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THE NEW OUTLOOK
BY HENRY HOYT MOORE MANAGER ILLUSTRATION AND PRINTING DEPARTMENTS OF THE OUTLOOK Mr. Moore has been for many years connected with The Outlook in various capacities. Entering the service of this journal more than a quarter of a century ago as apprentice-boy in its composing-room, he has successively served it as journeyman, as expert proof-reader, and finally as superintendent of printing and as manager of the illustration department. On the literary side of the paper Mr. Moore has been a frequent contributor, not only in signed articles, but in many of the editorial departments. His artistic inclinations outside of office hours have led him into many fields of travel, in which he has used a camera to the frequent edification of our readers and of the public in numerous exhibitions, the latest being that of the American Institute of Graphic Arts in New York City. Mr. Moore speaks to our readers, therefore, with a certain background of technical authority in his familiar talk about the "new" Outlook, which follows.-The EDITORS.
CANY considerations have influenced He had very definite notions as to type faces,
the adoption of a larger-sized page, and during one of his visits abroad he found
I which will be the most noticeable fea- a copy of an old Venetian book that emture of The Outlook's new form, which will bodied his ideas of a readable type--"firm appear on January 3 next. The advantage in lines, flat enough to take a generous color of seeing the contents of the periodical with and to withstand strong impressions.” Under less turning of leaves, the opportunity for a Mr. Houghton's directions this letter was bolder appeal for reading matter and illustra- made into a style of type called the Riverside tion when desired, the expressed wish of many Series. This series, with certain modificareaders for a more legible type, the insistent tions suggested by the writer, has been renecessity for economy in the use of paper—for vived and cast by the American Type Founthe smaller the page the more space relatively ders Company for the use of this journal, must be given to margins—and the better and is to be called by the type founders The adaptability of the larger page to the character Outlook Series. The size employed for of The Outlook as a weekly reporter and The Outlook is known as ten point. Here interpreter of current life, have constituted the is a specimen of the new Outlook Series, mingled yarn of motive which has resulted in showing the size to be used in the new form: the decision to make the change. As to an
When, in the course of human other influence, that of fashion, if it is right
events, it becomes necessary for one and seemly for a man or woman from time
people to dissolve the political bands to time to order a new suit or gown, and to
which have connected them with anfollow the prevailing mode in the cut thereof,
other, and to assume, among the powit seems equally fitting that a periodical
ers of the earth, the separate and should consult changing taste in matters
equal station to which the laws of journalistic when the appropriate time arrives
nature and of nature's God entitle for it to consider new habiliments.
And as with fashions in human costume, so It will be observed that the new type is in typography, the tendency is to hark back both larger and heavier than that now used, to the things of former days. The Outlook's which is one of the many variations of the new size will closely approximate that in so-called Caslon Series. Yet it occupies no which it appeared to its readers twenty years more space. Printing types, it may be exago. Its letterpress will, in its new form, plained, consist of a “body,” or base, on the revert to a much older fashion. The type top of which is cast the “ face,” which is the which has been chosen for The Outlook is part that appears in printing. The face may an adaptation of an old Venetian letter de- occupy a larger or smaller surface on the signed in the early days of the printing art. body. The old face used by The Outlook, Its history is briefly as follows:
in which these words are set, and the new The late H. O. Houghton, who estab- type are both on “ ten point” body, about lished the present publishing house of seven lines to the inch. The larger face Houghton Mifflin Company, and who was was obtained in this way: The letters g, i, also the founder of the Riverside Press, of p, q, y are known as descending letters. Cambridge, Massachusetts, was a printer of If the parts of these letters that fall below taste and discernment. He won a well- the center of the line, “ descenders” as they merited reputation as a maker of fine books are called, are shortened, a larger size,
printed is one-quarter of the actual size in both the old form (at the left) and the new form (at the right). The general effect of the new and bolder type for the reading matter and headings is also shown on this page, at the right. Its greater legibility can be better understood by the sample printed in the body of the accompanying article.
THE STORY OF THE WAR
make this a slow process : First, the distance
and natural obstacles involved in the cam-
evident last week, when sweeping demands
The direct approach to Nish is of course
tion between Orsova and Bucharest is by
THE STORY OF THE VAR:
bave pushed the Rumanians south out of Transylvania, througb
the masses, and back into Rumania, the left or west wing of the
Latter place seems to cut off the Rumanian army a Orsov
The offset to the prediction of disaster we have just recorded
THE GERMAN DEPORTATION
The atrocious deportation of Belgians by Germany continues.
Cammaerts, commenting on the acts of deportation, calls the
These things have been going on since October 15. Ten days
ago fifteen thousand had been taken in Flanders alone. How
ceaseless persecutions of the last two years. What is Belgium's
answer to this new crime? To-day ber soul is stricken, Every ånd more to Venizelos, the head of the Nationalist Government,
one of these captives has to choose between death and dishonor.
Their spirit is broken by the slow, gnawing torture endured in
The proposal in Great Britain to appoint a controller of food
wealness, but the evidence of strength. CRAIOVA AND RUMANIA
Germany acted wisely when, long ago, under the preasure of The second great event of the week above noted was the the food question she instituted thorough Government supercapture by General von Falkenbayn's army of the Rumanian vision and regulation. As with Germany, so with England; town of Craiova. This is not an important place in itself, but the action was at first taken to indicate a greater extremity its occupation has tremendous significance. It lies on a railway than actually existed. It was wise because under war condirunning in its general direction from west to east through tions food should be controlled so as to prevent speculation and western Rumania. As the German forces under Falkenbayn to secure as far as possible an even distribution of the burde
“eleven point,” can be cast on a ten point this purpose. Incidentally, it is interesting body, thus providing a larger type without to note in this connection that Mr. Rogers, losing space. This is what has been done like other broad-minded men, has no conceit in the case of the new Outlook Series. that he “knows it all” in advance of experi
As to the type for the headlines, the initial ment. Try it and see" is his motto. "The letters, the placing of the page on the sheet value of his advice consists largely in his ferthe “margins ”—the type used for quota- tility of suggestion as to what to try and tions, the spacing of poems, etc., all these what to avoid trying. minutiæ have received due consideration. The margins of the new Outlook page, And here comes a digression. As in doubt while not as generous as in some sumptuous ful cases a doctor calls in a brother physician books, owing to the necessity of utilizing to for counsel, an architect gets the advice of the full the precious commodity on which it another member of his profession, or a law. is printed, are, it is believed, correctly spaced yer calls upon a disinterested legal friend for —with considerably more white surface on an opinion, so The Outlook at this juncture the outside and bottom edges than on obtained the advice of a well-known expert the top and inside ones. This is not only in matters typographical—Mr. Bruce Rogers, “orthodox,” but much more pleasing to lately of Cambridge, Massachusetts, now on the eye than when the space is equally his way to establish himself in Hammersmith, divided England, near the former home of the famous Many readers of present-day magazines Kelmscott Press. Mr. Rogers's standing in rebel against the current practice of beginning the book-making world may be indicated by articles in the front of the magazine and then this extract from a recently published book compelling the reader to search the back by Henry R. Plomer called " A Short His- pages to find the conclusion of the article. tory of English Printing :” “Mr. Rogers,... This objectionable practice is not to be counin a series of books too little known in England, tenanced in The Outlook in its new form. has shown himself one of the surest and at Appropriate reading matter will be used on the same time the most versatile of modern the advertising pages where space permits, printers." The typographical form of the but the reader will not be subjected to the new Outlook has in almost all its details been annoyance complained of. submitted in proof-sheets to this competent The handsome appearance of the new page, authority, and his valuable suggestions and as well as its relative size as compared with the criticisms have been constantly availed of in present form, is shown in the facsimiles of the preparing the new format.
cover and text pages of the old and the new size The headings are to be uniformly set in of The Outlook on the two preceding pages. what is called Bodoni type, a letter which The facsimiles are reduced to one-quarter of harmonizes excellently with The Outlook the actual size. The “ constant reader ” of Series. It is named after a famous Italian this magazine will be gratified to notice that type-cutter and printer, Giambattista Bodoni, there is a familiar look about the new pagewho was born in 1740 and died in 1813, it is merely an enlargement, as it were, of a and who has been characterized by De Vinne well-liked photograph. in his work on Typography as “a founder It only remains to be said that it is confiand printer who has fairly earned the highest dently believed that the readers of The honors.” “ Bodoni” is a letter which is clear, Outlook, those who have seen it in all the legible, and yet condensed enough to make it various “ dresses” that it has worn through available for crowded columns, while at the the fifty-odd years of its existence, as well as same time it admits of the increased legibility its newer friends and its friends yet to be, obtained by “ letter-spacing”-i.2., inserting will unite in regarding the new Outlook as thin spaces or strips of cardboard between most legible, convenient, and attractive in its the letters of a word—as in the specimen line physical form. As to its intellectual and printed below:
spiritual appeal- that is another story, and
one the editors must tell. The new and THE STORY OF THE WAR
beautiful medium through which they are to The initial letters with which the contrib tell it ought to, and no doubt will, inspire uted articles begin, it will be observed, are to them to maintain the standards of the past be of a lighter series-the “ Book Bodoni” – and if possible bring them to still finer issues it being found on trial that the Bodoni initials in the new day that awaits The Outlook and were somewhat too heavy in appearance for its readers.
made Governor by Carranza. Now Alvarado 1038 cents, of which the planter now receives is an unusual Mexican, as most men who know 7 cents. That still leaves 338 cents between him admit, whether they agree with him or not. the selling price in this country and the plantHe is a natural social radical, heart, soul, and er's share. Of this 338 cents 1 14 cents goes bones. Finding himself more or less isolated out for freight between Progreso and New from the man who had appointed him, and York. There remain to be deducted charges in control of the only soldiers in Yucatan, he for marine insurance, warehouse insurance, proceeded to put into effect many reforms and dock labor as well as a commission for which had been advocated by Carranza and the bankers who financed the Reguladora. some others, which were part of Alvarado's It is difficult to estimate the exact total own private conception of the social millen- of these items, but there is left a small nium. But in order to do these things sum, perhaps more than a cent, perhaps money was necessary, and in Yucatan money less, on each pound of sisal still unaccounted is henequen. The obvious thing to do was for. This profit goes to the State of Yucato put himself in control of the henequen tan. The enemies of Governor Alvarado crop, and Alvarado did it.
say that this is his personal “rake-off.” As a machine to accomplish his ends he The Governor says that, in accordance found the Comision Reguladora del Mercado with the rules of the Reguladora, this profit de Henequen ready to hand. The Reguladora will be divided among the members of the had not been regulating, but when Alvarado Reguladora, which includes all the planters took hold of it it began to regulate very and himself. He said that this division quickly. The machinery had been failing would take place at the end of the first year because the planters had not been putting of the Reguladora's operations. This year their combined power behind it. Alvarado expired about the end of November. It reforced them to get behind it, and he bor- mains to be seen on December 6, as this rowed $10,000,000 from American bankers article goes to press, whether Alvarado will as working capital, whereupon the Reguladora keep his promise to divide. Most of the became as powerful and all-inclusive a piece planters have treated this promise as a of trade-controlling machinery as the world joke. perhaps has ever seen.
Inasmuch as the Governor has raised the Every planter was forced to contract to price of henequen received by the planter from sell his henequen to the Reguladora for five 458 cents a pound to 7 cents, it may not at years by the simple expedient of forcibly pre- first be apparent why the Governor is very venting the shipment of all sisal from Yuca- unpopular with the planters. One reason is tan which had not passed through the Com- that, while he has increased the amount which mission. The planters were forced to lend the planter gets, he has also greatly increased money to the State Government-which was the taxes which the planter must pay to the Alvarado—and were given bonds in the Regu- State ; and another reason is that he has exladora in return.
tracted forced loans from many of the plantSince Governor Alvarado established the ers, and otherwise dealt with them in an Government sisal monopoly the price of hemp arbitrary manner. In short, what he has to the American manufacturer has risen given to the planters with one hand he has greatly. In late November, 1915, when the taken away with the other. At the same monopoly was established securely, it was time he has established a minimum wage 65/8 cents a pound. By the end of 1915 it which they must pay their laborers, has had reached 73/cents, and now it is 1038 established an eight-hour day for all labor, cents. These figures are for New York. and has forced each planter to establish on The figures for other American ports vary his hacienda a school large enough to provide slightly. But do not fall into the error of for the education of all the children of that believing that the Yucatecan planter got this planter's employees. price for his green gold. By no means. I visited several henequen ranches in YuWhen the price was 658 cents in the United catan. Some belonged to planters who supStates, the planter in Yucatan was getting ported the Governor, but most were the 45/8 cents, and about half of the residue was property of his private and political enemies. taken up by freight charges. Later the A henequen plantation is a picturesque planter was given 5 cents as his share ; and affair. If it is far from Merida, you run out still later the price in New York rose to to the railway station nearest the plantation