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aut certe peragere: sed tantum in operibus vitce prcesentis tarn bonis, quam etiam malis. Bonis dico, qua de bono naturae oriuntur, i. e., velle laborare in agro, velle manducare et bibere, velle habere amicum, velle habere indumenta, velle fabricare domum, uxorem velle ducere, pecora nutrire, artem discere diversamm rerum bonarum, vel quicquid bonum ad prmentem pertinet vitam. Qua omnia non sine divino gubernaculo subsistunt, imo ex ipso et per ipsum sunt et esse c&perunt. Malis vero dico, ut est, velle idolum colere, velle homicidium, etc.

Damnant Pelagianos et alios, qui docent, quod sine Spiritu Sancto, solis natural viribus possimus Deum super omnia diligere; item prcecepta Dei facere, quoad substantiam actuum. Quanquam enim externa opera aliquo modo efficere natura possit, potest enim eontinere manus a furto, a cede: tamen interiores motus non potest efficere, ut timorem Dei, fiduciam erga Deum, castitatem, patientiam, etc.*

begin or to perform any thing in matters pertaining to God, but only in works belonging to this present life, whether they be good or evil. By good works, I mean those which are of the goodness of nature; as to will to labor in the field, to desire meat or drink, to desire to have a friend, to desire apparel, to desire to build a house, to marry a wife, to nourish cattle, to learn the art of divers good things, to desire any good thing pertaining to this present life; all which are not without God's government, yea, they are, and had their beginning from God and by God. Among evil things, I account such as these: to will to worship an image; to will manslaughter, and such like.'

They condemn the Pelagians and others, who teach that by the powers of nature alone, without the Spirit of God, we are able to love God above all things; also to perform the commandments of God, as touching the substance of our actions. For although nature be able in some sort to do the external works (for it is able to withhold the hands from theft and murder), yet it can not work the inward motions, such as the fear of God, trust in God, chastity, patience, and such like.

1 The wording of this article is considerably changed in the edition of 1540.

Abt. XIX.—De Causa Peccati.

De causa peccati docent, quod tametsi Deus creat et conservat naturam, tamen causa peccati est voluntas malorum, videlicet diaboli et impiorum, qua non adjuvante Deo avertit se a Deo, sicut Christus ait (John viii. 44): Oum loquitur mendacium, ex se ipso loquitur.

Aht. XX.— De Bonis Operibuu1

Falso accusantur nostri, quod bona opera prohibeant. Nam scripta eorum, quw extant de decern pra-ceptis, et alia simili argumento testantur, quod utiliter docuerint de omnibus vitas generibus et qfficiis, quw genera vitw, qua. opera in qualibet vocatione Deo placeant. De quibus rebus olim parum docebant Concionatores, tantum puerilia et non necessaria opera urgebant, ut certas ferias, certa jejunia,fraternitates, peregrmationes, cult us Sanctorum, rosaria, monachatum, et sitnilia. Hoc adversarii nostri admoniti nunc dediscunt, nec perinde prcedicant kcec inutilia opera, ut olim. Preterea incipiunt fidei mentionem facere, de qua olim mirum erat silentium. Docent nos non tantum operibus justificari, sed conjungunt Jidem

Art. XIX.—0/the Cause of Sin.

Touching the cairee of sin, they teach that, although God doth create and preserve nature, yet the cause of sin is the will of the wicked; to wit, of the devil and ungodly men; which will, God not aiding, turneth itself from God, as Christ saith: 'When he 6peaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own' (John viii.44).

Art. XX.—Good Works.

Ours are falsely accused of forbidding good works. For their writings extant upon the Ten Commandments, and others of the like argument, do bear witness that they have to good purpose taught concerning every kind of life, aud its duties; what kinds of life, and what workB in every calling, do please God. Of which things preachers in former times taught little or nothing: only they urged certain childish and needless works; as, keeping of holidays, set fasts, fraternities, pilgrimages, worshiping of saints, the use of rosaries, monkery, and such like things. Whereof our adversaries having had warning, they do now unlearn them, and do not preach concerning these unprofitable works, as they were wont. Besides, they begin now to make mention of faith, concerning which et opera, et dicunt, nox fide et operibus justificarL Qua doctrina tolerabilior est priore, et plus afferre potest consolationis, quam vetus ipsorum doctrina.

1 This article is enlarged to more than doable its original size in the altered edition of 1540.

Cum igitur doctrina de fide, quam oportet in Ecclesia prceeipuam esse, tarn diu jacuerit ignota, quemadmodum fateri omnes necesse est, de fidei justitia altissimum silentium fiuisse in eoncionibus, tantwn doctrinam operum versatam esse in eccletiis, nostri de fide sic admonuerunt ecclesias:

JPrincipio, quod opera nostra non possint reconciliare Deum, dut mereri remissionem peccatorum et gratiam et justificationem, sed hanc tantum fide consequimur, credentes, quod propter Christum recipiamur in gratiam, qui solus positus est Mediator et JPropitiatorium (1 Tim. ii. 5), per quern reconcilietur Pater. Itaque qui confidit, operibus se mereri gratiam, is aspernatur Christi meritum et gratiam, et querit sine Ghristo humanis virihus viam ad Deum, cum Chrittus de se dixerit (John xiv. 6): Ego sum via, Veritas et vita.

there was formerly a deep silence. They teach that we are not justified by works alone; but they conjoin faith and works, and say we are justified by faith and works. Which doctrine is more tolerable than the former one, and can afford more consolation than their old doctrine.

Whereas, therefore, the doctrine of faith, which should be the chief one in the Church, hath been so long unknown,as all men must needs grant, that there.was the deepest silence about the righteousness of faith in their sermons, and that the doctrine of works was usual in the churches; for this cause our divines did thus admonish the churches:

First, that our works can not reconcile God, or deserve remission of sins, grace, and justification at his hands, but that these we obtain by faith only, when we believe that we are received into favor for Christ's sake, who alone is appointed the Mediator and Propitiatory, by whom the Father is reconciled. He, therefore, that trusteth by his works to merit grace, doth despise the merit and grace of Christ, and seeketh by his own power, without Christ, to come unto the Father; whereas Christ hath said expressly of himself, ' I am the way, the truth, and the life' (John xiv. 6).

Hcec doctrina de fide ubique in Paulo tractatur (Eph. ii. 8): Gratia salvi facti estis per fidem, et hoc non ex vbbis, Dei donum est, non ex operibus, etc. Et ne quis cavilletur, a nobis novam Pa\di inlerpretationem excogitari, tota hcec causa habet testimonia Patrum. Nam Augustinus multis voluminihus defendit gratiam et justitiam fidei contra merita operum. Et similia docet Ambrosius de vocatione gentium, et alibi. Sic enim inquit de vocatione gentium: Vilesceret redemptio sanguinis Christi, nec misericordice Dei humanornm operum prcerogativa succumberet, si justificatio, guce fit per gratiam, meritis prcecedentious deberetur, ut non munus largientis, sed merces esset operants.

Quanquam autem hcec doctrina contemnitur ah imperitis, tamen experiuntur pice ac pavidce conzrientice, plurimum earn consolationis afferre, quia conscientice non possunt reddi tranquilly per ulla opera, sed tantum fide, cum rerto statuunt, quod propter Christum habeant placatum Deum; quemadmodum Paulus docet

This doctrine of faith is handled by Paul almost every where: 'By grace ye are saved through faith, and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God, not of works' (Eph. ii. 8,9). And lest any here should cavil, that we bring in a new-found interpretation, this whole cause is sustained by testimonies of the Fathere. Augustine doth in many volumes defend grace, and the righteousness of faith, against the merit of works. The like doth Ambrose teach in his book, De Vocatione Gentium, and elsewhere; for thus he saith of the calling of the Gentiles: 'The redemption made by the blood of Christ would be of small account, and the prerogative of man's works would not give place to the mercy of God, if the justification which is by grace were due to merits going before; 60 as it should not be the liberality of the giver, but the wages or hire of the laborer.'

This doctrine, though it be contemned of the unskillful, yet godly and fearful consciences find by experience that it bringeth very great comfort: because that consciences can not be quieted by any works, but by faith alone, when they believe assuredly that they have a God who i6 propitiated for Christ's sake; as St. Paul teacheth,' Being justified (Rom. v. 1): Justificati perfidem, pacem habemus apud Deum. Tota hate doctrina ad Mud certamen perterrefactm conscietdia referenda est, nec sine Mo certamine intettigi potest. Quare male judicant de ea re homines imperiti et prophani, qui Christianam justitiam nihil esse somniant, nisi civilem et ph'dosophicam justitiam.

Olim vexabantur conscientue doctrina operum, non audiebant ex Ecangelio consolationem. Quosdam conscientia expulit in desertum, in monasteria, sperantes ibi se gratiam merituros esse per vitam monasticam. Alii alia excogitaverunt opera ad promerendam gratiam et satisfaciendum pro peccatis. Ideo magnopere fuit opus, hanc doctrinam de fide in Christum tradere et renovare, ne deesset consolatio pavidis conscientiis, sed scirent fide in Christum apprehendi gratiam et remissionem peccatorum et justificationem.

Admonentur etiam homines, quod hie nomen fidei non significet tantum historian notitiam, qualis est in impiis et diabolo. sed significet fidem, qucc credit non tantum historiam, sed etiam

Vol. III.—C

by faith, we have peace with God' (Rom. v. 1). This doctrine doth wholly belong to the conflict of a troubled conscience; and can not be understood, but where the conscience hath felt that conflict Wherefore, all such as have had no experience thereof, and all that are profane men, who dream that Christian righteousness is naught else but a civil and philosophical righteousness, are poor judges of this matter.

Formerly men's consciences were vexed with the doctrine of works; they did not hear any comfort out of the Gospel. Whereupon conscience drove some into the desert, into monasteries, hoping there to merit grace by a monastical life. Others devised other works, whereby to merit grace, and to satisfy for sin. There was very great need, therefore, to teach and renew this doctrine of faith in Christ; to the end that fearful consciences might not want comfort, but might know that grace, and forgiveness of sins, and justification, are received by faith in Christ.

Another thing, which we teach men, is that in this place the name of Faith doth not only signify a knowledge of the history, which may be in the wicked, and in the devil, but that it signifieth a faith

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