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over other, by imposing on each other their own fashions, whims and SENTIMENTS too (if they have any), like so many badges or signs of imponent's superiority; and to wage unpitying war on all, whether countrymen or foreigners, who will not fall down and worship any idol that imponent may be pleased to set up. But so great indeed is the ordinary deference of mankind for this fascinating despot, that it is what they are not disposed to stick on, but will swear, if necessary, never to worship any other God but his. And, without swearing or forswearing it, they will not even venture to pronounce on the merits of a prophet, leave alone gods, before the recommendation of the World duly given; which of course it will not be, or not very readily and sincerely to a servant of the Lord. “If ye were of the World, (says he to his disciples) the World would love his own: but because ye are not of the World, but I have chosen you out of the World, therefore the World hateth you" (John xv. 19).
One would hardly suppose, that this could be the World that God “ so loved, that He gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life” (John iii. 16). But there is somewhat to be said for that, as before intimated. A man may love the world and the more likely for not envying it; and do every thing also to accommodate every one in the world as far as he is able, without accommodating himself to its maxims: as the Wise man advises, “Envy thou not the oppressor, and choose none of his ways" (Prov. iii. 31). So it may be taken for granted, that divine love is superior to every attraction; not depending on circumstances but only on itself, or on its divine Equivalent—“for God is love” (John I. iv. 8): which makes it so much the more commendable, as St. Paul observes on occasion of the stupendous sacrifice of his only begotten Son aforesaid, namely how “God commendeth his love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us” (Rom. y. 8). But was God's love to the World a cause of this sacrifice, or was it not a
consequence? A consequence it was most assuredly, and a benefit resulting therefrom. For love is not with God a passion or motive ; but the effect and demonstration of that which is a passion with mortals, and often no more: it is the blessed effect of his Being; and his being in Christ is love to all the World as far as it shall believe or receive him. . 1. To dwell any longer on the second primitive objective or general principle of evil and his identity with the first, may now be needless, as more concerning it must soon appear in the consideration of its particulars or derivatives : let us therefore proceed to
3. The next mentioned and last of the three aforesaid primitives remaining to be considered; the Flesh, as it is quaintly named in Scripture: where its evil quality under present circumstances is pretty well indicated, being for a more perfect distinction of the same also frequently contrasted with the heavenly presence of the Spirit; as for example by St. Paul, where speaking for himself he says, E" I know that in me, that is in my Flesh, dwelleth no good thing” (Rom. vii. 18). “ So then they that are in the Flesh cannot please God. But ye are not in the Flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you" (Ib. viii. 8, 9).
It seems harder to conceive at first than we find it, and even rather paradoxical, though the fact may not be doubted, that this third and last mentioned evil principle or primitive objective, should ever be found in a combination that has been hallowed with the presence of God and stamped with his image; or that with all his goodness God should ever have condescended to be “manifest in the Flesh” (Tim I. iii. 16); which we are here to consider as a main cause, if not rather substance or combination of many evil characteristics: 80 that its corruption on the contrary may be, and indeed has been disputed by many. But let it be remembered that in the Flesh we contemplate something deeper, and not merely the outward form. Therefore as our Saviour, when he talked of giving his flesh for the life of the World (John vi. 51), considered it only as the medium of an immortalizing Spirit in that case, so we in the present construction are to regard the same substance only as a medium or vehicle of the spirit which bringeth in death : and as he said, “ It is the Spirit that quickeneth; (meaning the good) the flesh profiteth nothing” (Ib. 63); so we may say, It is the spirit (meaning the lusts of the Flesh) that killeth : the flesh never hurts the flesh: the senseless matter cannot kill itself; but its consuming lusts they kill the flesh; and, if they do not kill quite, make a fearful havock also of the soul. Upon which our Saviour's chief apostle has left a very serious admonition to the people of God. “Dearly beloved, (says he) I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, WHICH WAR AGAINST THE SOUL" (Pet. I. ii. 11). And St. Paul also, looking to farther consequences, tells his followers, “If ye live after the flesh, ye shall die." (Rom. viii. 13); meaning the lusts of the flesh, and not its material part. Likewise St. James, where he says to the same purpose, “Every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his own lust and enticed. Then, when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin ; and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death ” (Jam. i. 14, 15).
Having already contemplated a sufficient specimen of this unrighteous crew, the lusts of the flesh, which is but another word for evil characteristics of the more spiritual class, we will not, as we need not, now impose on out. selves the task of conning over these ugly names again: but proceed to those secondary objectives which spring successively from the three united sources of evil now mentioned; as all the mediates of the Kingdom descend from one Author in three Types or Persons on the other side: distinguishing these, like those, into two classes; here infernal and terrestrial, as there celestial and the same. - 82. It is not an easy part, to distinguish between
emissaries and their principals, when they happen to be naturally descended from them—and so directly too as some are, like the first of the several tribes for example which we are presently to consider. But notwithstanding the difficulty of the distinction it may still be practicable not only between principals and their emissaries generally, .but also among the latter sort again-among the subordi. nate, dependent, or derivative objectives cooperating with their principals ostensibly and intentionally as it were against the Kingdom, but really and effectually against each other; the Kingdom itself being as secure against their malice, as if there was none of it. Therefore when we read “He cast upon them the furiousness of his wrath ; anger, displeasure and trouble; and sent evil angels among them” (Ps. lxxviii. 50), we need not understand any other objects than the parties here alluded to, namely those whom he sends and those to whom they are sent, the evil spirits and their evil persons or habitations; 1, the infernal; and 2, the terrestrial part of the objective community. And it shews the Almighty power of God in a striking light, when we consider how He sends not only the blessed Spirit of his Son into our hearts (Gal. iv. 6), or comes himself in this form (Cor. II. v. 19); but also wields the evil one, two, or three,—with the whole of their evil crew; sending or throwing one evil class against another, as “He directeth his voice under the whole heaven, and his lightning unto the ends of the earth” (Job xxxvii. 3): of which classes considering first the infernal sort just alluded lo- 1. We find in this class an host of evil angels, or spirits -minor demons, that seem at once to suffer and foment the troubles of the troublers of the Kingdom, including themselves of course; as no more than one should expect, nor more either than will admit of proof. For the employment of evil spirits in this way oftener than good may be inferred not only from the reason of the case, which would make them appear to be most suitable for the purpose, but also from plain experience, teaching every one who is apt to notice-such occurrences, that he is never more forward himself in punishing his fellow creatures, whether rational or brutish, than when he is himself in the worst habits, and most deserving of punishment. "There ; foré saith the Lord of hosts, the mighty One of Israel, Ah; I will ease me of mine adversaries, and avenge me of mine enemies ” (Isai. i. 24).
It was necessary for the ends of divine justice on offenda, ers, that evil angels should be sent among them as afore-, said; also, to spare the good; and by reason of the conve-, nience of such ready messengers as some of them are, being like their great original, primitive stock or fountain, wanderers by choice and always fully equipped for mischief. And of this wandering habit too in such ready messengers of evil to each other we have a remarkable intimation by our Saviour himself, shewing as it were the very gait or unquiet way of them. “When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places) seeking rest, and findeth none. Then he saith, I will return into my house from whence I came out. And when he is come, he findeth it swept and garnished. Then goeth he and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself: and they enterin and dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first” (Matt. xii.43,&c). It seems hardly worth while to inquire how any uncleant spirit or evil property in this depraved association should happen to leave his brethren for a time, or where else he could shew his dirty face, to take to himself, or conciliate so many as seven other evil spirits or properties that were not in the man before ; because the fact for the illustration of which this example is cited may seem obi vious enough. Supposing for example this wanderer in dishabille to be the spirit of Pride ; which sball leave its scornful subject for a season-no one knows, how; but it may be through some casual mortification--and after a while return with Ambition, Avarice, Hypocrisy, Lust, Lying, Persécution and Sacrilege, seven other spirits more