgress those first prin. ing, and perfectly suit the nature ciples of his nature, a test of obe- of the engagement. Divine favour, dience was ordained under the connected with the observance of form of a positive institute. The the covenant, and Divine displeatree of knowledge of good and evil, sure, consequent upon the breach prohibited to Adam, was that test; of it, are the two great sanctions ; and the tree of life, with its at- and they comprehend, on the one tendant benefits, the appointed re- part, all that is blissful, and, to a ward of obedience: these, 'there- creature, desirable ; and on the fore, are the seals of the covenant other, all that is calamitous and of works. If we turn to passages awful. Our motive to obedience of Scripture which speak of this is the favour of God, and with it covenant, we shall find that they the promise of life and happiness. all pre-suppose universal obedience Moses describeth the righteousto be an indispensable pre-requisiteness which is of the law, “ that to the Divine favour; and that the man which doeth those things such obedience can avail only as it shall live by them.” Had man reis perpetuated through the whole tained his primitive innocency, term of a man's continuance in a death would have been unknown; probationary state. As many as and probability favours the conjecare of the works of the law are ture, that after dwelling a long under the curse: for it is written, time, perhaps a millennium, upon Cursed is every one that continueth earth, his nature would have unnot in all things written in the dergone some change to its adbook of the law to do them.” vantage; and that each of the “Whosoever shall keep the whole. human race, in regular succession, law, and yet offend in one point, would live been translated, like he is guilty of all.” David there. Enoch and Elijah, to the heavenly fore, with great propriety, might state. But it would be idle to en. say, Thy commandment is ex- ter on fruitless speculations conceeding broad.” Unsullied purity cerning probabilities in the cirof heart is required ; and the pre- cumstances of a sinless human race. cepts of the law of God, how well Unhappily, we are constrained to soever observed in the external de- know the operation of a sanction portment, if not influential upon to the Divine law of a deeply awful the heart, are considered entirely kind. It was said in the first inbroken. To shew the utmost terdiction,“Of the tree of the knowstrictness of the covenant, and the ledge of good and evil, thou shalt indispensableness of love to God, not eat of it: for in the day that as the governing principle of every thou eatest thereof, thou shalt action of man, and of every move- surely die.” As sinners, therefore, ment of his mind, it is written, we are naturally in a state of death. “ Thou shalt love the Lord thy This sentiment has many oppoGod with all thine heart, and with nents : it levels a blow at the first all thy soul, and with all thy principles of self-adulation, by dismight.”

claiming all inherent excellence in Our attention must be directed, the creature, by imputing to the Fourthly, to the sanctions of the sinner whatever is degrading, and covenant of works. Every law by ascribing to God alone, all the

Cong. Mag. No. 55.

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praise of our recovery from the heard it, pronounced sentence ruins of the fall. But whether against them, “ Dust thou art, and men believe the testimony of Scrip- unto dust thou shalt return." In ture or reject it, facts remain the consequence of that sentence they same; and every attempt to con- were legally dead, and daily extrovert the proposition, that man `posed to the execution of the curse by nature is dead in trespasses and in its fullest extent. It is a unisins, affords a fresh proof that sin versally admitted principle under possesses an universal influence on human laws, that from the moment the heart of the opposing party,

the judgment of death is proThe interdiction laid upon Adam nounced against a criminal, he is not to eat the forbidden fruit, was legally dead. It must, therefore, positive and unequivocal: “ In the be admitted in this case, that the day that thou eatest thereof, thou denunciation was fulfilled. We shalt surely die.” To this some see, in the history of the whole have objected, that the punishment human'species, that the sentence amexed in the Divine statute to of death is perpetually in force disobedience, was not infiicted ac- against them, but that God has recording to the tenor of the denun- served the time when the fact shall ciation, since natural death did not take place to his own sovereign ensue to our first parents immedi- appointment. Legal death thereately upon the commission of the fore entailed mortality on the body, atrocious deed. But surely there and eventually on body and soul would remain small cause for in- that dreadful punishment which fidels to object against the Divine the Scripture describes as eternal veracity on the one part, or the death. Such, then, were the awauthenticity of the narrative on the ful sanctions by which the coveother, if Adam had known no nant of works was originally enother kind of death than that of forced, and they remain in full moral privation and spiritual in- operation against every unparsensibility. By losing these, he doned sinner. lost the means of being happy; and

(To be continued.) that loss was death to all the felicities of life in the very day of his ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY. transgression. Yet these were not

(To the Editors.) the only consequences of his sin: GENTLEMEN ---As juvenile delina sentence of legal death was pro- quency has, of late

years, increased nounced upon him and all his de- to an alarming magnitude, notscendants. To this sentence of withstanding all the efforts of the legal death, I consider the words of wise, the great, and the good ; althe curse in their primary sense to though our government has maapply. A law was promulged; nifested a general readiness to listhe penalty annexed to the breach ten to the well-meant suggestions of that law was death. - In the of all denominations of Christians day that thou eatest thereof, thou to check vice in its infancy and shalt surely die." The Mosaic growth; and although numberless account of the fall of man goes on institutions have been formed, havto relate, that " in the evening of ing for their objects personal prothe day,” of that same day in which tection and the security of public the act was perpetrated, God de property, yet iniquity abounds: scended into the garden, summon- public executions continue, our ed the delinquents to his tribunal, prisons are filled, our property is exacted from them a confession of insecure, and our lives are contitheir crime, demanded their plea nually in danger. We cannot in bar of judgment, and having walk the streets of Lordon with

our wives and daughters, but we If this be admitted, then allow me are put to the blush by what is carnestly to recommend all denoexhibited to our eyes and ears. minations to take the baneful tena

Parents are always in a state of dency of these fairs into their most alarm if their children leave their serious consideration; and if each homes or go out of their sight ; denomination, or indeed, each seour sons are liable to be entrapped, parate congregation, together with and our daughters insulted. Many every society, having in view the a grey head has been brought with suppression of vice, would prepare sorrow to the grave, or a pre- separate petitions to parliament to mature death has been caused, by do away, by a legislative act, the the evils which stalk abroad at holding of fairs within the city of noon-day, and salute us at the cor. London, and within ten miles of ner of every street. Is it not its environs; and if this cannot be astonishing, Gentlemen, that these done on account of the strength evils have not been traced to some of their charters, then let us press of their sources ? for, alas! they for a strong enactment to prohibit are many:

One of the most fruit. the exhibition of plays, interludes, fuland intoxicating of these sources wild beasts, and extraordinary chasprings from the fairs held in our racters of whatever description, neighbourhood; I therefore entreat forbidding every species of gamyou to make my views public bling, with all other diversions of through your valuable miscellany; an immoral tendency, confining and should it be the means of rous- the fairs to the sale of merchaning the inliabitants of this great dize, and other commodities for the City to combine their efforts, and benefit of the public; interdicting lay the axe to the root of this over- music and dancing at the public grown tree, whose fruit conveys houses in the immediate vicinity of contagion and death to the vitals the fairs, on pain of losing their of the public, I shall feel sincerely licences. And if it can be said that thankful.

there are laws in being sufficient to To describe the bareful conse- suppress all that is complained of, quences of these fairs, would perhaps then, it is humbly presumed, that be to attempt impossibilities; but some steps are necessary to be I will give some of the outlines of taken to put them in force; perthis masterpiece of the devil to de- haps a memorial to the magistrates lude the unwary visitants of these will effect all that can be desired ; haunts of vice. Instead of these but it is high time that something fairs being the receptacles of lawful be done to counteract. the excesses merchandize the product of the too fatally practised at these fairs. industrious artizan, the mart of the I am confident that government hamble peasant and the careful will listen to an application of this house-wife, it is an acknowledged kind, if respectfully made; or if fact, that no honest persons can ap any better mode can be adopted to proach them, but at the risk of vio- obtain the desired end, I shall relent outrage on property or life; joice in being the humble means, and while they are continued in with you, of bringing it before the their present pestilential state, little public; and if our efforts should hope of a decrease in depravity be crowned with success, I shall, can be expected: they may be with every scrious family, with fairly said to be the sources of em- every pious parent, and every moployment for the hangman ; the ral individual, rejoice that another fruitful spring from whence our step is taken to bring about the jails derive a constant supply; and fulfilinent of that blessed promise, the irretrievable ruin of thousands. to which all good men have been

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