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Son, and sheweth him all things that himself doeth” (John v. 20): as called His friend (Ib. xv. 15), and taught, in like manner by him, an apostle might declare again to his brethren in their turn“ all the counsel of God” (Acts xx. 27). But in such mind or counsel it will be necessary to apprehend a particular as well as a general intellect, or a form as well as a substance of God: in which form we have the modal Word, the Image, the Glory of God; intelligible as a form, but indiscriminable as a substance; being “ God of God, Light of Light,” &c.; only mediated, revealed, or levelled to a human capacity in the person of Christ; as the apostle says, “In these last days” (Heb. i. 2); that is, beginning with the evangelic era of his incarnation, of which there will be more to be considered in the view of that, namely, of the subject's present state.
There is an abundance of other names, and drawn too from every department of the Kingdom parallel to those of Image and Word just considered to denote the Presence of its Subjective in this Second Mediate: as from the incidental department Name, Testimony, &c.—from the intellectual constituent Sight, Hearing, Voice, Mind, Wisdom, -which are more consonant with the last-mentioned Word, not only than those incidental derivatives but also than the spiritual constituent Power, Breath, &c.; as other expressions taken from the material department like Eyes, Mouth, Lips, Facé, on the contrary, agree more with Image. And if any one should think, that no 'name yet proposed has enough of the original Object to which it refers, there is one unexceptionable on that account in a term lately mentioned, namely,
-10, Presènce itself, of which we have a very early notice in the written Word—as early as the first offence and consequent flight upon record : “when Adam and Eve heard the Voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and they hid themselves from the Presence of the Lord God amongst the trees of the garden" (Gen. iii. 8).
But the most particular, and as it may be said, most PERSONAL mention of Presence being itself a more personal epithet than some of its tribe-as a Form or Medium of the Deity, appears in the account of that remarkable petition of Moses for the people, and God's reply assuring him of protection for himself and them, “And Moses said unto the Lord, See, thou sayest unto me, Bring up this people: and thou hast not let me know WHOM THOU WILT SEND WITH ME. Yet thou hast said, I know thee by name, and thou hast also found grace in my Sight. And consider, that this nation is thy people. And he said My PRESENCE SHALL GO WITH THEE; and I will give thee rest", &c. (Exod. xxxiii. 12, &c.) He says likewise of that great leader elsewhere, “With him will I speak mouth to mouth, even apparently, and not in dark speeches; AND THE SIMILITUDE OF THE LORD SHALL HE BEHOLD” (Num. xii. 8), being the sign or vehicle of what we are considering, like Image, &c., before mentioned.
There cannot however, be a nearer term for the relation of God in Christ than this of Presence essentially, and characteristically Similitude; which is his Shechinah or standing Presence: his naked Presence* having never been seen. Neither can there be any term that shews such relation in a greater variety of positions, all intimating the necessity and inseparability that exists between the two subjects. For can a man be separated from his own presence ? then may God be separated from Christ. Can a man be separated from his own likeness or similitude? He cannot that, however many and unequal likenesses may be taken of or from him. There cannot be a more significant term for our union with God through his means, whereby the Divine Presence is naturalized, and made at home as it were in our kind; not resident merely, but at home and stationary, or as it may be said inseparable. “For I am persuaded, (says the Apostle,) that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus, our Lord” (Rom. viii. 38, 39).
* In understandng however the Presence of God to bear a more personal meaning than some of its correlatives, as Image, Word, Similitude and the like-we cannot suppose, that it literally denotes a person distinct from the Being to which it is applied ; any more than Numen, its Latin synonyme, and about as near a paraphrase as we shall find perhaps for the term in any language. For the Latin philosophers and poets are apt to speak of their Numen Dei precisely in the same manner as above exemplified of the divine Presence, or as they would simply speak of Deus, their Deity or Divinity. Witness such phrases as these, “Cultores Numinis ;" “ Amicum mihi Numen ;” “ Conscia Numina veri ;” “ Exorabile Numen,” &c.
-11, But still “ the Presence of God” does not necessarily signify his Presence with us. He may be relatively present with other beings, as it is written, “God standeth in the congregation of princes : He is a Judge among gods” (Ps. Ixxxii.)), or with superior beings compared with mankind : and He may be absolutely present in Himself again, as he was before creation; not being present with mankind in either case. His Immediate Presence therefore considered in relation to himself will require another name to denote his presence with us : and that he has in “ Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us” (Matt. i. 23).
It should also be observed, that while the name of Emmanuel has been particularly appropriated to the Subject, and so far may seem to bear a more limited meaning than Presence alone: for this may be with angels as well as with the Father, but that only with us, which is generally understood of mankind,—the meaning of the expression may be still farther limited by considering ourselves personally or particularly understood in the pronoun us, as being individually the objects of that presence. For Emmanuel, being interpreted God with us, may be understood in both relations, that is both collectively and individually of any number or connexion : thus he may be present at once as well with those who like to read of Him
for example, as with the devoted scribe who takes such a pleasure in mentioning his Presence, and only regretsthat he is not allowed to enjoy more of it.
-12, The production of Divinity therefore, being thus deduced from its source, and brought down to the level of our apprehension by different mediums that have been mentioned one after another, is now perceived constant in Christ, Shiloh or Messiah. The names that have been mentioned hitherto were not so much like names as epithets, being only used occasionally to denote some particular relation or character of the subject : but these; while they have also the same use or effect, will not be quite so occasional; as we find in the example of the first of them, namely in CHRIST; a surname that may also be regarded as epithetic, and somewhat more,—from its frequent and almost common occurrence with the proper name of the subject. It is always necessary to refer to a subject of whatever description by some name either proper or common, and frequently in the former case by more names than one: so here is Christ, a surname, if it should not rather be considered as a title (and not very peculiar) added to the proper name of the subject, Jesus: and making therewith his usual designation of Christ or Anointed Jesus : which means Jesus, the anointed of God; or an universal King, the Organ of Omnipotence-of the King that ruled Israel before any other king was anointed, or desired, or thought of,-appointed before either to the throne of David, and to the Sovereignty of the people of God, as he was appointed to the patriarchate of mankind before Adam lost it; all together an universal and perpetual sovereignty, applying not only to the seed of Abraham after the flesh, but also after the promise, saying “ I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee, and in thee (or “ in thy seed,” Gen. xxii. 18, which is Christ) shall all the families of the earth be blessed” (Ib. xii. 3). “His name (Christ) shall endure for ever; his name shall remain under
the sun among the posterities (nations of Christendom especially) which shall be blessed through him; and all the heathen shall praise him” (Ps. lxxii. 17).
It will not be necessary to notice this well known epithet of the Subject or Second Mediate accruing from his highest relation any further, as it applies to him: but lest any misconception or offence should arise from its application to others, it may not be amiss to remember in this place, that if the same expression of Christ or Messiah be so applied ; which indeed it is to other ministers of divine Providence, whether Jewish or Gentile, royal or prophetic; as to Saul (Sam. I. xxvi. 16, &c.), to David (Ps. cxxxii. 10, &c.), to Cyrus (Isai. xliv. 28), to the prophets (Ps. cv. 15), this is no more than happens likewise by other titles of the Subject; as Lord, Saviour, Judge, Redeemer; nay, even with that most peculiar title, the Son of God; and is of no consequence. For the communication of this, or of any other term to other subjects has nothing to do with its application in the present instance.
-13, Angel and Spirit are also common names : but the commonness of these names does not forbid their application to the Subject in the sense of a relation or presence, and not of a natural form or person; the angelic relation being here tripartite, namely to God as his angel or missive Spirit, to man as the object of this mission, and to the Mystery or Covenant as its subject. For considering the spirituality of the Subject, or viewing the subject in a spiritual light, we may regard him as a subject of many particular spirits ; of which some excellent forms have been already exhibited, and with many more are to be read of in Scripture. Thus we read of the Spirit of wisdom, judgment, understanding, counsel and knowledge (Exod. xxviii. 3; Deut. xxxiv. 9; Isai. xi. 2; Eph. i. 17), all intellectual spirits; of the Spirit of glory and the Spirit of grace (Pet. I. iv. 14; Zech. xii. 10; and Heb.x. 29), which are supernatural ; of the pure Spirit of meekness (Cor. I. iv. 21; Gal. vi. 1), and others in the same