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It is a book for Sunday church-goers same moment, their respective quoonly. But it endeavours to make the tations are printed parallel-wise. Sunday services as complete as the This is the first time that an limits of the work will permit. It attempt has been made to point recognises all the Sundays of the out the dual nature of many parts Triodion, the Pentecostarion, and of the Greek Church services. The the Menæon, and all the Great Psalter and other Books of the Old Festivals in the year, as well as a Testament quoted from, it is not large proportion of the minor Fes- necessary to allude to, except to tivals, all of which, in their turn, mention that the Septuagint read-1 occur on Sunday. But it recognises ing has throughout been adopted. these Festivals in different degrees.

Most persons who have pursued While those of minor rank have only the • Apolytikion of the Day

a lengthened literary effort, espequoted, all the Great Festivals and cially if hindrances have occurred the Sundays of the Triodion, &c., to prolong the time occupied therehave a far more liberal provision in, have felt regret that certain made for them, as may be seen at things to which they were early large in the Index of Festivals,' a committed, are, except by calling few pages hence.

attention to them prefatorially,

irremediable. The present editor To give an entire view of the

shares this regret with those who order of the sacred services, the

have previously given utterance Sunday of the 1st Tone and the thereto. In his case, absences in 1st Morning Gospel has been taken the Levant during the printing of as the model, with more especial this volume, amounting to close reference to the Festival of the

upon two years, have so thrown Apostle Thomas, which occurs into the distant past the first few annually on the Sunday of Anti- sheets, that he feels almost as if Pascha, than to that of the Prodi- they were the work of another gal, which happens on the 34th hand, and that he has inherited Sunday after Pentecost, the only the stranger's right of criticism. other concurrence of the Nos. i, And he notices that many of the five times in every twenty years.* things he would gladly alter, had This has made it that the 1st Tone he the power, beside his own nuhas been treated with an almost merous and manifest faults, are complete fulness. The Service- those into which he was led thro' books laid under contribution, in over-deference to others. To give addition to the Triodion, the Pente- a couple of examples. 1. The strain costarion, and the Menæon, before of the English authorised version alluded to, for the special Festival of the New Testament, lingering in portions, have been mainly, 1st, the the editor's car from childhood, Evchologion or Priest's prayer book, had impressed upon him more for the bulk of the clerical matter; deeply than all the early sermons and 2nd, the Horologion, or Reader's he had heard upon the subject, the manual, for the lay readings. When supposed threefold division of the both these latter are in use at the Angels' Hymn in Bethlehem at the

* During the remainder of the present century, the Festival of the Prodigal will occur on the Sunday of the Ist Tone and the 1st Morning Gospel, (the 34th Sunday after Pentecost,) in the years 1882, 1885, 1889, 1892, and 1895. The next century commences with the years 1906, 1909, 1912, 1915, and 1919.

V

Birth of CHRIST: Glory, Peace, and be here quoted, both because of Good-will. Hence the reading to their number, and because every be met with at pages 21, 38, 86, 96, independent author may be held to and elsewhere. Could those pages have a right to his own opinion. be recast, the burden of that Hymn But one prominent instance the should be equally apportioned, as editor thinks it proper to point out. in all ancient copies, between the Treating on • The Hymn of the Kingdom of Heaven above and Trisagion’ at page 369 of the work below : Glory to God in the High- just alluded to in a footnote below, est, and Peace on earth among men Dr. Neale seeks to palliate an of good-will.' 2. Dr. King, in his Armenian irregularity by saying : specimen of a Sunday service, given • It is awkward, but that is all; and in · THE RITES AND CEREMONIES OF not so awkward as a phrase used THE GREEK CHURCH IN RUSSIA : by the Constantinopolitan Church London, 1772,' * following the lax in the responsory of the Second Russian practice of the last century, Antiphon on Whit Sunday,

66 SON reduces the number of Aposticha at of God, gracious Paraclete, save us Vespers from four to two. The who sing to Thee Alleluia.” An temptation to follow Dr. King, was, ill-natured critic might say that at the moment, too great to be this is Sabellianism. In the four resisted ; and the consequence is, copies which the present editor that page 16 of the present volume possesses: in the Pentecostarion, in presents a weaker point in the the Horologion, in the Apostolon, service order than was at first and above all in the Constantinople intended, or was ever afterwards edition of the Typicon, the Second permitted.

Antiphon responsory is not as thus Cases contrary to the above, in described, but agrees in each copy which a preceding writer, however with the reading at page 246 in great his reputation, has not been this work : 0 Good PARACLETE, followed, could not, by possibility, save us who sing to Thee Alleluia.'

* It may seem rather late in the day to correct an oversight in a work published one hundred and eight years ago, but as Dr. King's rare quarto is justly prized by those who possess it, and is moreover so generally reliable, and conceived in such an excellent spirit, that it is kindness to the memory of the learned author to put him right with his readers. Dr. King's specimen service is for the Festival of Dionysius the Areopagite, (October 3rd,) which he has arranged as Sunday of the 5th Tone and the 5th Morning Gospel. This is purely an ideal arrangement, and could not occur in practice. October 3rd may be a Sunday of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th (varyse), or 8th (4th plagal) Tones, but it can never occur as a Sunday of the 5th (1st plagal) Tone, as it would necessitate Easter Day to fall on March 14th, eight days before it can possibly happen. Even if it were possible thus to antedate Easter, so as to bring October 3rd on Sunday of the 5th (1st plagal) Tone, it would not be also a Sunday of the 5th, but of the 11th Morning Gospel. The only Sunday in the year in which the Nos. 5 concur, is the 38th after Pentecost, from January 31st to March 6th. In this connection it may be as well to state, that Dr. J. M. Neale, at pages 924 and 925, notes •ý' and • a,' of his profound • Introduction’to the • HISTORY OF THE HOLY EASTERN CHURCH : London, Joseph Masters, 1850,' confuses the Morning Gospel order with that of the Tones, making the Exaposteilaria and Heothina follow the latter order instead of the former.

The foundation of Dr. Neale's grave • Bread for subsistence,' is far too charge against the Church of Con- important to be passed by without stantinople, the editor has not been explanation. - That word which able to discover. It certainly ought we translate daily in the LORD'S not to have been made.

Prayer is to be met with nowhere A few words on one or two pecu

else, neither in the New Testament, liarities of diction and spelling may

nor in the whole Greek language.

It may mean that by which we, here be permitted. 1. The Diaconal [Anglicans,] in common with the call to prayer, Tou Kyriou deithomen, Latin Church, translate it. It may is translated into the Slavonian by mean sufficient, as against to-morHospodou pomolimsia, i. e. a genitive row's wants. It may mean, as some case becomes a dative. This is a have turned it, supersubstantial: that parallel instance to that for which is, Bread, providing, not merely for the Staro-obriadtsi in Russia are the necessity of the body, but also blamed by their Orthodox neigh- for that of the soul. It may mean, bours, where they translate eis tous (and very likely does,) all these aionas tone aionone by vo vieki viekome, together." Such is the statement instead of vo vieki viekoff. Most of of Dr. Neale in a posthumous our English translators have fol- volume of Sermons. † The word, lowed Dr. King in following the epiou sion, may mean daily,' or Slavonian dative rather than the * sufficient,' or .supersubstantial,' Greek genitive, and Let us pray or all these together.' In Dean unto the LORD,' (King) • Let us Alford's Revised New Testament, make our supplications to the (London, Strachan and Co., 1870,) LORD,' (Neale,) and other such like we find the word • needful' propoforms, have obtained considerable sed, a variation on sufficient.' The currency among us. The anony- Latin Church, though she originamous translation of S. Chrysostom's ted the term • daily, and bas given Liturgy attributed to the Marquess it at Luke xi. 3 in the Rheims New of Bute,* has the merit of leaving Testament, has not taken it as her the beaten track, and of reverting sole meaning as have the episcopal to the original case in the Greek : and other reformed communions in • Let us supplicate of the Lord.' England, for at Matthew vi. 11 she A form similar in meaning, but has translated it supersubstantial.' in a small degree more literal : Of Supersubstantial in Greek is hyperthe LORD let us pray,' bas been ousion, much more like the word in adopted throughout by the present question, epiousion, than is hemerion, editor. 2. But in the question of daily. But epi, upon, though used diction, perhaps the greatest of the frequently in the sense of hyper, changes ventured on will be found above, is also often rendered for.' in • The Lord's Prayer.' That our Epiousion was translated in the FATHER .in Heaven' is in the ninth century into the Slavonian, Heavens;' that the trespasses' we and the translation is most exact, ask to be forgiven are «cpheilimata, nasoushchnoui : na being the preposidebts ;' and that the evil' we pray tion epi, and soushchnoui being an to be delivered from is the evil. adjective formed from soushchnost, one,'no one will doubt who knows substance. Thus, a thousand years the Greek New Testament. But ago, this Greek word was underthe change of daily Bread' into stood to mean what it said : that

* The Divine Liturgy of our Father among the Saints, John Chrysostom: London: J. Masters. + Three Groups of Sermons. London: J. T. Hayes

the Bread we ask for this day' is that in Slavonian also a semivowel, to place upon,

or add to, our equivalent to our silent e, closes the • substance.' The notion of deriving present word, * determined the form ousia from eimi, to go, rather than * Amene,' to be found throughout from eimi, to be, as in Liddell and the following pages. Scott's Lexicon, was not entertained

It now becomes the pleasing duty at that time. There are those who refuse to entertain it now. For such,

of the editor to express his gratitude the modified form in the present to those friends who have cheered work: Give us this day our Bread and assisted him in his arduous for subsistence,' has been, after undertaking. The exalted Patriarch much careful thought, yet with all to whom he was subject, whom it becoming diffidence, proposed. 3. pleased God to remove by death Premising that the letter è in Amen from his head two years ago, would has, in ali Eastern tongues, its long most probably, had he lived, have sound, and that the latinized short honoured the work by accepting its sound, making the second syllable Dedication. His kindness in the like the plural of man,' is as little matter of its trauslation, (a type of known as the English phonetic his kindness to the editor on all change of the first syllable into other occasions,) may be gathered Aye, it became a question with the from the following extract of an editor how best to express that official letter from His All-Holiness long sound. •Amin' came recom- to the Metropolitan who had been mended in the music of German charged by two former Patriarchs imprint used by the choirs of Greek (Gregory VI. and Anthimus VI.) congregations in Western parts, but with the duty of conferring on the the letters suggest to an English editor the Holy Orders of diaconate reader a rhyme with bin rather than and priesthood. •JOAKEIM, by the been ; •Ameen,' which suggests un- mercy of God, Archbishop of mistakeably the true sound, has Constantinople, New-Rome, and been so established by Mr. Lane, in Ecumenical Patriarch. Protocol, his standard works on Egypt, as the

No. 3986. Most-sacred MetropoliMohamınadan method of spelling tan of Anchialos, in the Holy the word in English, that it was Ciuost a beloved brother and fellow almost a matter of prudence to worker of our mediocrity, the Lord leave it in sole possession of the Basilios: Grace to your most sacredfollowers of the Arabian Prophet; ness, and Peace from God. With • Amien’ suggests a trisyllabic word profound pleasure we have received too nearly like the name of the an- your letter of April 30th, which cient Picardian capital to be safe ; enclosed a translated copy of the while • Amean ’appears as if lack- English letter to your most sacreding in dignity, and imports a new, ness from the most-devoted priest though silent, vowel (a), into the Mr. Stephen Hatherly... With the word. There remained only for the said letter, and with the annexed editor to adopt the common method explanatory document, we were of lengthening a vowel in the ulti- highly gratified ; and we thanked mate syllable by adding a final e, the LORD our God for the informawhich obtains in hundreds of En- tion that the said most-devoted glish words: and regard for the priest ... is also earnestly endeavnative character of this practice, ouring, with other devoted men, to without any reference to the fact translate into English the prayers

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* In the Slavonian, all words end with a vowel, or a silent semi-vowel.

now

and the sacred services of our progress of his work, to God the Orthodox Eastern Church's ecclesi- Giver of Good and Author of Peace, astical books, . . which will be no that His Grace and Mercy be with small gain to the One, Holy, Cath- him. 1874, October 20th. (Signed,) olic, and Apostolic Church of O KONSTANTINOUPOLEOS, in CHRIST CHRIST. . . The spread of the plain a beloved Brother.' The blessings and true knowledge of our faith is thus bountifully bestowed the edi

more than ever necessary, tor gladly shares with Christy when, as we are informed from Evangelides, Esq., Athens, late the several quarters, many of the lear- U. S. A. Consul at Syra, whose ued men of Europe, prompted by translation of the fine sequence of pious motives, earnestly approach, Canons adorns pages 70–81 ; with desiring to study the order and John Theophilatos, Esq., Kharvati, regimen of our Church, declaring and Emanuel Mavrogordato, Esq., unhesitatingly the original, ancient, London, and other friends, for many and becoming arrangement of her kind corrections and suggestions ; dogmas and services. On this ac- with his neighbour in Bristol, Mr. count, we bless from our hearts the Spyridon Doresa, for the Lecture of pains and labours of our most de- St. Chrysostom at page 219; and voted priest and, in God, beloved with Mr. Demetrius Georgopulo, of son Stephen; and we earnestly pray Manchester, and Mr. George Shann, for him and his fellow workers, the of Kidderminster, for portions of the granting of the Grace of our LORD •Supplementary Office,' and sundry JESUS CHRIST, so that he may be other assistances. The Canons assisted from above until the end for Pascha, Pentecost, and Christof the work of translating the ec- mas' are indebted for occasional clesiastical books. We now wish phrasing in the non-acrostic parts your, to us, desirable most sacred- to Dr. Littledale's Offices of the ness to transmit to him, and to all Eastern Church: London, Williams near him, our Paternal prayers and and Norgate.' The classics of Drs. blessings; announcing also, that we Neale and King, already alluded to, shall never cease praying for the have been consulted at all times.

S. G. HATHERLY, Mus. B. Oxon.

Archpriest of the Patriarchal Ecumenical Throne of Constantinople.

Greek Church, Bristol: August 25th, 1880.

P. S. SINCE the above was in type, the editor has received from His Excellency the Ober-procuror of the Most-Holy Governing Synod of All the Russias, a warm commendation of the following pages, so far as the few proof sheets sent could enable His Excellency to judge thereof. The mention of this gratifying fact gives an opportunity of saying, that the editor's former publication, that of 1865, referred to in the first page of this Preface, was honoured with the approval and previous revision of the same Most-Holy Synod.

September 9th/21st, 1880.

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