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S THIO IR T = IHI A N ID
writing;
COMPILED FROM THE LATEST EUROPEAN PUBLICATIONs,

WITH SUNDRY IMPROVEMENTS,

..?dapted to the present state of literature in the United States.

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The STENOGRAPHIC TREE.

THE frontispiece to this work, exhibits, in the form a tree othe entire theory of the following system, which consists in the judicious application of a few elementary principles to the purpose of quick . For the encouragement of the learner, let it be understood, that with this CD simple key, and this only, the language of a public speaker may be recorded as fast as delivered, and in a hand which shall be legible, not to the writer only, but to all others who are familiar with the same system. From this small circle and right line, a tree is produced, bearing fruit after its kind, as seen by the following analysis. In the first place, the roots of the tree present a kind of diagram, in which we discover the embryo of that fruit which is afterwards exhibited upon the several branches, and finally converted into short hand. The different inclinations of the right line are made to represent five letters —different segments of the circle, four letters; different modifications of the circle and line, six letters; and of the quarter circle and line, five letters; making in all, twenty distinct alphabetic #. The first four limbs of the tree, present a classification of the several characters, under four distinct species, showing at the same time, the letter, or letters, which each character is respectively to represent. The same twenty characters are next seen in the body of the tree, surrounded by certain words and parts of words, of which, in writing, they become the representatives, according to established rules. With these twenty characters, possessing the fourfold power, to represent letters, words, prefixes and terminations, together with a dot, to represent vowels, the theory of this system is complete; although several of the same marks are afterwards employed as the arbitrary signs of certain other prefixes, terminations, words, &c., as shown near the top of the tree. o --- A a right understanding and application of ind on the 10th, 11th, and 12th pages of this e book is devoted to illustrations, and short d translations of the several plates, for the

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on the sixteenthday of April, in the forty-eighth year of es of America, M.T. C. GOULD, of the said District, ls office the titlé of a Book, the right whereof he claims as Author, in

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“The Analytic Guide and Authentic Key to the art of Short hand writing; by which the lan of a public speaker may be recorded as fast as delivered, in a style at once beautiful and legible. Being a compilation from the latest European and American publications, with sundry improvements, adapted to the present state of literature in the United States. #y M. T. C. Gould, Stenographer. Third Edition.”

In conformity to the Act of Congress of the United States, entitled “An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors §§ roprietors of such copies, during the time therein mentioned;” as also to an Act, en

§ “An Act, supplementary to an Act, entitled an Act for the encouragement of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such #: the time therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts

** ing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints.”

JAMES DILL,

Clerk of the Southern District of New-York.

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• - INTRODUCTION.

The art of short-hand writing, was practiced under dif. ferent names and forms, by most of the ancient civilized nations of the earth. The Egyptians, who were at a very early period distinguished for their learning, represented objects, words and ideas, by a species of hieroglyphics. The Jews also used this species of writing, adding a number of arbitrary characters, for important, solemn, and awful terms, such as God, Jehovah, &c. A similar method was practiced by the Greeks, which is said to have been introduced at Nicolai by Xenophon. The Romans adopted the same method—and Ennius, the poet, invented a new system, by which the Notari recorded the language of their most celebrated orators. He commenced with about 1100 marks of his own invention, to which he af. terwards added many more. His plan, as improved by Tyro, was held in high estimation by the Romans. Titus , Vespasian was remarkably fond of short hand—he considered it not only convenient and useful, but ranked it among his most interesting amusements. Plutarch tells us, that the celebrated speech of Cato, relative to the Catalinian conspiracy, was taken and preserved in short hand. We are likewise informed, that Seneca made use of a system of short writing, which consisted in the use of about 5000 characters. The first publication upon this subject, of which we have any correct information, was about the year 1500, from a Latin manuscript, dated 1412. Various other publications followed in succession, without materially advancing, or changing the character of the art, till about the commencement of the 18th century; nor were the principles, till many years afterwards, settled upon a basis which could promise any degree of stability to the art. Byrom was the first who treated the subject scientifically, and to him we stand indebted for the promulgation

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iv. INtroduction.

of those fundamental principles, which will ever constitute the true foundation of every rational system of stenography. His first edition appeared in the year 1767. Previous to this, many systems had been published under the name of short, or swift hand, which were so involved in philological refinements, or superfluous arbitrary signs, as to be absolutely more tedious in the acquirement and practice, than the usual long hand, and scarcely intelligible, except to the inventers, or those who devoted their lives to practice. Nor did Byrom rest, till he had much obscured the merits of his original plan, by the introduction of numerous grammar rules, plausible in theory, but odious in practice. Much difficulty was no doubt experienced by him and by later writers, in selecting the most appropriate characters, and assigning to each its respective functions; but a still greater difficulty has continued to exist, in relation to the too frequent introduction of arbitrary signs and subtle theories, which, finding their way into many systems, have rendered useless to the world that which was otherwise valuable, in the elementary principles of Byrom and his successors. Most of the books upon short hand have been rendered voluminous, intricate and expensive, by theoretical niceties, which served only to discourage the learner, to shut the art from schools and colleges, and thus prevent its general extension and usefulness. Under these circumstances, but few individuals have been successful in acquiring a knowledge of the subject, and they have generally found an interest in suppressing its dissemination, while the multitude ignorantly condemned it, as a mystic and useless art. This public denunciation, if confined to some of the crude and ponderous volumes of unintelligible hieroglyphics, which appeared between the 16th and 18th centuries, would be just and true; but when applied to the more improved systems of a later date, it is grossly illiberal and unjust. Still, the prejudices excited previous to the publication of those scientific principles which now characterize the art, are unjustly kept up, by those who are more ready to condemn what they do not understand, than to acknowledge their ignorance of a subject with which others are familiar.

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