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meet with appeals to the understanding of the reader in favour of the animals over which man is the tyrant, Campbell, in describing the life which his Gertrude of W'voming and her lover passed, says, What tho' the sportive dog oft round them dote, or fawn, or wild bird, bursting on the wing; yet who, in love's own presence, would devote to death those gentle throats that wake the spring, or writhing from the brook it's victim bring? No! nor let fear one little warbler rouse; but fed by Gertrude's hand, still let them sing.
If it be allowed that brute animals are more than mere machines, have an intelligent principle residing within them, which is the spring of their several ac. tions and operations, men ought to use such methods in the management of them, as are suitable to a na. ture that may be taught, instructed and improved to his advantage; and not have recourse to force, compulsion, and violence. Brutes have sensibility; they are capable of pain; feel every bang, and cut, or stab, as much as man himself, some of them per. haps more, and therefore they should not be treated as stocks or stones. It is lamentable to think, that any occasion should be given for remarks of this sort, at a time when the world is possessed of so many su. perior advantages; when mankind exceed the pitch of former ages in the attainments of science. But the fact is notorious, maugre all the privileges we en. joy under the improvements of natural reason and the dispensations of religious light, cruelty is exer. cised in all its hideous forms and varieties. Animals are every day perishing under the hands of barbari. ty, without notice, without mercy; famished, as if hunger was no evil; mauled, as if they had no seuse
of pain; and hurried about incessantly from day to day, as if excessive toil was no plague, or extreme weariness was no degree of suffering. Surely the sensibility of brutes intitles them to a milder treat. ment, than they usually meet with from hard and un. thinking wretches. Man ought to look on them as creatures under his protection, and not as put into his power to be tormented. Few of them know how to defend themselves against him, as well as he knows how to attack them. For a man therefore to torture a brute, shews a meapness of spirit. If he does it out of wantonness, he is a fool, and a coward; if for pleasure, he is a monster. Such a mortal is a scan. dal to his species, and ought to have no place in human society.-Dean on the Life of Brutes.
Man ought to be guided by reason, but no guide can be more fallacious than the perverted reason of beings, who form the mass of human society. Un. meaning prejudice, passion, whim, fashion, imitation, or an animal propensity to what is savory, are incentives to action. Above all, custom has effected a despotism, over which, will has no controul. How little reason has been consulted in the establishment of the ordinary customs of life, we may judge, from considering that the habits of modern society are es sentially the same as have been transmitted from the rude beginnings of civilized society. The manner of living of an european philosopher, absorbed in study and meditation, and of an indian savage, destitute of reflection and of foresight, are essentially the same. Io what does the banquet of an english prince differ from the feast of a chieftain of Otaheite, unless in the costliness of the utensils, or the refinements of the cookery? Fish, flesh, and poultry, in each form the favourite materials of the repast, which is finished
by the swallowing of potions of an intoxicating liquor. What share reason has had in the institution of these customs, must be left to their advocates to explain. -Addit. Reports, p. 229.
Miss Margaret Cullen, daughter of the late Wm. Cullen, m. D. of Edinburgh, has produced a novel, in 4 vols. entitled “ Mornton,” calculated to impress a variety of motives to benevolence and humanity. The precept which would be tedious in a serious dis. course, she has prudently thrown into a tale, in hopes, probably, that the claims of reason and justice may arrest the attention of the reader, through a medium where they were least expected.
“Mankind,” says Soame Jenyns,“ spare neitherlabourporexpense, to preserve and propagate innocent animals, for no other end but to multiply the objects of their persecution. What name should we bestow on a superior being, whose whole endeavours were employed, and whose whole pleasure consisted, in terrifying, ensnaring, tormenting, and destroying mankind? whose superior faculties were exerted in fomenting animosities among them, in contriving engines of destruction, and inciting them to use them in maiming and murdering each other? whose power over them was employed in assisting the rapacious, deceiving the simple, and oppressing the innocent who, without provocation or advantage, should con. tinue from day to day, void of all pity and remorse, thus to torment mankind for diversion, and at the same time endeavour, with his utmost care, to preserve their lives, and to propagate their species, in order to increase the number of victims devoted to his malev. olence, and be delighted in proportion to the miseries he occasioned? I say what name detestible enough could we find for such a being ? yet, with regard to inferior animals, just such a being is man.”.
I could refer to facts, and give the names of wretches who have beaten their children, becausethey had a natural aversion to the taste of animal food."
Can any one be found who has not relinquished the faculty of reason? Let him look at a young child who is told that the chicken which it has often called to and fed, is to be killed. Are not the tears it sheds, and the agonies which it endures, the voice of nature, crying within, and pleading the cause of humanity? In despight of your wretched customs and depravities, the voice of nature still cries aloud, BUT YOU WILL NOT HEAR.
When Montesquieu was asked which had the greate est right to salvation, a merciful Infidel, or a cruel Christian, he made this reply: "I knew a Turk, a slave on board one of the King's gallies, who had so much sensibility, that he never gave the least pain to his fellows by a vile insinuation; and when, at any time, he possessed a few livres, he would distribute them for the release of poor birds, or any pitiable creature in confinement. On the other hand, hiş keeper was as cruel as the Turk was merciful. The Turk lived and died as a Christian ought to do; the Christian like the viļest Turk. Which now think you, had the greatest right to salvation?" "The Turk," replied the Priest.
ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR OF A VEGETABLE
DIET CHIEFLY BY MEDICAL WRITERS. The principles of natural bodies, according to the chymists, are water, earth, oil, salt, spirit. Arbuthnot, describing the extreme tenuity or smallness of the lymphatic and capillary arteries, observes, “ Hence one easily perceives the inconveniency of riscidity which obstructs, and acrimony which destroys the capillary vessels."'-Arbuthnot, on Alim, p. 32, edit. 1756. “ All animals are made immediately or mediately of vegetables; that is, by feeding on veg. etables, or on animals which are fed on vegetables, there being no process in infinitum.” “6 Vegetables are proper enough to repair animals, as being nearly of the same specific gravity with the animal juices, and as consisting of the same parts with animal substances, spirit, water, salt, oil, earth; all which are contained in the sap they derive from the earth, which consists of rain.water, air, putrified juices of plants and animals, and even minerals, for the ashes of plants yield something which the loadstone attracts.” Ibid, P. 42. Hence Arbuthnot proceeds to analyze the various parts of the vegetable world, beginning with farinaceous seeds of culmiferous plants, as he terms the various sorts of grain, on which he bestows very deserved encomiums; thence he passes to froits of trees, shrubs, and thence to the alimentary leaves, of which he says, “ Of alimentary leaves, the olera, or pot-herbs, afford an excellent nourishment, among those are the cole or cabbage kind, emolient, laxative, and resolvent, alkalescent, and therefore proper in cases of acidity. Red cabbage is reckoned a medi. cine in consumption and spittings of blood. Among