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GERMANY is a large country of Europe; it has large towns and many people; it has universities, and many wise men. Germany is divided into many countries. Austria is the principal. One of the largest cities of Austria is Vienna, on the River Danube. Part of Germany lies on the Baltic Sea; Italy is next to Austria, on the south.

The mountains, called Alps, are between Italy and Germany.

The German in the print has a book under his arm. The Germans read, and write, and think a great deal. Some Germans live in the United States. In Pennsylvania some of the people speak the German language.

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ITALY is shaped like a boot, or like a man's leg. Italy is in the south of Europe; it runs into the Mediterranean sea. Rome, Florence, Leghorn, and Naples, are cities of Italy; there are many other cities. They. have all many beautiful pictures and statues.

The people of Italy are Roman Catholics. No other religion than the Roman Catholic is tolerated, or allowed in Italy. The chief priest or minister of the Catholics is the Pope. The pope generally resides in Rome. The finest church in the world is St. Peter's at Rome. The north part of Italy now belongs to the Emperor of Austria.

Venice, a city at the head of the Adriatic gulf, was once very rich and beautiful. The

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Venetians were great merchants, now they have become poor. Venice was built upon

the water, and instead of streets, water runs in canals between rows of palaces and houses. The inhabitants are carried about in boats called gondolas. The boatmen who row them are gondoliers.

Statues are what some people call images. The shape of a man in marble, is a statue.

The man in the print carries a board upon the board there are many little figures; a bird, a lion, some heads, some entire bodies of men. People in Italy make these things, and carry them about to sell. Very little boys make some of them.

Near to the city of Naples is the volcano of Vesuvius. Children who have seen the picture of this burning mountain, can form some idea of Vesuvius; those who have seen the chimney top blazing, and throwing out sparks, can think of a place, much larger than the chimney top, throwing out a great quantity of fire-this is a volcano.

The largest volcano in the world is Mount Etna, in the island of Sicily; another volcano is Mount Hecla, in Iceland.

The people of Italy speak the Italian language. The people who lived in the city of Rome spoke the Latin language. Many books were written in the Latin language. People learn Latin now, that they may read those books; but people do not talk Latin now. Latin is called a dead language, because the people are dead who used to speak it.



ARABIA is a large country of Asia; there are few rivers in it; there are few towns or trees, but there are wide deserts, and a great deal of sand. Only a few of the people live in houses; the greater number live in tents; they have very fine horses; they love their horses very much, and are very kind to them. The horses live with them in the tents, and never kick or hurt the children. Some of the Arabs are merchants; some are shepherds, and some are robbers.

The Arabians have an animal that is very useful to them. This is the camel. He travels for them, gives them milk, and his hair makes their clothes: he is of as much use to the Arabian as the horse, the cow, and the sheep, are to us: he is as useful to him, as the reindeer is to the poor Laplander. The camels carry loads of

three or four hundred pounds; they kneel down to take up the load, and rise when it is put on ; they will not allow more to be put upon their backs than they can carry; if more is put on, they cry loudly till it is taken off. When they are loaded, the camel trots about twenty-five miles in a day; but when the camel carries only a man upon his back, he can travel one hundred and fifty miles in one day.

Some persons call the camel the "ship of the desert," because he is a native of countries where there are not navigable rivers; and therefore ships cannot convey goods from one place to another. The merchants of Arabia, Egypt, and Syria, employ the camel to carry great loads across wide tracts of sand, where there are no springs of water except at great distances from each other, and no shady trees. Neither fatigue nor thirst wears out this strong and patient animal. Horses and mules could not carry the same burthens, nor endure the want of water as the camel does. God has fitted him for the countries where he has placed him, and adapted him to the service of mankind. The merchants who use the camel do not travel singly, but in large companies, called caravans.

The camel drinks a great quantity of water at once; he has a safe place in his stomach, where he can keep the water a long time, and when he is thirsty, he wets his mouth by forcing up some of the water. One sort of camel is called the dromedary. Some kinds of the camel have one bunch on the back, others have two bunches. Camels live forty or fifty years. There is a kind of camel in South America, called a lama,

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