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ABSTRACT OF EXPORTS.

Flour.

Outs.

Skins, Tallow.

Wool

cwta.

218

Hidea.
Bacon.
Beef. Beer.

Hogs. Horsen.
Barley.

Pork, & Cows. Tanned. Untanned

calf. fliches. barrels. baris.

cwts. barrels. doz,

cwts. stonet. 1764 218,220 5,021 155 257,976 8,895

98,232 65,588 60 934 19,343 14,073 35,006 12,074 50,50110,128 1765 199,999 4,926 390 301,109 5,564

44,469 61,866 140 1,371

17,668 44,361 14,668 52.706 17,316 1766 9,640 190,409 5,329 1,364 271,946 3,293

45,754 76,100 481 771

24,451 50,155 20.024 46.543 21,722 1767 5,778 173,484 4,014 857 | 257,047 2,862

4 297 46,606 65,289 1,023

278

34,995 20,794 51,071 48,733 1768 21,275 209,847 4,1972,578 304,623 4,222 12,623 11,625 1,813 62,054 82,029 22 927 5,734 27,535 43,041 19,555 51,662 | 28,521 1769 8,156 205,368 3,578 1,676 315,153 3,428 13,054 36,760 7,211 | 23,994 89,062

442

950 1,419 45,210 40,039 21,410 49,089 3,840 1770 6,500 208,269 3,995 1,250 262,717 1,730

51 28,187 102,943 416 637 16 21,292 43,947 19,255 48,260 2,578 1771 5,173 201,010 3,216 666 238,800 2,170

41,073 98,686 76 632 38 762 42,519 | 17.934 46,824
1772
14,142 200,829 2,491 453 288,475 2,430
847 65,643 90,323 90 601 262 31,152 44,713 26,015 44,981

2,045
1773
19,256 215,191 2,944 591 272,399 2,183
2,187 57,836 62,142 135 885 154 15,447 51,112 18,136 39,920

1,839
1774 26,100 187,494 2,665 2,477 270,096 2,024 17,722 46,663 103 41,328 67,044

882 707 1,525 64,163 52,328 17,140 41.350 1,007
1775 32,644 192,452 1,937 6,625 264,140 2,234 19,039 29,184 3,675 56,890 79,892 660 793 4,699 28,845 50,367 23,803 42.295 2,007
1776 24,502 203,685 1,936 6,294 272,411 3,155 13,124 93,679 14,171 | 37,277 71,297 | 1,148 | 1,111 12,032 39,428 72,714 19.745 50,549 1,059
1777 11,462 168,578 1,285 4,198 264,181 1,764

16,207 | 26,953 57,438 1,358 1,442 24,541 17,649 72,931 18,475 48,502 1,734
1778 15,992 190,659 1,261 3,176 258,144 938

10,635 27,819 51,714

874

889 24,475 7,302 77,612 16.601 38,450 1,665 1779 11,792 138,918 894 3,960 227,829 1,827 13,245 22,915 3,917 | 11,728 44,095 285

473 26,238 1,639 | 70.066 17.562 | 41,384 3,878 1780 1,723 187,754 200

1,067 94,880 9,508 13,182 68,777 169 540 80.772 7,297 96,554 17,908 54.592

2,165 1781 172 190,501 628 2,298 264,210 7,175

43,977 3,637 92,381 45

704

69,730 9,271 106,282 24:303 39,678 1,104
1782 239 155,582
995 105 234,058 7,072 414
86,670 43,901 3,499 60,771
375 152,386 10,637 84,910 20,303 38.275

2,965
1783 143 | 212,018 1,253 400 249,485 9,050 18,648 22,772 3,482 10,488 58,079

624 129 33,738 14,825 112,360 22,510 34,420 2,063
1784 6,637 126,531 2,084 6,836 257,417 10,402

324

7,058 47,284 | 1,937 766 1,818 5,835 52,912 15,867 17,806 2,264
1785 33,225 136,605 2,052 22,441 282,802 5,038

18,478 19,623 57,293 2,8111,275 18,665 47,939 58,445 28.954 21.240 2,856
1786 35,485 158,388 1,750 19,315 243,007 3,504 47,934 222,352 43,311 29,800 79,581 1,895 1,256 28,221 66,039 74,761 19,756 18,224 1.546
1787 30,310 153,649 2,281 16,176 330,866 3,599 163,895 356,232 61,118 31,106 69,804 1,294 1,405 15,932 | 145,480 101,859 23,606 22,898 1,066
1788

16,525 130,875 1,25l 17,699 341,599 3,796 54,045 279, 125 50,157 24,255 69,641 3,363 2,338 8,805 139,288 111,046 17,616 13,218 631
1789 29,587 | 120,192 1,019 16,501 314,876 3,529 33,849 332,959 218,737 15,347 49,035 6,362 2,199 8,875 109,862 93,336 23,005 13.128 774
1790 33,791 126,939 1,351 24,170 300,669 3,028 53,521 533,720 148,066 1,626 73,134 1,868 2,284 185,004 15,570 100,266 25,226 16,717 1,776
1791 56,494 120,506 1,073 30,132 295,875 4,063 39,719 669,559 153,769 4,178 70,240 5,814 3,643 25,045 133,361 95.467 17,750 18 624 2,396
1792 60,735 135,219 1,326 24,351 323,872 5,985 28,852 629,706 19:,780 335 63,750 6,465 3,977 47,849 134,801 81,823 16,979 16,220 1,413
1793 62,490 102,333 48221,820 311,960 4,482

92,788 197 57,857 5,425 2,362 34,156 95,552 119,012 22,841 9.522 2,713
1794 74,400 135,328 809 5,652 271,027 5,289 38,601 512,932 36,701

163 35,030 1,528

787

4,239 24,427 149,153 12,653 6.944 274 1795 47,996 124,607 1,076 5,160 276,403 5,992 31,231 4,000 38,564 1,051 740 54,111 36,576 129,922 12:626 14:352

162 1796 125,085 122,156 766 10,524 315,225 5,408

2,649 1,134 60,618 2,949 1,966 1,366 57,503 128,266 23.590 12.651 171 1797 92,086 110,141 793 36,311 322,218 5,032

9,402 278 55,488 9,482 1,284 2,562 112,464 142,294 21.855 1854 88 1798 52,941 | 108,346 1,149 30,670 315,894

5,540 48,369 557,736 67,526 134 48,614 6,733 683 18,051 79,534 186,436 21.699 12.725 89 1799 153,578 1,631 9,331 262,764 7,828 48,963 594,972 46,325 3 79,509 2,577 547 5,602 93,148 139,268 19:014 13,839

226 1800 149,856 345 2,534 263,289 10,992

157,938 345 20 51,833 2,949 1,138 261 27,066 114,774 12.291 5,536 217

1,458 18,016 13,403 10,456

1,641 16,155

1,585 17,599 8,262 12,813

1,446 95,822 14,074 64,870

6,554 50,414

Year. Bullocks

Whent. Butter, Candles Oats.

No. cwts. cwts.

barrels barrels. cwts.

2,975 8,913

240 4,022

4,838 244,184 5,611

3 10,524

36,311 1

4,686 15,255 1,585 77,866

974 637,277

7,381 644,504

It will be at once seen, by glancing so that he could not afford to supply at those tables, that between the year his customers, the West Indian plan1764 and the union, a great change ters and navy contractors, at the usual had taken place in the articles of pro- rates ; in consequence of which, the visions exported. At the commence- planters obtained the greatest part of ment of that period, Ireland was, to their provision from Ainerica, and the a great extent, dependent on Great royal navy and commercial interest Britain for her supply of cerials ; be- found the enhanced price a heavy burfore its termination, she furnished then on the nation, and the business of England with a very large quantity of navigation. In every part of the grain ; but it, will also be perceived, kingdom," says Arthur Young, writing that during the same time, the exporta- in 1778, “the common Irish have all tion of beef, hides, and tallow, had enor- sorts of live stock, the tables, already mously decreased, 'Those alterations inserted, show this in respect of cows. might have been the effects, either of I should add, pigs are yet more geneaugmented wealth causing an increased ral, and poultry in many parts of the home consumption of animal food, or kingdom, especially in Leinster, are in of a diminution of live stock. If the such great quantities as amazed me, former were the operating cause, the not only cocks and hens, but geese number of black cattle should have and turkeys."7 In about thirty years remained, at least, undiminished, and after this statement was made, Joshua the quantity of animal food used by Kirby Trimmer published an account the population, ought to have aug. of the condition of agriculture in the mented. But so far from either cir. south of Ireland ; and describing the cumstance having happened, that the filthy hut of the labourer as at once a stock of cows rapidly decreased in dwelling, a stable, and a stye, says, number, and the breadth of land ap- “ the other side of the cabin is inhaplied to pasturage every year became bited by the hogs and poultry, and less extended. " From the commence- sometimes, but very seldom, by a cow." ment of the last century," says Frazer," He adds, “ that these (the small farthe well-known writer on the Jrish mers) form a very numerous class in fisheries, “immense quantities of beef, the southern part of Ireland ; and a pork, tallow, and butter were sent from larger share of the agriculture of the Ireland to those countries (the Ame. country may be said to be in their rican plantations) for the support of hands than in those of the substantial the infant colonies, as well as large farmers; with their scanty and slender quantities exported for the supply of means, it cannot be expected to prosthe British navy, and her increased per much. Their stock consists of one

But, on the rapid exten. horse, a small car, and perhaps half a
sion of tillage, the grazing lands were dozen sheep, besides some hogs, and
in great quantities broken up for the in some cases by a cow." And this
production of grain.

Even in the was written of a country in which, but
maritime counties of Cork, Water- thirty years before, cattle were abun-
ford, and Galway, from which ports, dant, and where every labourer pos-
particularly the former, the greatest sessed, at least, a cow.$
exports of provision were made, large During the period cattle were
tracts of pasture ground were con-

rapidly diminishing in number, it will
verted into tillage, from which circum- be seen that the quantity of butter
stance the places from whence the exported, constantly and largely in-
supply of cattle was to be obtained, creased ;|| and, when it is considered,
being removed, they could not be that the supply decreased and popula-
brought to market to the merchant, tion greatly augmented, the conclusion

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* Gleanings in Ireland. By R. Fraser, Esq. pp. 26, 28. London, 1802.
† Young's Travels in Ireland. Part the Second, p. 27.'

| Brief Inquiry into the Present State of Agriculture in the Southern parts of
Ireland. By Joshua Kirby Trimmer. London, 1809.

$ See column headed Butter, in the Table of Exports.

i See Young's Travels. Part the First, pp. 51, 138, 169, 215, 351, 357, 366, 373, and Part the Second, p. 27.

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becomes inevitable that the home con- very small quantity of animal food is sumption of this necessary article, one consumed in that country, a very great of the luxuries of the poor man's board,

one in this.

Much of that kind of enormously diminished. Milk also food is saved there by religious fasts, a at one time a mensal staple of every very small quantity bere. By the cottage in Ireland-must in a great lowest class, in this country, it is eaten degree have ceased to have been used once a week, by the lowest class in that as an article of diet. The period from country never. In England, that most the commencement to the termination numerous class, next above the lowest, of the first American war was one of eat flesh-meat three times, or at least the most disastrous to Ireland, during twice a week. In Ireland the same the last century. The embargo, which class, which is in proportion more prevented trade with France and Spain, numerous than here, do not, generally and the diminished demand for Irish speaking, eat it once a month; a great provisions by the Plantations, induced majority of that class do not eat it at once individual distress and com- oftener than six times a year. Submercial embarrassment ; yet, even dur- stantial farmers and country artificers ing that protracted season of national in this country live chiefly on animal misfortune, we have the evidence of food, the sume description of people the most accurate of inquirers, Arthur in most parts of that country live, Young, that the peasantry of Ireland chiefly, on potatoes and milk..consumed, as their ordinary diet, meal, Thus, during the era of Irish inmilk, butter, and fowl, in addition to dependence, in the short period of potatoes, aud that they possessed live about twenty years, meal, milk, butstock in abundance.

ter, flesh-meat, and fowl ceased to be In 1805, twenty-seven years after consumed by the peasantry, and even Young's travels were published, New- by the farmers of Ireland. From enham made the following state- being a prosperous and comfortable ment relative to the food of the Irish population they changed into the most peasantry :-“ Instead of England be. wretched and impoverished people in ing competent to maintain a greater Europe—from being well and abunproportionate population than Ireland, dantly fed, potatoes alone became their we should find that independently of the sole resource for supporting exisacknowledged superiority of the latter, tence. * with regard to the natural and general The line drawn through the table fertility of the soil, the nature of the of imports divides it into two equal food on which the great majority habi- portions of 18 years before, and 18 tually subsist, together with other pe- after the declaration of Independence culiar circumstances, render it compe- in 1782. A comparison of the content to support an infinitely more dense sumption in each of those periods of population than the former."

the articles, which are usually adopted “ Potatoes, it is well known, are the as a criterion of advancement or degreat article of food Ireland, bread cline in national prosperity, will afford in England; comparatively speaking a some curious results.

• A Statistical and Historical Inquiry into the progress and magnitude of the Population of Ireland. By Thomas Newenham; London, 1805.-pp. 335, 336.

f No inference can be drawn from the increased consumption of tea in the following table, because before 1767 the duty acted as a prohibition—in that year the duty on green teas was reduced to 6d., on Boheas to 4d. a pound. The consumption of tea, as indicated by the custom-house books, increased from 239,800 pounds, in 1767, to 1,007,693 pounds in 1768. But as the act of 1767 (7 Geo.III., c. 2., s. 6) recited

-" Whereas great fraud and abuses have been committed by the clandestine importation of tea, we must conclude that the consumption was not really increased, but that the trade was transferred from the smuggler to the fair dealer by the alteration in the revenue.”

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Wines, taken as a whole, exhibit a per cent. in the demand for an article small actual increase ; but it must be during one year, and that, too, at a observed, that the consumption of port, time, when the duty was much raised, a low-priced liquor, doubled, whilst that is not easily comprehended. General of French wines, the sparkling beverage Permit, and his most efficient staff, of Burgundy, the juice of the rich could only satisfactorily explain such vines of Champagne, and “claret, the a custom-house mystery.t wine, par excellence, of every Irish The annals of the world do not pregentleman of the day," high-priced and sent so rapid a decay in the prosperity costly, declined more than one-half. of a nation, as that of Ireland, during The use of the delicious and expen- the era of independence; of a deteriosive produce of the Hockheimer vin- ration in the condition of a people so tage greatly diminished, the grapes of universal and complete a deterioration Spain and Maderia supplied a cheap which, at once, extended to the palace but inferior substitute. The expen- of the noble, the house of the citizen, diture for wines, must have, at least, and the cottage of the labourer. Hisdiminished 50 per cent. during the era tory has no parallel of a revolution in of Independence.

the state of a population, which dimiSugar presents a small advance; but nished to such an extent, and in so the increase is apparent only, when short a period, as that of “ '82" the the quantities of succus liquorice con- luxuries of an aristocracy, the comforts sumed in Ireland, before and after of the middle classes, and the neces'82, are compared, and the dimunition saries of a peasantry ; by which wealth in the use of loaf sugar estimated, the was so speedily changed into poverty, augmentation (if any) must be an and indigence transformed into destiunappreciable fraction.

tution. A small increment was added to It would have been exceedingly the consumption of tobacco, but the fortunate for Ireland, if her indepenincrease is exceedingly suspicious. The dent parliament had bestowed on her, cause of an advance of more than 200 during its existence, misery and tyranny

* The doubling period of populationis assumed with Newenham to be 46 years.Inquiry, &c., ch. 6.

f The nickname of a revenue officer, whose salary was reckoned by hundreds, and his expenditure by thousands, in the year-cheating in the morning and swindled at night-he received a large fortune in bribes, and spent it at dice. The smuggling and frauds of the period would form a most instructive chapter in the history of revenue. One firm in Dublin made a large fortune by receiving a drawback on silk, and re-exporting an article five-sixths of which was cotton. Another, from the ships on the quay, pumped rum into their stores through tubes in the cables. And the wealthiest merchant in Ireland made immense sums by importing brandy and wine mixed, under the denomination of the latter, and subsequently rectifying the spirit.

alone-if it had gifted her with cruelty be devised by the most exalted genius, and crime only, and had not bequeathed and executed by the most consummate as legislative legacies, continued hun. skill. ger and contingent famine. Taking, CastleReagh consolidated the Bri. for the text-book of its political eco- tish empire, and amalgamated its Celt nomy, the “Deserted Village,” and and Saxon races; yet, a statue of him adopting the polished nonsense of Gold- is not to fill, even a narrow niche, in smith, as conclusive reasoning, the the palace of that imperial parliament, Irish parlianrent inverted the process which, but for his genius, his energy, by which “ wealth accumulates as men his virtue, would never have existed. decay ;" and performed the operation How morally grand was the conduct so effectually, that even the enormous of Athens ? How meanly base the augmentation of human labour, as an ingratitude of Britain. instrument of production, scarcely Whilst the architect of the imperial compensated for the diminution of agri. edifice is neglected, the mechanical cultural capital, by extending the con- labourer, the man of the crow-bar and acre system, it, literally, made a “rood pick-axe, who has striven, as yet, in of ground maintain its man ;” and by vain, by physical violence, to destroy causing serf-wages to be almost uni- his work, is worshipped by a nation ; versal, rendered the permanent ame

thousands have been voted for the lioration of the peasantry all but hope. erection of his statue, and his crowned less, and even to afford them temporary head made an ornament even of the relief-a matter of extreme difficulty.* temple of the deity.t

TAESEUS combined, under one It is true, Castlereagh requires not government, the different districts of a marble memorial within the walls of Attica; effected a legislative union the new palace at Westminster, on an among its tribes; for this act poets con- evening, when the destiny of nations tended to honour his memory; orators is discussed ; on a night, in which the and statesmen vied to enunciate his doom of dynasties is decided by the imfame: to perpetuate his glory temples perial parliament. CIRCUMSPICE ; that were erected, festivals instituted, and imperial parliament is his monument. games celebrated : to him, by his But, though Castlereagh requires not grateful country, was dedicated all a statue to perpetuate his fame, yet, that was sublime in sculpture, and as a matter of imperial policy, its perfect in architecture ; all that could

erection is necessary.

The Union, it

* We will take the present crisis as an illustration of this difficulty. In a country, where agriculture is conducted by capitalists, and labourers are paid in money, if it should become necessary to supply employment, in aid, at public works, no labourer required for agriculture would be permanently withdrawn from it ; for the competition of the farmer with the contractor would' induce, from the public works the desired number of workmen. But, in a country such as Ireland, where the holders of land do not possess capital, where a robot system exists, and the peasantry are paid their serf-wages in land; on a failure of the crop, and subsequent commencement of public works, the farmers, for want of money to supply their labourers with immediate food, have no means of competing with the contractors ; the labourer cannot exchange his labour for land, because he would starve whilst performing it; and, even if his wife and children could cultivate a portion of conacre, they will not be able to obtain it, because he cannot make the usual payment for it in duty-work. An abandonment of agriculture, both on the farm and the potato patch would, therefore, be the result of a great extension of public works, thus making a contingent scarcity in this year, the cause of a certain famine in the next. Labour is in a state so rude, farming machinery so deficient, capital so limited, agricultural skill so rare, and the land so burned, exhausted, and neglected, that the population, great as it undoubtedly is, is not much (if anything) more than is necessary for the present inartificial mode of cultivating the soil; notwithstanding the declaration of the Poor Law Inquiry Commission, (which Mr.Barry, in his Prize Essay, has re-produced in all the majesty of capitals, and with all the weight of leaded type,) that for want of employment, there are 2,385,000 persons absolutely destitute. We will demonstrate in a future paper this assertion to be a fallacy-an allegation void of proof, founded in error,

† The new Roman Catholic Chapel, in James's-street, Dublin, is ornamented or desecrated by the head of O'Connell, surmounted by an Irish crown.

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