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quibus nonnuUi incommode commiscutrunt potestatem Ecclesiasticam et potestatem gladii.

Et ex hoc confusione maxima bella, maximi motus extiterunt, dura Pontifices, freti potestate clavium, non solum novos cultus instituerunt reservatione casuum, violentis excommunicationibus conscientias oneraverunt, sed etiam regna mundi transferre et hnperatoribus adimere imperium conati sunt.

Hcec vitia multo ante reprehenderunt in Ecclesia homines pii et eruditi. Itaque nostri ad eonsolandas conscientias coacti sunt ostendere discrimen ecclesiastics p>otestatis et potestatis gladii, et docuerunt ittramque propter mandatum Dei religiose venerandam et honore afficiendam esse, tanquam summa Dei beneficia in terris.

Sic autem sentiunt, potestatem clavium seu potestatem Episcoporum, jitxta Evangelium, potestatem esse seu mandatum Dei, prcedicandi Evangelii, remittendi et retinendi peccata, et administrandi Sacramenta. Nam cum

in which many have incommodiously mingled together the Ecclesiastical power and the power of the sword.

And out of this confusion there have sprung very great wars and tumults, while that the Pontiffs, trusting in the power of the keys, have not only appointed new kinds of service, and burdened men's consciences by reserving of cases, and by violent excommunications; but have also endeavored to transfer worldly kingdoms from one to another, and to despoil emperors of their power and authority.

These faults did godly and learned men long since reprehend in the Church; and for that cause our teachers were compelled, for the comfort of men's consciences, to show the difference between the ecclesiastical power and the power of the sword. And they have taught that both of them, because of God's commandment, are dutifully to be reverenced and honored, as the chiefest blessings of God upon earth.

Now their judgment is this: that the power of the keys, or the power of the Bishops, by the rule of the Gospel, is a power or commandment from God, of preaching the Gospel, of remitting or retaining 6ins, and of administering the Sachoc mandate Christus mittit Apostolos (John xx. 21 sqq.): 'Sicut misit me Pater, ita et ego mitto vos. Accipite Spiritum Sanctum: quorum remiseritis peccata, remiituntur eis, et quarum retinueritis peccata, retenta sunt.-1 Mark xvi. 15: 'Ite, predicate Evangelium omni creaturw,' etc.

Hcec potestas tantum exercetur docendo seu prcedicando verbum, et porrigendo Sacramenta, vel multis vel singulis juxta vocationem, quia conceduntur nan res corporales, sed res cetemce, justitia ceteima, Spiritus Sanetus, vita osterna. Hcec non possunt contingere nisi per ministerium verbi et Sacramentorum / sicut Paulus dicit (Bam. i. 16): 'Evangelium est potentia Dei ad salutem omni credenti?

Itaque cum potestas ecclesiastica concedat res ceternas, et tantum exerceatur per ministerium verbi: non impedit politicum administrationem / sicut ars canendi nihil impedit politieam administrationem. Nam politica administrate versatur circa alias res, quam Evangelium; magistratus defendit non mentes, sed corpora et res corporales

ramente. For Christ doth send his Apostles with this charge: 'As the Father hath sent me, even so send I you. Receive ye the Holy Ghost: whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained' (John xx. 21-23). 'Go, and preach the Gospel to every creature,'' etc. (Mark xvi. 15).

This power is put in execution only by teaching or preaching the Word and administering the Sacraments, either to many or to single individuals, in accordance with their call. For thereby not corporal things, but eternal, are granted; as an eternal righteousness, the Holy Ghost, life everlasting. These things can not be got but by the ministry of the Word and of the Sacraments, as Paul saith, 'The Gospel is the power of God to salvation to every one that believeth' (Rom. i. 16).

Seeing, then, that the ecclesiastical power concemeth tilings eternal, and is exercised only by the ministry of the Word, it hindereth not the political government any more than the art of singing hinders political government For the political administration is occupied about other matters than is the Gospel. The magistracy defends not the minds, but the bodies, and adversus manifestos injurias, et wired homines gladio et corporalibus jpcenis, ut justitiam civikm et pacem retineat.

Fon igitur commiscendce sunt potestates ecclesiastica et civilis: ecelesiastica suum mandatum habet Evangelii docendi et admiinistrandi Saeramenta. Non irrumpat in alienum qfficium, non transferat regna mundi, non abroget leges magistratuum, non toliat legitimam obedientiam, non impediat judicia de vllis civilibus ordinationibus out contract ibus, non prmcribat leges magistratibus de forma rei publics; sicut dicit Christus (John xviii. 36): 'Regnum meum non est de hoc mundo? Item (Luke xii. 14): 'Quis constituit me judicem aut divisorm super vos f' Et Paulus ait (Phil. iii. 20): 'Nostra politia in codis est.' 2 Cor. x. 4: "Arma militice nostra) non sunt carnalia, sed potentia Dei, ad d&struendas cogitationes,' etc. Ad hunc modum discernunt nostri utriusgue potestatis officio, et juient utramque honore affieere et agnoscere, utramque Dei donum et beneficium esse.

Si quam habent Episcopi po

bodily things,against manifest injuries; and coerces men by the sword and corporal punishments, that it may uphold civil justice and peace.

Wherefore the ecclesiastical and civil powers are not to be confounded. The ecclesiastical power hath its own commandment to preach the Gospel and administer the Sacraments. Let it not by force enter into the office of another; let it not transfer worldly kingdoms; let it not abrogate the magistrates' laws; let it not withdraw from them lawful obedience; let it not hinder judgments touching any civil ordinances or contracts; let it not prescribe laws to the magistrate touching the form of the republic; as Christ saith,' My kingdom is not of this world' (John xviii. 36). Again,'Who made me a judge or a divider over you V (Luke xii. 14). And Paul saith,'Our conversation [citizenship] is in heaven' (Phil. iii. 20). 'The weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God, casting down imaginations,' etc. (2 Cor. x. 4). In this way do our teachers distinguish between the duties of each power one from the other, and do warn all men to honor both powers, and to acknowledge both to be the [highest] gift and blessing of God.

If 60 be that the Bishops have testatem gladii, hanc non habent Episcopi ex mandato Evangelii, sed jure humano donatam a regUnis et imperatoribus, ad administrationem civilem morum bonorum. Hcec interim alia functio est, quam ministerium Evangelii.

Cum igitur de jurisdictione Episcoporum quaeritur, discerni debet imperium ab ecclesiastica jurisdictione. Porro secundum Evangelium, seu, ut loquuntur, de jure divino, nulla jurisdictio cornpeiit Episcqpis, ut Episcqpis, hoc est, his, quibus est commissum ministerium Verbi et Sacramentorum, nisi remittere peccata, item, cognoscere doctrinam, et doctrinam ab Evangelio (lissentientem rejicere, et impios, quorum nota est impietas, excludere a communione Eccleswe, sine vi humana, sed Verbo. Hie necessario et de jure divino debent eis Ecclesim prmtare obedientiam, juxta iUud (Luke x. 16): 'Qui vos audit, me audit?

Verum cum aliquid contra Evangelium docent aut statuunt, tunc Jiabent Ecclesice mandatum, Dei, quod obedientiam prohibet (Matt. vii. 15): 1 Cavete a Pseudo

any power of the sword, they have it not as Bishops hy the commandment of the Gospel, hut by man's law given unto tliein of kings and emperors, for the civil government of their goods. This, however, is a kind of fimctiou diverse from the ministry of the Gospel.

Therefore, when the question touches the jurisdiction of Bishops, government must be distinguished from ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Again, by the Gospel, or, as they term it, by divine right, Bishops, as Bishops—that is, those who have the administration of the Word and Sacraments committed to them— have no other jurisdiction at all, but only to remit sin, also to take cognizance of [to judge in regard to] doctrine, and to reject doctrine inconsistent with the Gospel, and to exclude from the communion of the Church, without human force, but by the "Word [of God], those whose wickedness is known. And herein of necessity the churches ought by divine right to render obedience unto them; according to the saying of Christ,' lie that heareth you heareth me' (Luke x. 16).

But when they teach or determine any thing contrary to the Gospel, then have the churches a commandment of God, which forbiddeth obedience to them: 'Beware prophetic? Gal. i. 8: 'Si Angelas de codo aliud Evangelium emngelizaverit, anathema sit? 2 Cor. xiii. 8: 'Non possumus aliquid contra veritatem, sed pro veritate? Item (10): 'Data est nobis potestas ad cedificationem, non ad destructionem? Sic et Canones pracipiunt (II. Qucest. VII. Cap. Sacerdotes, et Cap. Oves). Et Augustinus contra Petiliani Epistolam inquit: 'Nee Catholicis Episcopis consentiendum est, sicubi forte falluntur, aut contra Canonicas Dei Scripturas aliquid sentiunC

Si quam habent aliam vel potestotem, vel jurisdictionem in cognoscendis certis causis, videlicet matrimonii, aut decimarum, etc., hanc habent humano jure; vbi cessantibus Ordinariis coguntur Principes, vel inviti, suis snbditis jus dicere, ut pax retineatur.

Prater hwc disputatur, utrum Episcopi sen Pastores habeant jus instituendi ceremonias in Ecclesia, et Uges de cibis, feriis, gradibxts ministrorum, sen ordinibus, etc., condendi. Hoc jus qui tribuunt Episcopis, aUegant testimonium (John xvi. 12): 'Adhuc

of false prophets' (Matt, vii. 15). 'If an angel from heaven preach any other Gospel, let him be accursed' (Gal. i. 8). 'We can not do any thing against the truth, but for the truth' (2 Cor. xiii. 8). Also, 'This power is given us to edify, and not to destroy' (2 Cor. xiii. 10). So do the Canons command (II. Qumst. 7, Cap. Sacerdotes, and Cap. Oves). And Augustine, in his Treatise against Petition's Epistle, saith, 'Neither must we subscribe to Catholic Bishops, if they chance to err, or determine any thing contrary to the canonical divine Scriptures.'

If so be that they have any other power or jurisdiction, in hearing and understanding certain cases, as, namely, of Matrimony, and Tithes, etc., they hold it by human right. But when the ordinaries fail [to attend to this office], princes are constrained, whether they wish to do so or not, to declare the law to their subjects, for maintaining of peace.

Besides these things, there is a controversy whether Bishops or Pastors have power to institute ceremonies in the Church, and to make laws concerning meats, and. holidays, and degrees, or orders of ministers, etc. They that ascribe this power to the Bishops allege this

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