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THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY

ASTOR, LENOX AND TILDEN FOUND'INS.

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THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY

ASTOR, LENOX AND TILDEN FOUNDATIONS,

INSTRUCTIONS TO PROMOTE LEGIBILITY.

33

The learner may sometimes find it convenient, in the writing of proper names and words not in common use, to be more explicit in relation to vowels, diphthongal sounds, and doubtful consonants; for which purpose the following instructions are given. They will, however, be found less necessary, as the writing and reading become more familiar, and should only be used to prevent obscurity.

RULES. 1st. As a, I, O, are the only vowels ever used alone, they may be easily distinguished as follows, i; that is, a above, I in the centre, and O below, the line of writing.

2d. At the beginning and end of words make use of the same distinctions, •i or y

3d. To show certain omitted vowels in the middle of words, place a comma over the word as follows, thus :

a

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a or e

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for a ore

for i ory

. for o oru

4th. For diphthongal sounds place the comma under the word, as follows, for ou; and for oy.

r

be made heavi- f 5th. In doubtful cases, let

k

aer than

Arbitrary Characters. Enough has been already said in relation to Arbitrary Characters, and therefore a single remark must suffice. The Compiler of this work, after having learned, at great expense of memory, some hundreds of arbitrary signs, has at length abandoned the whole, except the following,

O The world
+ Jesus Christ

These are so very

appropriate as not to X Christianity

be soon forgotten. * Christian Religion

34

SHORT HAND SHORTENED.

The preceding system is complete in itself, and has no dependance on the following instruction. It is, therefore, carnestly recommended that beginners have nothing to do with short hand shortened, till they are quite familiar with short hand. They may then increase their facility of writing, by adding other links to the chain of abbreviation, without weakening those which precede.

The learner will here discover no characters with which he is not already familiar; although, from the manner in which they are made and located, they receive additional powers. And, notwithstanding the instruction here given is considered quite sufficient, still, the learner may, upon the same plan, go much farther by the use of other stenographic letters above or below the line—and all this, without material encroachment upon the fundamental principles of the system; but it is no more necessary for the common stenographer, than conick sections or fluxions to the humble arithmetician.

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66

be

We

th 7

Instructions.
1st. Make an inverted me for him, am, most.

PP “ peculiar, people, practical.
ho “ hand, heart, how.

" but, because, believe.
Id 6 law, live, large.

was, what, without.

“ them, then, this. “ ious" virtuous, righteous, religious. 2d. Make a horizontal touch - above the line of writing for and the, or by the; and the same touch _ below the line for in the, or of the.

3d. Make two dots above the line of writing, for for the, or from the; and the same below the line, for with the, or was the.

Remark.-- When signs are placed above or below the line, to represent a word or words, they should not stand near the preceding or following words, lest they should be taken for parts thereof.

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