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The jelly, the juice or chyle of animal substances, is infinitely more teñacious and gluey. [See Memoirs of the Royal Academy for 1729, 1730.], and it's last particles more closely united, and separated with greater difficulty, than those of vegetable substances. This is evident from the experiments made with them in joining of wood, and may be made manifest to the senses in the difference between the tenacity of campjelly or fish-glue, and that of paste made of flower or barley; or from the strength of ropes or cords made of catgut or leather, and those made of tow or hemp, of the same diameter : and therefore animal food must, much sovner, more strongly, and irremediably make visciditiesin animal fluids, and more schirrously obstruct the capillaries and glands, than vegetable substances. 3. But the far more pernicious and destructive part, is the salts and oil abounding more in most animal than in vegetable substances; of which there are so many and convincing demon. strations, that none can have any doubt of it, who has the least acquaintance with natural philosophy : for our blood and juices being nourished and supplied by such substances, as abound most with these active elementary principles, must necessarily be stored and saturated with salts and sulphurs; and these, being always in a state of action, are the true, original, and most adequate causes of the most excruciating distempers. 4. When to these strong, fermented, and spirituous liquors are added as a vehicle, or diluting mixture, and join to the salts and sulphurs of animal substances, not only their inflammable spirits and tar. tarous salts, but their condensing and hardening qual. ity on the food in the stomach, the digestion is by that means hindered and stopped, and the food pot being sufficiently divided and comminuted, but bro. ken only into gross particles, more quickly and ob. stinately thickens the juices, and obstructs the glands and capillaries, than vegetable substances. 5. Ani. mal juices and substances, before they were turned into flesh, must have been strained through infinitely smaller and more numerous tubes, such as the last and extreme capillaries, some of which are not bigger than the six hundredth part of a hair; by which means their particles must be rendered extremely smaller and finer, and consequently have a much greater degree of attraction, than those of vegetables, which pass through fewer strainers, and have no oth. er motive powers but the heat of the sun; whereas those of animal substances have, besides the sun the force of muscular digestion, and of the motion of the heart; the flesh of animals, I say, must on this ac. count, necessarily consist of smaller particles, and so be united with greater force, and endowed with a greater degree of attraction, and consequently must, with far greater difficulty, be digested and separated, than vegetable substances possibly can. And hence it is that carnivorous animals are much more deleterious food, being endowed with much finer and more pungent salts and sulphurs, than those animals that live on vegetables only, as both the high savour and deleterious effects of the first abundantly shew. From all which it is plain to a demonstration, that animal substances must naturally and necessarily incrassate the juices, and produce obstructions in the glands and capillaries, and consequently create pains and diseases, much more readily than vegetable substan. ces. 6. It is plain from weight, that the substance of most animal food is specifically heavier than that of most vegetables used for food, sometimes in the proportion of three to two. The fibres and juices of
animal bodies are not only more compact and closely united, and have fewer vacuities than those of vegetables, whereby the digestive powers have less diffi. culty in concocting and grinding equal quantities of vegetable than animal food; but by the less flavour and savour of vegetable than highly seasoped animal food, the appetite is sooner satisfied, and is under less temptation to excess in the first than in the latter : and it is consequently better and sooner digested, cir. culated, and secreted, especially by tender and delicate digestive powers, and cannot so readily cause vis. cidities and obstructions. Lastly, Infinite experiment, and the best natural philosophy, confirm to a demonstration, that those substances which have least of salt and sulphur, of spirit, oil, and hard pungent particles, and most of soft earth, water and air, are the fittest to circulate, and be secreted through ani. mal tubes, create least resistence to the motive pow. ers, tear, rend, and wear out the tubes themselves least, and form less obstinate and powerful obstructions, in the smaller vessels ; and consequently, that vegetable substances, which consist of a less propor. tion of salts and sulphurs, i. è, of pungent and fiery particles, and of a greater proportion of earth, water, and air, i. e. of less active and cooler particles, will be less ready to create diseases, and shorten life, than an equal quantity of animal substances, which have all these in an inverted proportion. In a word, vegetable substances are more rare, less compact, less coherent, more easily dissolvable and digestible, turn into a lighter chyle, have less salt, oil, and spirit, and consequently are less heating and inflaming, than animal substances, and so obstruct and tear animal tubes less. That animal food and fermented liquors will more readily, certainly, and cruelly, create and exasperate diseases, pains, and sufferings, and sooner cut off life than vegetable food will, there can be no more doubt than in any proposition of Euclid, if Teason, philosophy, the nature of things, or experi. ence, have evidence, or force in them." Cheyne on Regimen, p. 56 to 62. ; It is a mistaken opinion that flesh-meats afford stronger nourishment than vegetable compositions. Flesh has more matter for corruption, and nothing turns sooner to putrefaction. Having this powerful tendency before eating, the same disposition will ex. ist after it is taken into the stomach. Flesh is of a moist, gross and phelgmy quality, and generates a like nourishment. Flesh promotes imperceptible per. spiration and causes drought. Cattle are subject to diseases, uncleannesses, and surfeits; from accident, improper treatment, over-driving, and from various abuses inflicted by inhuman butchers. On the contrary, all sorts of dry food, as bread, cheese, prepar. ations of milk, pulse, grain, fruits and roots are more clean, of a more sound nature, and more easy .of concoction, • The MORAL effect of aliment is clearly evinced in
the different tempers of the carnivorous and frugivorous animals, the former, whose destructive passions, like those of ignorant man, lay waste all with. in their reach, are constantly tormented with hunger, .which returns and rages in proportion to their own devastation ;"this creates that state of warfare or disquietude, which seeks, like murderers, the pight and , veil of the forest, for should they appear on the plain their prey escapes, or, seen by each other, their wel. fare begins. The frugivorous animals wander tranquilly on the plains, and testify their joyful existence by frisking and basking in the congenial rays of the
sun, or browsing, with convulsive pleasure, on the green herb, evinced by the motion of the tail, or the joyful sparkling of the eyes, and the gambols of the herd. The same effect of aliment is discernable a. mong the different species of man, and the peaceful temper of the frugivorous Asiatic, is strongly con. trasted with the ferocious temper of the carnivorous European. “All savages are crael; and as their manners do not tend to cruelty, it is plain it must arise from their aliments. They go to war as to hunting, and treat their fellow-creatures, as they treat bears."-Rousseau.
Montaigne observes, that those natures which are sanguinary towards beasts discover a natural propen. sity to cruelty towards their own species. After they had accustomed themselves at Rome to spectacles of the slaughter of animals, they proceeded to the slaugh. ter of men, the gladiators. It is remarkably obvious that most sorts of flesh and fish act on the body and senses, not in so innocent, brisk, and lively a man. ner as herbs, grain, fruits, roots, or the various sorts of excellent nutritive foods made of them.” Eating much flesh exterminates compassion; encourages surly, cruel, and inhuman dispositions and inclinations ; being most proper for soldiers, hunters, and such as would have a savage nature strengthened and increas. ed. On the contrary, vegetable food is pleasant to the eye, more fragrant to the smell, and grateful to the palate; makes the body lightsome and active; generates purer spirits; frees the mind from dullness, care, and heaviness; quickens the senses; clears the intellect; preserves innocency; increases compassion, love, humility and charity. · Tho' the Japanese priests abstain from animal food, the people, according to Kæmpfer, eat a large propor