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in this book, though you will, no doubt, make use of different words. After you have answered in your own way, I will tell you the written answer which you shall repeat simultaneously; that is, all in one voice.
[I forbear to enlarge; these lessons being, as was before observed, mere outlines. Extempore teaching cannot, indeed, be adequately represented on paper. The eye, the tone of voice, the animated earnestness which should characterize the whole manner of the Teacher, are wanting, and on these the efficacy of extempore teaching mainly depends.]
What do you mean by the earth ?
What is the shape of the world, or earth on which we live ?
It is round, like an orange.
In an eclipse of the moon, which is caused by the earth passing between the sun and the moon, the shadow of the earth on the moon being round, proves that the earth is round, because the shadow cannot be of any other shape than the body which produces the shadow. The shadow of an orange is always like an orange—it is always round.
Does the earth stand still ?
There are other planets besides the earth ; they are dark bodies, which move round the sun; having no light but what they receive from him. They are therefore called opaque
bodies. A substance is said to be opaque when it does not allow the light to pass through it, and it is called transparent when it will admit light. The window shutters are opaque, but the panes of glass of the window are transparent.
The earth and her moon, and all the other planets and their moons, are opaque.
How many motions has the earth ?
Daily means every day, and yearly every year.
every twenty-four hours.
The sun shines all the time, but we do not see it all the time. If you hold a white ball to represent the earth near the candle, which you can call the sun, you will see one half of it is in the light, and the other in the dark.
What would you call that part which is in the light ?
If you turn the ball gradually round, each part is enlightened. The earth turns round every day—that is, once in every twenty-four hours—and one part of the time the sun shines on our part of the world, and we call it day; and when we are turned from the sun, it does not shine on us, and then we call it night.
Where does the sun rise ?
The sun only appears to rise every morning, and set every evening. The truth is, the sun does not move. It is the earth which turns round every day, which makes it appear to us as if the earth stood still, and the sun climbed up to the top of the sky, and set every night, just as the houses, fields, and trees seem to move swiftly past us when we are riding very rapidly in a railway carriage.
Of what use is the sun to us ?
If there were no sun it would always be night, and it would be so cold that every living thing would die.
What does the diameter of the sun measure ?
A line drawn across a round body is called its diameter.
If the sun be so large why does it look so small to us?
Because it is so very far off.
What is a knowledge of the sun, moon, and stars called ?
Now, I am going to ask you a question, not about the sun which shines in the sky, but about the Sun of righteousness, who is always shining in heaven. Do you know who is called in the Bible “ the Sun of righteousness ?”
As it would be always dark and cold, so that nothing could live or grow in the world, if there were no sun to shine upon it; so our hearts are dark and cold, and no good thing can grow or live in them until Jesus, the Sun of righteousness, shines into them, and makes them warm with love to him.
Does the sun shine every day, or only when the weather is fine ?
It shines every day, but when it is wet and cloudy we cannot see it.
What prevents our seeing it?
And Jesus, the Sun of righteousness, always shines in heaven, and is always willing to shine into our hearts to make them light, and help us to understand heavenly things. What then prevents us from always, by faith, seeing Jesus, and loving him ? Our sins are like a thick cloud, so that we do not feel his shining upon us.
I hope you
You have seen a thick cloud of dust—you could as easily count the particles of dust which form that cloud, as count the number of sins you have committed. pray very earnestly every Sunday in Church, when we are all kneeling down before God, and saying, “Have mercy upon us miserable sinners.” Remember, children, there is only one way by which this cloud of sin can be removed—“I have blotted out, as a thick cloud, thy transgressions, and, as a cloud, thy sins : return unto me; for I have redeemed thee.” (Isaiah xliv. 22.) “ Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth : for I am God, and there is none else.” (Is. xlv. 22.)
ON THE BEST METHOD OF CONDUCTING THE SINGING DEPARTMENT IN A SUNDAY SCHOOL.
AN ESSAY READ AT THE MEETING OF A TEACHERS' ASSO
CIATION FOR MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT.
The apostolic injunction, “Let all things be done decently, and in order,” deserves application to few things in the public worship of God more than to singing; for as every person ought to join in it, so a greater necessity for uniformity exists.
A first object in the consideration of an improved system of any thing is the discovery and exposure of the defects already prevalent in it, in order to facilitate their removal. With reference to the subject before us, one very prominent evil, in some Sunday-schools at least, is that of unskilful persons, instead of singing the principal, which they can sing at least tolerably, attempting the counter, seconds, or bass, which they cannot sing even tolerably; thus leaving, in many cases, on a few the burden of sustaining the tune; and this fault is not always confined to the children alone. Another fault is sometimes committed by persons, who, having no ear (as it is termed) for music, and being unable to pitch their voices in harmony with the tune, yet by no means sparing their lungs on occasions, considerably mar the psalmody, and excite ridiculous sensations in many about them. Such persons, who generally have hearts, if not voices, would do well to sing very softy, and by this means their vocal machinery might be gradually improved: the greatest evil, however, is, that the persons who commit this error are generally unconscious of it, and it is usually a delicate experiment to bring it home to them. A third fault, chiefly confined to the children, is that of idly refusing to join in the more elevated and intricate parts of the strain, and coming in with their treble voices in a deluging chorus in the descending and concluding parts.
The last fault I shall advert to is that too common one of throwing in little notes, or appogiaturas, so frequently into the measure as entirely to spoil the air, by making it much different from, and inferior to, the original. Besides the children, and those who have not been better taught, we sometimes find professional persons adding their little mite of grace notes, &c. into a tune; and there are many old-established ones, “Portuguese Hymn," and "Berwick” (Evening Hymn), for instances, which are now scarcely sung in two places alike. I would recommend to the class of musicians so fond of altering tunes, rather than mutilate the works of other composers, to write a few tunes of their own, in which their peculiar taste might be fully carried out, and the standard sacred music of Christen. dom be left intact.
In order that singing may be well conducted, there should be occasional practice : once a week may be necessary for some schools ; in others, once a month will suffice. For these occasions, there should be selected from the upper classes a number of the best and most tunable voices in the school, (such as could go through a tune in the same key,) at least one to every twelve persons in the room ; these, along with the female teachers, and a few of the male teachers whose voices were suitable, should form the class for principal. If there were a number of bass voices among the male teachers and senior scholars, and a sufficient talent among themselves to sustain that part, or a person com.