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observationibus. Et hie error vcUde cniciavit pias conscientias, quae dolebant se teneri imperfecta vitce genere, in conjugio, in magistratibus, aut aliis functionibus civUibuq, mirabantur monachos et similes, et falso putabant illorum observationes Deo gratiores esse.
Tertio, traditiones attulerunt magna pericula conscientiis, quia impossibile erat omnes traditions 8ervare, et tamen homines arbitrabantur has observations necessarios esse cultus. Gerson scrii it, imultos incidisse in desperationem, quosdam etiani sibi mortem conscivisse, quia senserant, se non posse satisfacere traditionibus^ et interim consolationem nullam de justitia fidei et de gratia audierant. Videmus Summistas et Theologos colligere traditiones, et qucerere iirtttKuaQ, ut levent conscientias, non satis tamen expediunt, sed interdum magis injiciunt laqueos conscientiis. Et in cottigendis traditionibus ita fuerunt occupatce scholce et condones, ut non vacaverit attingere Scripturam, et qucerere utiliorem doctrinam de fide, de cruce, de spe, de dignitate civUium rerum, de
inferior to those glittering observances. And this error did greatly torment pious consciences, which were grieved that they were held by an imperfect kind of life, in marriage, in magistracy, or in other civil functions. They had the monks, and such like, in admiration, and falsely imagined that the observances of these men were more grateful to God than their own.
Thirdly, traditions brought great danger to men's consciences, because it was impossible to keep all traditions, and yet men thought the observation of them to be necessary services. Gerson writeth that 'many fell into despair, and some murdered themselves, because they perceived that they could not keep the traditions;' and all this while they never heard the comfort of the righteousness of faith, or of grace. We see the Sumraists and Divines gather together the traditions, and seek qualifications of them, to unburden men's consciences; and yet all will not serve, but meantime they bring more 6nares upon the conscience. The schools and pulpits have been so busied in gathering together the traditions, that they had not leisure to touch the Scripture, and to seek out a more profitable doctrine—of faith, of the cross, of hope, of the dignity of civil afconsolatione conscientiarum in arduis tentationihus. Itaque Gerson et alii quidam Theologi graviter questi sunt, se his rixis traditionum impediri, quo minus versari possent in mdiore genere doctrincB. Et Augustinus vetat onerare conscientias hujusmodi observationibus, et prudenter admonet Januarium, ut sciat eas indifferenter observandas esse; sic enim loquitur.
Quare nostri non debent videri hanc causam temere attigisse, aut odio episcoporum, ut quidam falso suspicantur. Magna necessitas fuit, de illis erroribu*, qui nati erant ex traditionib-us male inteUectis, admonere ecclesias. Nam Evangelium coqit urgere doctrinam in ecclesiis de gratia et justitia fidei, quai tamen intelligi non potest, si putent homines se mereri gratiam per observationes ah ipsi* electas. Sic igitur docuerunt, quod per observationem traditionum humanarum non possimus gratiam mereri, aut justificari, quare non est sentiendum, quod hujusmodi observationes sint necessarius cultus.
Addunt testimonia ex Scriptu
fairs, of the comfort of conscience in arduous trials. Wherefore Gerson and some other Divines have made grievous complaints, that they were hindered by these strifes about traditions, 60 that they could not be occupied in some better kind of doctrine. And Augustine forbiddeth that men's consciences should be burdened with observations of this kind, and doth very prudently warn Jauuariu8 to know that they are to be observed as things indifferent; for he so speaketh.
Wherefore our ministers must not be thought to have touched this matter rashly, or from hatred of the bishops, as some do falsely surmisp There was great need to admonish the churches of those errors, which did arise from mistaking of traditions; for the Gospel compelleth men to urge the doctrine of grace and of the righteousness of faith in the Church; which yet can never be understood if men suppose that they can merit remission of sins and justification by observances of their own choice. Thus, therefore, they teach us that we can not merit grace or justification by the observation of man's traditions; and therefore we must not think that such observations are necessary service.
Hereunto they add testimonies ra. Christus (Matt. xv. 3) excusat Apostolos, qui non servaverant usitatam traditionem, quae tamen videbatur de re non illicita, sed media esse, et habere cognationem cum baptismatibus legis; et dicit (ver. 9): 'JFrustra colunt me mandatis hominum? Igitur non exigit cuUum inutilem. Et paulo post addit (ver. 11): 'Omne quod intrat in os, non inquinat hominem.' Item (Rom. xiv. 17): 'Regnum Dei non est esca aut potu8.' Col.ii.16: 'Nemo judicet vo8 in cibo, potu, sabbato aut die festo? Item (ver. 20 sq.): 'Si mortui estis cum Christo ab elementis mundi, quare tanquam viventes in mundo deereta /otitis: Ne attingas, ne gustes, ne contrectesV
Ait Petrus (Acts xv. 10,11): 1 Quare tentatis Deum, imponentes jugum super cervices di8cipulorum, quod neque nos neque patres nostri portare potuimus, sed per gratiam Domini nostri Jesu Christi credimus salvari, quemadmodum et illi.' Hie vetat Petrus onerare conscientias pluribus ritibus sive Mosi, sive aliis. Et (1 Tim. iv. 1-3) vocat prohibitionem cilorum 'doc
oat of the Scriptures. Christ excuseth his Apostles who kept not the received tradition (which yet seemed to be about a matter not unlawful, but indifferent, and to have some affinity with the baptisms of the law), and saith,' They worship me in vain with the commandments of men' (Matt. xv. 9). Christ, therefore, exacteth no unprofitable service. And a little after, he addeth: 'Whatsoever entereth in at the mouth defileth not the man' (ver. 11). So also (Paul): 'The kingdom of God is not meat and drink' (Rom. xv. 17). 'Let no man judge you in meat or drink, or in respect of the Sabbath-days, or of a holiday' (Col. ii. 16). Again: 'If ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though ye lived in the world, are ye subject to traditions: Touch not, taste not, handle not V (ver. 20,21).
Peter saith,' Why tempt ye God, laying a yoke upon the necks of the disciples, which neither we notour fathers were able to bear? But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be 6aved, even as they' (Acts xv. 10,11). Here Peter forbiddeth to burden the consciences with many rites, whether they be of Moses' or of any others' appointing. And he (Paul) calleth the forbidding of trinam damoniorum] quia pitgnat cum Evangelio, talia opei'a instituere aut facere, ut per ea mereamur gratiam, aut quod non possit existere Christianismus sine tali cultu. ,
Hie objiciunt adveraarii, quod nostri prohibeant disciplinam et mortificationem carnis, sicut Jovinianua. Verum aliud deprehendetur ex scriptis nostrorum. Semper enim docuerunt de cruce, quod Christianos oporteat tollerare afflictiones. Hmc est vera, seria et non simulata mortificatio, variis afflictionibus exerceri et cimcifigi cum Ghristo. Insuper docent, quod quilibet Christianus debeat se corporali disciplina aut corporalibus exercitiis et laborious sie exercere et ccercere, ne saturitos aut desidia extimulet ad peccandum, non ut per ilia exercitia mereamur gratiam, aut satis faciamus pro peccatis. Et hanc corporalem disciplinam oportet semper wrgere, non solum paucis et constitutis diebus. Sicut Christus prcecipit (Luke xxi. 34):. ' Cavete, ne corpora vestra graventur crapula.' Item (Matt. xvii. 21): 'Hoc genus dcemoniorum non ejicitur nisi jejunio et oratione^ Et Paxdus ait (1 Cor. k. 27): '.Cos
meats' a doctrine of devils' (1 Tim. iv. 1), because that it is against the Gospel to appoint or do such works, to the end that by them we may merit grace or justification, or as though Christianity could not exist without such service.
Here our adversaries object against us, that our ministers hinder all good discipline and mortification of the flesh, as Jovinian did. But the contrary may be seen by our men's writings. For they have always taught, touching the cross, that Christians ought to bear afflictions. This is the true, earnest, and unfeigned mortification, to be exercised with divers afflictions, and to be crucified with Christ. Moreover they teach that every Christian must so by bodily discipline, or bodily exercises and labor, exercise and keep himself under, that plenty and sloth do not stimulate him to sin; pot that he may bysuch exercises merit grace, or satisfy for sins. And this corporal discipline should be used always, not only on a few and set days; according to the commandment of Christ: 'Take heed lest your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting' (Luke xxi. 34). Again: 'This kind (of devils) goeth not out but by prayer and fasting' (Matt. xvii. 21). And Paul saith,' I keep under my body. tigo corpus meum, et redigo in servitutem? Ubi dare ostendit, se ideo castigare corpus, non ut per earn disciplinary mereatur remissionem peccatorum, sed ut corpus habeat obnoxium et idoneum ad res spirituals et ad faciendum officium juxta vocationem suam. Itaque non damnantur ipsa jejunia, sed traditiones, qua certos dies, certos cibos prcescribunt, cum perietdo comcientice, tanquam istiusmodi opera sint necessarius cultus.
Servantur tamen apud nos pUraeque traditiones, quae conducunt ad hoc, ut res ordine geratur in Ecclesia; ut ordo lectionum in Ifissa et pmcipuce ferine. Sed interim homines admonentur, quod talis cultus non justified coram Deo, et quod non sit ponendum peccatum in talibus rebus, si omittantur sine scandah. ITcec libertas in ritibus humanis non fuit ignota Patribus. Nam in Oriente alio tempore servaverunt Pascha quam Roma, et cum Romani propter hanc dissimilitudinem accusarent Orientfvi schismatis, admoniti sunt ab aliis, tales mores non oportere ubique similes esse. Et Irenceus inquit: 'Dissonantia jejunii fidei comonantiam non solvit? sicut
and bring it into subjection' (1 Cor. ix. 27), where he plainly showeth that he did therefore chastise his body; not that by that discipline he might merit remission of sins, but that his body might be apt and fit for spiritual things, and to do his duty according to his calling. Therefore we do not condemn fasts themselves, but the traditions which prescribe certain days and certain meats, with danger to the conscience, as though such works as these were a necessary service.
Yet most of the traditions are observed among us which tend unto this end, that things may be done orderly in the Church; as, namely, the order of Lessons in the Mass and the chiefest holidays. But, in the mean time, men are admonished that such a service doth not justify before God, and that it is not to be supposed there is sin in such tilings, if they be left undone, without scandal. This liberty in human rites and ceremonies was not unknown to the Fathers. For in the East they kept Easter at another time than they did in Rome; and when they of Rome accused the East of schism for this diversity', they were admonished by others that such customs need not be alike every where. And Irenseus saith: 'The disagree