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Gunpowder is made of three things: sulphur or brimstone, nitre or saltpetre, and charcoal.

Before men had learned to make gunpowder, they used to kill one another with swords; now, when they fight, they take pistols, guns, or cannon, fill them with gunpowder, and leaden or iron balls, and point to the spot whither they wish the balls should fly; the balls kill the persons whom they strike.

The art of making gunpowder was found out, or discovered, before the art of printing was invented. Gunpowder, first made, 1380.

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THE people in the north of Scotland are called Highlanders. They wear woollen clothes of many colours, called Scotch plaid, and caps or bonnets on their heads. They work hard, and are very honest.

The south part of Scotland is called the Low-lands. Edinburgh is a city of ScotlandGlasgow is another city. Edinburgh has a university. The language used in Scotland is a little different from English.

In Scotland, almost all over the country, there are schools for the instruction of poor people.

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The English live in the island of Great Britain. Great Britain is in three parts, England, Scotland, and Wales.

The great city of London is in England, on the River Thames. The English people are very wise, and very rich; they have a great many large ships. We speak the same language which the English do.

Two hundred years ago, many Englishmen came to America; they and their children built some of these houses, and towns, which we see about us.

Many of the clothes which we wear are brought from England; some of our cotton and woollen clothes are made there; our buttons, needles, scissors, pins, and knives, come from

England, and so do waiters, and glasses, and plates, and cups, and saucers, and carpets. The English have a king and queen.

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THIS Indian has a bow in one hand, and an arrow in the other. Children see boys in the streets with bows and arrows; boys use bows and arrows to play with. Indians use them to kill wild animals; they strip the skins from the animals taken in this manner, and make clothes of them; they eat the flesh of the animals. Sometimes Indians kill other Indians with the bow and arrow; they fight very much; they do not treat the women kindly. Savage men never treat women so well as civilized men treat them.

The Indians have no books; they do not write and read. They talk in the Indian, lan


Language, the words that we use in speak. ing and writing.



Here is one of the dark coloured men of the South Sea.

New-Zealand is two islands very near together. The Zealanders kill wild animals, and catch fish, for food.

If you look upon a globe you will see NewHolland west of New-Zealand. It was first discovered by Europeans, in 1609. In 1770, Captain Cook sailed all round it, and found it to be a vast island. The English have endeavoured to improve the natives of the South Sea Islands, and those of New-Holland, by sending missionaries to teach them the Bible.

Missionaries are good men who leave com

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