Prize Essay on the Evils which are Produced by Late Hours of Business: And on the Benefits which Would Attend Their Abridgement

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J. Nisbet, 1843 - 39 páginas
 

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Página viii - Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, and that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy house ? when thou seest the naked, that thou cover him ; and that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh?
Página viii - Christian masters to give unto their servants that which is just and equal, knowing that they have also a Master in heaven.
Página 10 - Thus with the year Seasons return, but not to me returns Day, or the sweet approach of even or morn, Or sight of vernal bloom, or summer's rose, Or flocks, or herds, or human face divine...
Página 38 - that twelve hours a-day, including two hours for meals, is quite sufficient time for human beings to labour for a continuance." THOMAS HODGKIN, MD " 10901. Do you, in reference to the general experience of mankind, and the principles of medical science, believe that the customary hours of a day's labour, namely, twelve, including the necessary intervals for refreshment and rest, are, in ordinary cases, as long a term of human labour as is consistent with the preservation of a perfect state of health...
Página iii - Young men, from sixteen years of age to twenty-five or thirty, are engaged in drapers' shops daily about fifteen hours, of which fourteen hours and a half are actually employed in business. During this time they are not permitted to sit down or to look into a book, but are standing or moving about from morning to night, generally in an atmosphere exhausted by respiration and in rooms ill ventilated. When night arrives, gas-lights and closed doors complete the deterioration of the air, till at length...
Página 8 - Thus we see that these young men are compelled to breathe an atmosphere which gradually becomes more and more impure ; until in the evening, and especially late in the evening, it becomes positively and actively pernicious. The results of such a state of things may be easily inferred. The lungs imperfectly perform their functions ; as a necessary consequence, the blood is only partially oxygenised, or changed from venous into arterial ; the circulation becomes sluggish ; all the secretions are rendered...
Página 6 - Now the assistant - draper, during much of the time which he spends in the shop, breathes an atmosphere which has been rendered impure both by the exhalations of human bodies, and by the fixed air, or carbonic acid, which is given out by expiration, and by the burning of gas. According to Dr. A. Combe, every individual breathes from 14 to 20 times in a minute, and inhales from 15 to 30 cubic inches of air at each inspiration. Reckoning 15 inspirations to a minute, and 20 cubic inches of air to each...
Página iv - When night arrives, gas-lights and closed doors complete the deterioration of the air, till at length it becomes almost pestiferous. Meanwhile their meals must be swallowed hastily, like the mouthful of water which impatient travellers afford to a smoking post-horse in the middle of a long stage. No exercise is allowed in the open sunshine, their only relaxation being to take a walk in the streets about ten o'clock at night, when the sober and virtuous part of the community have retired to their...
Página v - AssistantDrapers of London. Nor are they its only victims. The shops of Druggists and Grocers are kept open as late as those of Drapers : while the slavery under which milliners and dressmakers are pining is more relentless and more fatal still. In that employment healthy young women have been worked till their limbs have swollen, till they have grown crooked, till they have become blind, till they have lost all power of digestion, till they have been incapable of healthy sleep, till they have fainted...
Página 2 - Thus in busy thoroughfares they arc generally kept open later than in more retired streets. The best shops in the best neighbourhoods are generally opened at seven o'clock in the morning (in some few cases at six o'clock), at which hour a certain number of the young men come down to make preparations for business in their several departments. At eight o'clock (or in some cases at half-past seven) the others, who may be called the seniors, come down, when the former party arc allowed to retire for...

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