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ness.

now Dear enough to see that they were had there been but one bear, though bears of a very large size. To turn I might have suffered much, I was aside was impossible, as the jungle confident I could have dislocated his was of a kind impenetrable to a man, jaw. But the two together quite disbeing full of the very long thorn, call- comfited me. I said that I never lost ed the Buffaloe thorn, from its tough- my presence of mind during the ren

To go back never entered my contre ; but I own that I stood as if mind-indeed I had little time for fixed to the spot while they moved off, thought, as I was now within thirty and till they were out of sight. My paces of them. They lifted up their first impulse was then to run, which I heads and marked their anger by a continued to do for about three miles, short roar, which I returned by charge when I reached the large plain, which ing them till I found myself within I guessed to be that of Yallé. I then three yards of them, without their fell down quite exhausted, and lay on offering to move away. They made the ground for above half an hour, a step towards me, the largest one, when I rose and moved slowly across evidently the male, about its length the large open ground to the other before the other ;-I kept my face to- side of it, where I knew the rest-house wards them, and edged round so as to be situated. The latter part of the to get on that side of them by which way was through a path in the jungle I was to pursue my route. At this for about 100 yards; and I confess I moment they made a short bound at was so alarmed, that I could not face me, which I escaped by springing the risk of this, and therefore steered backwards, but still fronting them, my course down towards the sea-coast. and they missed me a second time in At last my way was happily stopped the same way.

These were more like by the river which flows there, and I the consecutive bounds of a clumsy laid myself down on my face, and sagallop, than anything else, but the tisfied my thirst by drinking, as you third I saw was to be my last. All may conceive, most inordinately. that I remember is, uttering a sound Quite dark as it was, there was little of horror between a scream and a roar, chance of my being able to fiņd the and as the foremost animal rose at me, solitary clay-built rest-house, which I I struck him with all the force of my knew to be thereabouts. So I stretchbody in the nose and teeth with my ed myself on the sand, and slept there brandy bottle, the only thing in my till the moon rose soon after inidnight, hands. I need not say that the bottle when I resumed my search successbroke into shivers; and whether it was fully, and finished my sleep on its the blow on the nose—a part, I have earthen floor. In the morning, at the since heard, of great tenderness in first dawn, I endeavored to find the bears—or that part of the brandy went hut of the letter-carriers, but to no into his eyes and mouth and astonish- purpose, though I actually viewed one ed him, or both these things together, of them for a moment; but he, instead I know not; but he turned round and of obeying ny loud summons to come moved off, followed by his companion to my assistance, fled and concealed down the path away from me, and so himself. This, I am ashamed to say, into the jungle. The female at no is but too often the conduct of the natime had taken a decided part, keep- tives under similar circumstances, ing rather in the rear, and only back- knowing full well beforehand, that ing her mate by encouraging grunts. they are only required to act as guide, The whole business, I may say, scarce or to carry luggage, for either of which ly occupied a minute's time, during services they are frequently but inadewhich I did not in the least lose my quately rewarded. I again, therefore, presence of mind, probably from the started on my way to Pallitopanie, shortness of the time. I felt so con over twelve miles of deep sand, where scious indeed of my own strength, that I arrived with difficulty at three o'clock,

almost dead from the scorching rays saw me embark on board of the dheof the sun, fatigue, and hunger; hav- ney, and it was nearly broken from ing ate nothing from the morning of want of a cork-screw to open it, in my embarkation till I reached this order to relieve the wife of a soldier place, a space of time of about fifty- who was on board going to join her three hours. Luckily it had rained, husband, and who being sea-sick, took and I occasionally found water to a longing for this panacea. It was by drink in the holes made by the feet of the merest accident that after this I the wild elephants and buffaloes. The retained it in my hand, when I gave kind care of the only European at the up,my portmanteau to the elephant, post, an honest corporal of the 19th and it seems almost to bave been so regiment, soon brought me round, by arranged by an interposition of Provipreparing a hot bath for me, and a dence.” good currie, not to mention a share of So much for our friend H his brandy bottle, to compensate for To you, or indeed to any who know the one which the bear had cost me. his gallant soldier-like bearing and Next day he escorted me with his perfect modesty, it is needless to say musket on his shoulder to Hamban- how thoroughly every word of his nartotte, where my labor ended, as I got rative may be relied upon. Though housed with my friend the Collector, he never mentioned the circumstance and found my servants and baggage beyond a few very particular friends, arrived. I must not finish without it is now well known to many in this remarking on the brandy bottle. It country, particularly to the family of was actually forced upon me in spite the late worthy Governor of the coloof my refusal, by a gentleman who ny, who was there when it happened.

SKETCHES OF CONTEMPORARY AUTHORS, STATESMEN, &c.

No. X.-SiR HUMPHRY Davy. SiR HUMPHRY Davy was born De- natives of Penzance who remember cember 17, 1779, at Penzance, in his poems and verses, written at the Cornwall. His family was ancient, early age of nine years. He cultivatand above the middle class; his pa- ed this bias till bis fifteenth year, ternal great grandfather had consider- when he became the pupil of Mr. able landed property in the parish of (since Dr.) Borlase, of Penzance, Budgwin, and bis father possessed a an ingenious surgeon, intending to small paternal estate opposite St. Mi- prepare himself for graduating as a chael's Mount, called Farfal, on physician at Edinburgh. As a proof which he died in 1795, after having of his uncommon mind, at this early injured his fortune by expending con age, it is worthy of mention, that Mr. siderable sums in attempting agricul- Davy laid down for himself a plan of tural improvements. Sir Humphry education, which embraced the circle received the first rudiments of his edu- of the sciences. By his eighteenth cation at the grammar-schools of Pen- year he had acquired the rudiments of zance and Truro: at the former botany, anatomy, and physiology, the place, he resided with Mr. John simpler mathematics, metapbysics, Tomkin, surgeon, a benevolent and natural philosophy, and chemistry. intelligent man, who had been inti- But chemistry soon arrested his whole mately connected with his maternal attention. Having made some expegrandfather, and treated bim with a riments on the air disengaged by seadegree of kindness little less than pa- weeds from the water of the ocean, rental. His genius was originally in- which convinced him that these vegeclined to poetry ; and there are many tables performed the same part in pu

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rifying the air dissolved in water Institution, were made on the sub-
which land-vegetables act in the at- stance employed in the process of tan-
mosphere; he communicated them to ning, with others to which similar
Dr. Beddoes, who had at that time properties were ascribed, in conse-
circulated proposals for publishing a quence of the discovery made by M.
journal of philosophical contributions Seguier, of Paris, of the peculiar
from the West of England. This vegetable matter, now called tannin.
produced a correspondence between He was, during the same period, fre-
Dr. Beddoes and Mr. Davy, in which quently occupied in experiments on
the Doctor proposed that Mr. Davy, galvanism.
who was at this time only nineteen To the agriculturist, chemistry is
years of age, should suspend his plan of the first consideration. The de-
of going to Edinburgh, and take a pendence of agriculture upon chemi-
part in experiments which were then cal causes had been previously notic-
about to be instituted at Bristol, for ed, but it was first completely demon-
investigating the medical powers of strated in a course of lectures before
factitious airs. To this proposal Mr. the Board of Agriculture, which Mr.
Dary consented, on condition that he Davy commenced in the year 1802,
should bave the uncontrolled superin- and continued for ten years. This
tendence of the experiments. About series of lectures contained much
this time he became acquainted with popular and practical information, and
Davies Gilbert, Esq. M. P. a gentle- belongs to the most useful of Mr.
man of high scientific attainments, Davy's scientific labors ; for the ap-
(now President of the Royal Society,) plication of chemistry to agriculture
with whom he formed a friendship is one of its most important results :
which has always continued ; and to and so rapid were the discoveries of
Mr. Gilbert's judicious advice may be the author, that in preparing these
attributed Mr. Davy's adoption of and discourses for publication, a few years
perseverance in the study of chemis- afterwards, he was under the necessi-
try. With Dr. Beddoes, Mr. Davy ty of making several alterations, to
resided for a considerable time, and adapt them to the inproved state of
was constantly occupied in new che- chemical knowledge, which his own
mical investigations. Here, he dis- labors had, in that short time, pro-
covered the respirability of nitrous duced.
oxide, and made a number of labori In 1803, he was chosen a fellow of
ous experiments on gaseous bodies, the Royal Society, and in 1805, a
which he afterwards published in member of the Royal Irish Academy.
“ Researches Chemical and Philoso- He now enjoyed the friendship of
phical,” a work that was universally most of the distinguished literary men
well received by the chemical world, and philosophers of the metropolis,
and created a high reputation for its and enumerated among bis intimate
author, at that time only twenty-one friends, Sir Joseph Banks, Cavendish,
years of age. This led to his intro- Hatchett, Wollaston, Children, Ten-
duction to Count Rumford, and to his nant, and other eminent men. At the
being elected Professor of Chemistry same time he corresponded with the
to the Royal Institution in Albemarle principal chemists of every part of
street. On obtaining this appoint- Europe. In 1806, he was appointed
ment Mr. Davy gave up all his views to deliver, before the Royal Society,
of the medical profession, and devoted the Bakerian lecture, in which he dis-
himself entirely to chemistry.

played some very interesting new Mr. Davy's first experiments as agencies of electricity, by means of Professor of Chemistry in the Royal the celebrated galvanic apparatus.*

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* This apparatus is of immense power, and consists of 200 separate parts, each part composed of ten double plates, and each plate containing 32 square inches. The whole number of double plates is 2,000, and the whole surface 128,000 square inches.

d the same

Soon afterwards, he made one of the The general principle of this discomost brilliant discoveries of modern very may be described as follows : times, in the decomposition of two " The frequency of accidents, fixed alkalies, which, in direct refuta- arising from the explosion of the firetion of the hypothesis previously damp, or inflammable gas of the coaladopted, were found to consist of a mines, mixed with atmospherical air, peculiar metallic base united with a occasioned the formation of a comlarge quantity of oxygen. These al- mittee at Sunderland, for the purpose kalies were potash and soda, and the of investigating the causes of these metals thus discovered were called calamities, and of endeavoring to dispotassium and sodium. Mr. Davy cover and apply a preventive. Sir was equally successful in the applica- Humphry received an invitation, in tion of galvanism to the decomposi- 1815, from Dr. Gray, one of the tion of the earths. About this time, members of the committee ; in conhe became Secretary of the Royal sequence of which he went to the Society. In 1808, Mr. Davy receiv- North of England, and visiting sotne ed a prize from the French Institute. of the principal collieries in the During the greater part of 1810, he was neighborhood of Newcastle, soon conemployed on the combinations of oxy- vinced himself that no improvement muriatic gas and oxygen ; and towards could be made in the mode of ventilathe close of the same year, he deliver- tion, but that the desired preventive ed a course of lectures before the must be sought in a new method of Dublio Society, and received from lighting the mines, free from danger, Trinity College, Dublin, the honorary and which, by indicating the state of degree of LL. D.

the air in the part of the mine where In the year 1812, Mr. Davy marri- inflammable air was disengaged, so as ed his amiable lady, then Mrs. to render the atmosphere explosive, Apreece, widow of Shuckburgh Ashby should oblige the miners to retire till Apreece, Esq. and daughter and the workings were properly cleared. heiress of the late Charles Kerr, of The common means then employed Kelso, Esq. By his union with this for lighting the dangerous part of the lady, Mr. Davy acquired not only a mines consisted of a steel wheel reconsiderable fortune, but the inesti- volving in contact with flint, and armable treasure of an affectionate and fording a succession of sparks : but exemplary wife, and a congenial this apparatus always required a perfriend and companion, capable of ap son to work it, and was not entirely preciating his character and attain- free from danger. The fire-damp ments. A few days previously to his was known to be light carburetted marriage, he received the honor of hydrogen gas ; but its relations to knighthood from his Majesty, then combustion had not been examined. Prince Regent, being the first person It is chiefly produced from what are on whom he conferred that dignity. called blowers or fissures in the

We now arrive at the most impor- broken strata, near dykes. Sir Humtant result of Sir Humphry Davy's phry made various experiments on its labors, viz. the invention of the safe- combustibility and explosive nature; TY-LAMP for coal mines, which has and discovered that the fire-damp rebeen generally and successfully adopt- quires a very strong heat for its ined throughout Europe. This inven- Aammation ; that azote and carbonic tion has been the means of preserving acid, even in very small proportions, many valuable lives, and preventing diminished the velocity of the inflamhorrible mutilations, more terrible mation ; that mixtures of the gas even than death ; and were this Sir would not explode in metallic canals Humphry Davy's only invention, it or troughs, where their diameter was would secure him an immortality in less than one-seventh of an inch, and the annals of civilization and science, their depth considerable in proportion

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to their diameter; and that explo- ments of the most satisfactory nature
sions could not be made to pass were speedily made, and the invention
through such canals, or through very was soon generally adopted. Some
fine wire sieves, or wire gauze. The attempts were made to dispute the
consideration of these facts led Sir honor of this discovery with its au-
Humphry to adopt a lamp, in which thor, but his claims were confirmed
the flame, by being supplied with only by the investigations of the first phi-
a limited quantity of air, should pro- losophers of the age.”—The coal
duce such a quantity of azote and owners of the Tyne and Wear evinc-
carbonic acid as to prevent the explo- ed their sense of the benefits resulting
sion of the fire-damp, and which, by from this invention, by presenting Sir
the nature of its apertures for giving Humphry with a handsome service of
admittance and egress to the air, should plate, worth nearly two thousand
be rendered incapable of communicat- pounds, at a public dinner at New-
ing any explosion to the external air. castle, October 11, 1817.

These requisites were found to be af In 1813, Sir Humphry was elected
forded by air-tight lanterns, of vari- a corresponding member of the Insti-
ous constructions, supplied with air tute of France, and vice-president of
from tubes or canals of small diame- the Royal Institution; in 1817, one
ter, or from apertures covered with of the eight associates of the Royal
wire-gauze, placed below the flame, Academy; in 1818 created a baronet,
through which explosions cannot be and during the last ten years he has
communicated ; and having a chimney been elected a member of most of
at the upper part, for carrying off the the learned bodies of Europe.
foul air. Sir Humphry soon afterwards We could occupy many pages with
found that a constant flame might be the interesting details of Sir Humphry
kept up from the explosive mixture Davy's travels in different parts of
issuing from the apertures of a wire- Europe for scientific purposes, parti-
gauze sieve. He introduced a very cularly to investigate the causes of
small lamp in a cylinder, made of volcanic phenomena, to instruct the
wire-gauze, having six thousand four miners of the coal districts in the ap-
hundred apertures in the square inch. plication of his safety-lamp, and to
He closed all apertures except those examine the state of the Herculaneum
of the gauze, and introduced the manuscripts and to illustrate the re-
lamp, burning brightly within the cy- mains of the chemical arts of the an-
linder, into a large jar, containing se- cients. He analyzed the colors used
veral quarts of the most explosive in painting by the ancient Greek and
mixture of gas from the distillation of Roman artists. His experiments
coal and air ; the flame of the wick were chiefly made on the paintings in
immediately disappeared, or rather the baths of Titus, the ruins called
was lost, for the whole of the interior the baths of Livia, in the remains of
of the cylinder hecame filled with a other palaces and baths of ancient
feeble but steady flame of a green Rome, and in the ruins of Pompeii.
color, which burnt for some minutes, By the kindness of his friend Canova,
till it had entirely destroyed the ex- who was charged with the care of the
plosive power of the atmosphere. works connected with the ancient art
This discovery led to a most impor- in Rome, he was enabled to select
tant improvement in the lamp, divest- with his own hands specimens of the
ed the fire-damp of all its terrors, and different pigments, that had been
applied its powers, formerly so de- formed in vases discovered in the ex-
structive, to the production of a use- cavations, which had been lately made
ful light. Some minor improvements, beneath the ruins of the palace of Ti-
originating in Sir Humphry's re- tus, and to compare them with the
searches into the nature of flame, colors fixed on the walls, or detached
were afterwards effected. Experi- in fragments of stucco. The results

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