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ELEMENTS OF VOCAL MUSIC.

The following method of treating this subject, is the one employed by Art. 2. That part of the elements of music which treats of sounds the Editor, in his classes. It will be found adapted to the usual circum- | with respect to duration, is called RHYTHM. That treating of pitch, is stances of singing schools, in New England.

called melody. That treating of force, is called DYNAMICS. These schools, generally, consist of twenty or thirty lessons, of two or two and a half hours each. Their object is not so much to make the individuals attending them, accomplished singers, as to train and prepare a choir of singers, as a whole, for a respectable and decent performance

CHAPTER II. of their part, in public worship. The most that can be done, in the time allowed and with the means at command, should be attempted; but it is Art. 3. The different durations of sound are expressed by the difobvious that no person ignorant of the subject, can be taught to read || ferent forms of characters, called NOTES. even psalmody at sight, in twenty lessons, still less to master the difficul | Art. 4. The notes in common use are seen in the following: ties of other descriptions of music. The judicious teacher will adapt his method to the circumstances of his school, and will not, in a term of

WHOLE note,

0 (Semibreve) equal to twenty lessons, commence a course which can only be completed in sixty. There are two extremes to be avoided, namely, spending too much

two HALF notes, d d (Minim) equal to time in mere exercises in Rhythm and Melody, and on the other hand,

four QUARTERS, too much in the mere practice of tunes.

| | (Crotchet) equal to The first, leads to mechanical singing, and the last is merely singing

eight Eighths, LL LLP (Quavers) equal to by rote.

The choir ought, if possible, to be made familiar with a sufficient, though not too extensive list of tunes, and at the same time, to have so much acquaintance with the principles of music, that they may, without a teacher's assistance, add new tunes to their list, from time to time.

A THIRTY-SECOND is sometimes used, and a sixty-FOURTH,

sixteen SIXTEENTHS, SO PSP 2.22(Semiquavers.)

CHAPTER 1.

Also a Double Note, llell twice as long as the whole note,
GENERAL PRINCIPLES.

Art. 5. A dot · after any note, makes it once and a half as long as

before. A second dot adds half as much as the first dot. A third, half ARTICLE 1. Musical sounds are long or short in respect to DURATION, as much as the second. For example, a half note with one dot is equal

high or low

" PITCH, in duration to a half and a quarter, with two dots it is equal to a half, loud or soft " " STRENGTH, Il quarter and eighth; with three, to a half, quarter, eighth and sixteenth,

ELEMENTS OF VOCAL MUSIC.

Art. 6. Three notes of the same kind, together with a figure 3 || the beginning. Triple measure is designated by the figure 3, placed at placed over them, constitute a TRIPLET, and are to be performed in the the beginning. Quadruple measure is designated by the figure 4, placed time of two.

at the beginning. Art. 7. There is no absolute, fixed length to any note; but whatever Art. 15. Double measure is accented at the downward beat or first duration may be assigned, for the time being, to any one, it must retain part. Triple measure is accented at the downward beat or first part. it throughout the particular tune to be performed, and all the others must Quadruple measure is accented at the downward and outward, or first bear the proportion towards it, indicated by their respective names.

and third parts. Art. 8. Pauses or intervals of silence, in music, are called RESTS; Art. 16. There are two varieties of double measure; one representand like sounds, they have a regular duration assigned them. They ed by the fraction signifying two halves, the other by , signifying two have characters to represent them which indicate duration corresponding quarters. to the notes from which they take their names.

There are three varieties of Triple measure, 3,; and ?. They are the whole rest , the half rest -, the quarter rest, the There are two varieties of quadruple measure, and .

In all these cases the fraction represents the quantity of time in each eighth rest, 7, the sixteenth , the thirty second , sixty fourth

measure.. The upper figure or numerator, shews the number of parts, into which the measure is imagined to be divided; and shews also the number of beats, inasmuch as there is a beat to each imaginary division of the measure. The lower figure or denominator, shews the value of

the parts respectively, into which the measure is imagined to be divided. CHAPTER JII. '

Art. 17. The time of the measures may be occupied by any notes or rests whatever, at the pleasure of the composer; which amount to

that indicated by the fractions. MEASURES.

Art. 18. A piece of music may, however, commence or end with a Art. 9. The Time occupied in performing a piece of music, is divi measure not full. ded into equal portions, called MEASURES.

Art. 19. Examples of the varieties of measure, the time of which is Art. 10. The measures are separated from each other, by BARS, variously filled by notes and rests. III

DOUBLE MEASURE. ' ART. 11. To enable us to give equal length to the measures, we beat 1st Variety. TIME.

Art. 12. This consists in a motion of the hand. When the time is marked by two motions, they are downward and upward; when by three, 2d Variety. downward, inward, upward; when by four, downward, inward, outward, upward. ART, 13. A measure having two beats, is called DOUBLE,

TRIPLE MEASURE. three "" TRIPIE,

Ist Variety. s6 of four "es QUADRUPLE. Art. 14. Double measure is designated by the figure 2, placed at 1 2

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able to the ear of every man, and is the basis of all music. It constitutes what is called the scale.

Art. 24. The scale consists of seven primitive sounds. The eighth

sound has a resemblance to the first of such a character, and its effect 3d Variety.

upon the ear is so like it, that it is called by the same name. Thus, if
the first sound of the scale be called A, the eighth will be called A.

The intermediate ones will be respectively B, C, D, E, F, G.
QUADRUPLE MEASURE.

Art. 25. In order to represent the differences of sound with respect 1st Variety.

to pitch, the notes are written upon the page in different situations. High sounds have their notes written higher than low ones.

Art. 26. But that there may be no uncertainty in regard to the in

tended relative positions of the notes, a character is made use of to de20 Variety.

fine them, called a staff. It consists of five lines drawn quite across the page, together with as many short lines (called ADDED LINES) as may

be necessary to furnish a place for very high or low notes. The staff ART. 20. In regard to the rapidity of beating time, it is a matter en

might be made to consist of a great number of lines drawn the whole tirely of judgment, to be exercised as each different tune presents itself.||

1) width of the page, rendering the short added lines unnecessary; but it is Whatever degree of quickness is determined on, must be carefully sus

found most convenient to use five long ones only. tained throughout each tune, unless there are musical characters or il

Here is a representation of the staff, with some added lines: terms to direct a change.

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COS

CHAPTER IV.

Ist space. MELODY. ART. 21. Sounds of different pitch, that is of different acuteness or 1 It will be opserved, the lines are numbered from the bottom, and the gravity, are named from the first seven letters of the alphabet, in order | spaces between the lines are also numbered from the bottom. to distinguish them from each other.

ART. 27 The notes are written upon the lines and in the spaces beRemark. The acuteness or gravity of a sound depends upon the rapidity of the tween, not only within the long lines, but upon the short lines beyond vibrations of the sonorous body producing it.

them and in the spaces between them. RT. 22. A sound produced by a certain degree of rapidity of vibra- || Art. 28. The scale may commence upon any pitch whatever. It is tion, receives a certain letter as its name.

| usual to begin with the sound called C. This sound may be written upon ART. 23. There is a certain series of sounds, rising one above the the staff, any where we please; but it is usual to write it either on the other, to the number of eight, which has a foundation in nature, is agree- || first added line below, or in the second space, as represented.

ELEMENTS OF VOCAL MUSIC.
THE SCALE, COMMENCING WITH C.

y low which goes down in the inverted order of numerals, syllables and C D E F G A B C

letters. Here is a representation of the EXTENDED SCALE.
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ART. 29. As there are two ways of placing the letters upon the staff,

The syllables are applied in their regular order. One or eight being it becomes necessary to use the characters written upon the staff in art.

always do. 28. These are called Clefs. The one in the upper staff is called the

The same extended scale might be written on the staff according to G clef, because it fixes G upon the second line, as it will be noticed that

the F clef. that line passes through the body of the figure. G being upon the second line, of course C in regular order, falls in the third space and first added line below.

The one in the lower staff is called the F clef because it fixes F upon the fourth line, and of course determines the place of all the other letters

CHAPTER V. in their proper order. Art. 30. In speaking of the different sounds of the scale, it is con

MELODY -- CONTINUED. venient to number them as in the figure in art 28.

Art. 31. To assist the learner in acquiring a just idea of the several ART. 33. The difference of pitch between sounds is called an intersounds of the scale, and in establishing them in his mind by the principle | val. Of course intervals are of various magnitude. of association, certain syllables are applied in the manner represented in Art. 34. The interval between one and two of the scale is that called the figure in art. 28.

a tone. From two to three is also a tone ; and from three to four is a These syllables being Italian, have a different pronunciation from what HALF TONE ; from four to five is a tone ; from five to six is a tone ; from they would have in English. Do is pronounced with the o long, as in the seven to eight is a half tone. word ni. Re is pronounced ray. Mi is pronounced me. FA has the ART. 35. This order of intervals constitutes the peculiar character vowel sound of a, in father. Sol has the o long as in no. La is sounded of the scale ; and it must be preserved, let the scale commence with any like fa, and sı is pronounced sce.

sound whatever. Art. 32. The scale may be EXTENDED upwards and downwards, to Art. 36. It will be remembered therefore, that between the letters any extent. When we go above eight, this last becomes one of a new | E and F, is the half tone interval. Also, between B and C, is the same. scale, going upwards in the same order to eight again ; and so on. And Art 37. The smallest interval practically recognized in music, is the when we go down below one, this number becomes eight of a scale, be- || HALF TONE.

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