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an annuity which would make them of the labourer, and lead him to look independent and comfortable when past to parish relief, rather than to his own work, and yet not too old to enjoy life. industry, thrift, sobriety, and good A sub-committee of the Union is at conduct, for help in sickness and mainthis time employed in drawing up rules tenance in old age. Education up to for a benefit society for members of the a certain age, or a certain standard Union only. It is to be hoped that an of knowledge, ought to be made comold-age annuity, as above described, will pulsory. The liquor traffic ought to be form a prominent part of this scheme. regulated, not, as now, on the prinOn no work can the Union be more ciple of contributing as much as possible usefully employed. Nor is it possible to the revenue, but solely with the view to conceive any more powerful induce- of providing necessary refreshment, ment to become members of the Union without parading at the corner of every than the institution of such a society, street, and multiplying, ad nauseam, in to which men, bership with the Union every village temptations to the labourer is the only passport. There will be no to waste his earnings on selfish sotting, reluctance to become members of the instead of devoting them to the mainUnion, when young men see that such tenance and education of his family, substantial advantages as those above and securing assistance in sickness and indicated are the fruit of membership. an annuity in old age. Here is good
The National Agricultural Labourers' wholesome work for the Union : first, Union is already an association of con- in bringing pressure upon Parliament, siderable power and influence. That in the approaching general election, to power consists, not merely in numbers, exact such reforms as those above but in the fact that the grievances which indicated ; secondly, in educating the it is its object to remedy are real griev. labourer to understand that such reances, and that the persons of whom itcon forms would be materially for his sists are spread over the whole country. benefit. For instance, that it would Unlike most other unions, which are be much better for him not to have chiefly limited to the particular towns parochial relief to look to as an inheritor districts in which the crafts repre- ance, aud to have fewer temptations in sented by them are located, inasmuch as the way of public houses; and that, agricultural labourers are everywhere, though as at present advised he thinks the whole country is leavened with the it would be cruel to rub him of his Union in which they are enrolled. As children's small earnings by compelling the number of members increases—there them to be at school, in the end be will be a proportionate increase in the would find that the impossibility of power and influence of the whole body. getting men's work done by children at Parliamentary Reform and the repeal of almost nominal wages, would have the the Corn Laws were both carried by com- inimediate effect of making work for bination; and if it be wise, the Union adults at once more plentiful and remay exercise great influence upon the munerative. It is very important, also, Legislature. This, however, will depend to have the law between master and almost entirely upon its abstaining from servant put on a fairer and clearer footall attempts to exert that influence in ing, such as might be obtained by the connection with mere political theories amendment of the Master and Servants and questions practically unconnected and the Criminal Law Amendment with the labourer, and concentrating it Acts. “Sauce for the goose is sauce for entirely upon the redress of the real the gander.” If a fine is to be levied grievances under which he is suffering for breach of contract, in the case The Poor Law ought to be either of the master it should be in progradually abolished, or at least admi- portion to his position and income nistered in such a way as not to under- - something which he may really mine, as at present, the independence feel; otherwise that which is ruin to
the servant would be a merely insig. carried on. Lawyers, medical men, nificant amount in the case of the merchants, philosophers, artists —every master. If breach of contract or intimi- trade and every craft-and even the dation is, in the case of the servant, to clergy, have their Unions. Landlords be punished by imprisonment, the same and farmers are united in their Champenalty should be exacted from the bers of Agriculture, as well as mermaster. The offence, moreover, specially chants in their Chambers of Comthat of intimidation, ought to be clearly merce. Farmers who, not content defined; for when a master proclaims with being combined with landowners that he will employ no labourers who in Chambers of Agriculture, are now, belong to the Union, seeing that the in many parts of the country, comUnion is a perfectly legal body, he is bining in Unions for the specific puras guilty of intimidation as a woman pose of not employing any one belongwho, with a stick in her hand, stands ing to the Labourers' Union, are the at a gate to prevent a non-union stranger last people who ought to declaim against from taking her husband's bread out of the principle of combination. If the his mouth. Barristers of high stand. National Agricultural Labourers' Union, ing should be appointed as stipendiary swerving from its avowed and most magistrates to preside at every court of laudable object of seeking “ to improve petty session. There is no need to the general condition of agricultural abolish county magistrates, but only to labourers in the United Kingdom,” give them a responsible guide and leader. allows itself to degenerate into a mere At present, they necessarily take the political engine for bringing about a law chiefly from the attorney who is social revolution, in all probability it clerk to the Bench. Neither is it will of its own weight fall to the likely that sufficient pressure will be ground. But if, on the other hand, it brought upon Parliament to exact any keeps its own avowed object steadily in of the above reforms until the franchise view ; allows itself to be led astray has been given to the agricultural la neither to the right nor to the left; purbourer, or until men directly represent sues its own well-defined course with ing this class of labourers are sent to courage, decision, and perseverance, yet the House of Commons. If agricul. without excitement, the use of abusive tural labourers had a vote for the county, language, or unnecessarily assuming a and therefore needed to be canvassed, threatening attitude; and carefully their interests would be better looked guards itself against the dangers which after than now. And if there were one have been pointed out, the National or two agricultural labourers in the Agricultural Labourers' Union will House of Commons, such speeches as prosper and increase. Landlords, were made by the Marquis of Salisbury farmers, and specially the clergy of the and the Marquis of Bute on the second Church of England, whose stronghold reading of Lord Henniker's Agricultural is amongst agricultural labourers, and Children Bill, on June 10ih last, in who by every obligation, Divine and the House of Lords, would not remain human, are bound to help the oppressed, unchallenged.
instead of looking about them indifThe principle of union, or combina- ferently on the shore, or, doing their tion, is sanctioned by the example of best to sink this noble ship, will do all ages and classes. The ancient guilds, well to take the rudder into their hands; many of which still exist, are nothing and so, instead of allowing the vessel to more or less than coinbinations for a fall into bad hands who will convert it specific purpose. There is scarcely an into a fire-ship such as may plunge the Act of Parliament passed except by nation into flames, assist in steering it party, which is nothing more or less than safely into port, laden with the country's union, or combination, without which welfare and glory. A few days ago I the Queen's Government could not be was in Lancashire. I stood in the midst of a large room, in which there the neighbourhood. Applications for were more than a thousand power-looms admission are so numerous that another at work, besides many other large rooms room close by is being constructed, filled with spindles and other machi to contain 1,200 additional looms. I nery. The room was lofty, and so asked what was the secret of a facwell ventilated that the atmosphere was tory, so often in all respects the very that of a gentleman's drawing-room. reverse, being thus made a happy Several thousand, chiefly of young and improving home. I found it to women, were employed, being clean in consist of a principle which, if the themselves, neat in their dress, and, as owners and occupiers of land would of far as their faces spoke the truth, very their own accord adopt, there would be healthy and happy. There were on the no need of an Agricultural Labourers' premises commodious dining-rooms for Union, the very principle, in short, those who came from a distance, re which it is the object of the Union to tiring-rooms for both sexes, reading establish. The principle, as stated by rooms for all. On inquiry, I found the owner of these works to me, and that so strict was the code of morality which, he added, had contributed as enforced, as well as the rules for clean- much to his own welfare as to that of liness, that an esprit de corps had been his work-people, was expressed in the generated amongst the hands employed following few noble and striking words: which relieved the employers of all “I have always held that the object of further trouble in the matter. The factories is, first, to make money; and, persons employed in these works will secondly, to improve the physical and not themselves for a moment tolerate moral condition of the persons employed that any one of their number should be in them; and my experience is, that giddy in conduct, or untidy in person the more consistently the latter of these or dress. Employment at these works two objects is pursued, the more cerconsequently was at a premium in ,tainly and largely the former is attained.”
MY TIME, AND WHAT I'VE DONE WITH IT.
BY F. C. BURNAND.
LIFE AT HOLYSHADE—AN ESTIMATEHOLYSHADIAN MORALITY-ENJOYMENT -AIDS TO LEARNING-A HOLYSHADIAN BOY'S DIARY—FAGGING--THE ORDEAL -A PROSPECT.
I HAVE no hesitation in recording the fact, that, if I was not the best boy at Holyshade, at all events I was not the worst. Like Lord Nelson, I could say primly, as far as the Holyshade code went, “ I have not been a great sinner.” But I am equally bound to add, that I do not hold in high estimation the Holyshadian code of social morality, unless I am called upon to admire the justice of a thief who shares his plunder with his companion in the theft, and refuses to compromise his honour by turning Queen's evidence.
It was said by them of old time, that no Holyshadian would tell a lie, and that, therefore, any master could rely upon a Holyshadian's “honour as a gentleman."
I say that the honour depended on the circumstances.
When Tulkingham major, who could fag me, ingeniously branded my new bureau with my initials, using for that purpose the red-hot poker, did I give up his name to my tutor when he demanded it? No. Why? Because I thought I should get the worst of it with Tulkingham.
The boys themselves, with a keen sense of humour, had a graduated scale of honour, which was represented by the following formula :
“Will you take your oath he was ten feet high?”
The Holyshadian youth was taught to pay some deference to authority in the hours of study, but he was likewise taught, that, in play-time, this same authority is a half-sleeping dog, which, as it is dangerous to approach, it is necessary to avoid.
Thus the Holyshadian learnt that there were bounds beyond which he might not venture.
He was told, for example, that boating on the river, beyond these bounds, was permitted, nay encouraged.
To be on the river was allowable; to be caught going to the river was punishable. Therefore the object of the boy, bent on enjoyment in a boat, was to get out of the way of any master whom he might happen to see on his way down to the river. The boy had to “shirk," that is, to dodge into a shop, or behind anything, anywhere, out of sight of the master. The latter knew it to be all nonsense ; the former knew it too. Like the augurs, they would have laughed had they met. The Holyshadian Moral Code was easily summed up in one commandment, “ DO what you like as long as you are not found out.”
But I shall presently state a case which roused all Holyshade at the time, and not Holyshade only, but the municipal authorities of the City of London, and two boys, two Holyshadians, whose guilt was known but to a select few, held out in the face of rigid examination and cross-examination, were proof against surprise, and thus it happened that, finally, Falsehood triumphed, and Vice was triumphant. Of this later on.
For my part, I took Holyshade as it ance. That these have become great camg; and for me, after the first year, men is no proof of the systeni's exit came pleasantly enough.
cellence; that they have, in some inMy father never seemed to expect stances, been good Christian men is any learning from me, and was perfectly certainly irrespective of it. satisfied with my improved appearance I remember busts of some of these in the holidays, when at Easter and Worthies arranged along the walls of Midsummer he took me to the Opera, the Upper School. Ghastly objects they which was an enormous treat. I did my were, with their dirty white faces, blank best to prove myself worthy of this eyes, and dusty double chins, stuck up advancement.
on brackets as though to warn the If Holyshade can do anything for a thoughtless youth against following in boy, it can do one thing, and that is, their footsteps, along the road to fame, make him independent.
which would bring them to this comWhether this be for his advantage, or plexion at last. not, is for the consideration of the Clerical Holyshadians, of the Tory Holyshadians generally. I answer, that, High Church type, used to point with as the system was in my time, this pride to a modern Holyshadian Worthy independence was a disadvantage. in the person of a Missionary Bishop,
Practically, out of the actual school. whose energy of character and physical room, the Holysbadian boy was his own capacities would have stamped him as master, and could do, within certain remarkable in any profession. He was limits of time, just exactly what he invariably spoken of, with much shaking pleased.
of heads and uplifting of eyes and I am told that Holyshade is improved hands, as“ Apostolic.” The Holynow-a-days. I am glad to hear it. It shadians, who used this term, being needed improvement. From what I pressed for an exemplification of its have been able to gather from present appositeness to this eminent Wortby, Holysbadians, however, I am inclined usually fell back on tales of the hardto think that, in spite of some studies ships and fatigues endured by their having been rendered compulsory, and schoolfellow, and were never weary of official encouragement given to novel narrating how his Holyshadian training athletic sports, the morale of the place had been of the greatest use to him in is very much the same as it was twenty- -swimming rivers. I do not think it five years ago, and as it was twenty-five was ever said that he received his years before that, and as it will be strongest religious impressions from while the circumstances of its present Holyshadian teaching. existence remain unaltered, to the end I soon discovered that the Colvin of its time.
nature was admirably adapted to the Only Holyshadian masters ruled over Holyshadian constitution. Holyshadian boys. They knew there- Money was no object, apparently, not fore by experience what was going on even to the tradesmen, who were kind under their very noses, but, satisfied enough to allow an almost unlimited with results which had placed them credit. This was generous on their where they were, and provided for them- part, as it involved a risk. The tutors selves and their families for life, they signed orders for clothes and books with did not intend to open their eyes to the the openhandedness of those liberal fault of the system, or to own them- spirits who have carte blanche to deal selves wrong, where they had the credit with others' money. from outsiders, of being in the right. I found myself in a new world, with They pointed with pride to the names of a paper currency, and means at hand of Holyshadian wortbies, but were loth to obtaining present enjoyment, without adunit that each Worthy would have the drawback of immediate outlay. been worthier under better moral guid- There were clubs, there were social