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A SABBATH AMONG THE MOUNTAINS.
(Lon. Mag.) OF
F this little, sweet, and enthusiastic a complete idea of it to many of our
poem, we have no wish to give a readers; these lines are characteristic: regular account: indeed no very regu
That morn the Isle with expectation bright, lar account can be rendered of a work its people pours from valley and from height recording the various feelings, and du- The tartan'd maidens
, link'd in rosy wreath, ties, and meditations of a single day, Glitter like sunbeams from the mountain heath. and which aspires after no particular There the fair infant group, a mother's pride,
Collect the wild flowers by the pathway side ; regularity of narrative, or strict con
Or gathering round her, arm in arm entwine, tinuity of action.
To a lover of silent By her attracted, in her radiance shine. or animated nature-to one to whom
In straggling bands the aged men appear, the sabbath comes, not alone as a re- Like venerable Patriarchs in the rear, lease from the dust and sweat of week. And, to the customs of their country true, ly toil, but as a time for purer aspira- Robed in the mountain plaid
, and bombet blue, tions and chastened thought, and the strong in the Scriptures, though in humble guise,
Unletter'd Sages by the evangile wise; meek and mild austerities of devotion, Men who, by toil
, a scanty pittance earn, these verses will be very welcome. Ye mitred heads from their discourse might learn. We know not that they display great The little barges on the billows ride, originality of thought, or contain much A navy of fair spirits on the tide ; of that wrapt and inspired fervour Like milk-white doves, on outstretch'd wings they
sail which sheds such a charm over the con
With a smooth motion, in the gentle gale ; templative poetry of Wordsworth. The Peace with her olive in the canvass beams, following passage affords a good speci- Hope leads the way, and in a rainbow gleams, men of the mannered beauty which dis- While glistening through the trees the sunny spire,
Is the bright beacon of each bark's desire. tinguishes our author's style : There is an isle by balmy breezes blest,
To those of a strict contemplative A green gem in the ocean of the west,
mind, who prefer the matter to the Where first the spring unfolds the moontain flower, manner, and to whom religion alone, And summer lingers longest in the bower ; without any external accompaniments, Bright ocean-lakes the favour'd shores surround,
is ever dearest, we perhaps are not en-
hancing the beauty of the poem by say-
peasantry of the north will like it not
the less. Much as they are averse to Smooth as the summer sea the valley lies, The little hills like summer billows rise,
the intrusion of sculptural or architectuSucceeding still in gentle interchange,
ral beauty upon their devotions, they Amid the garden, or the woodland range ; are lovers of the works of God's hand, Till nature seems the work of matchless art, and fond of worshipping him among And art like nature steals upon the heart.
their own green mountains and amid the This writer's lines have more of the
They are a thoughtful and gentleness and meekness of James Gra- poetical people, and lovers of Milton, hame, than of any other of the worthies and Thomson, and Jeremy Taylor, of sacred verse. There is more soft- and Burns; and though they call not in ness than strength,-more to move the the aid of instruments of music to assist heart to sober and staid gladness, than them in their devotions, and are conto warm and elevate it. The outward tent to spend the Sabbath in a very and inward man of a presbyterian as humble tabernacle, yet when they sembly is reflected with great truth, dream of paradise, they dream of a and with no inconsiderable share of the green hill and a spreading vale, a waygrace and charms of poesy.
ing wood and a running streama To say that the poem is the image dream of their native land. They may of a Scottish sabbath day, will present recognize its features and also the po
etical ones of a certain illustrious Scotch Land of affection, and of native worth; Minstrel) in our author's concluding Land where my bones shall mingle with the earth; lines :
The foot of slave thy heather never stain'd,
Nor rocks that battlement thy sons profan'd; Dear to my spirit, Scotland, hast thou been, Unrivall'd land of science and of arts, Since infant years in all thy glens of green; Land of fair faces and of faithful hearts; Land of my love, where every sound and sight Land where Religion paves her heavenward road, Comes in soft melody, or melts in light;
Land of the temple of the living God! Land of the green wood by the silver rill,
Yet dear to feeling, Scotland, as thou art, The beather and the daisy of the hill,
Should thou that glorious temple e'er desert, The guardian thistle to thy foemen stern,
I would disclaim thee, seek the distant shore The wild-rose, hawthorn, and the lady-fern; of Christian isle, and thence return no more. Land of the lart, that like a seraph sings, Beyond the rainbow, apon quivering wings; To them, therefore, the Sabbath Land of wild beauty and romantic shapes, among the Mountains will be welcome: Of shelter'd valleys and of stormy capes ;
we wish we could be as certain of its of the bright garden and the tangled brake, of the dark mountain and the sun-light lake ;
being acceptable to the peasantry of Land of my birth and of my father's grave,
England. The eagle's home, the eyrie of the brave;
SCIENTIFIC MISCELLANY, NO. IV.
ON LIGHT AND COLOURS. VER TERY little was known either of ted upon a sheet of white paper, th:
the nature or properties of light, image, or spectrum as it is called, intill the subject occupied the attention stead of being circular like the hole, as of Newton, and it is remarkable that might have been expected, was oblong, since his time so little has been added and terminated by circular arches. to bis acute and laborious researches. The colours were in the following or
The opinion most prevalent among der. Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, bis opponents was that which originat- indigo, violet. The red was the least ed in HUYGENS, who maintained that refrangible, the violet the most, and the light was a subtle fluid, filling space, and rest intermediate. And supposing the rendering bodies visible by the undu- whole of the coloured image, or speclating motion into which it is thrown. trum, to be divided into 360 parts, lie He conceived, that when the sun rises ascertained by actual admeasurement, it agitates this Avid, and that these un- that the proportions were as follow. dulations are gradually extended like
Red. Orange. Yellow. Green. Blue. Indigo. Violet. those on the surface of a pool of water, till at length they strike against our eye, and the sun thus becomes visible. These are the seven primary coEuler, a celebrated mathematician, em- lours, of which every single ray of braced the same opinion, and called to white light is composed; so that, in his aid the whole of his strong reason- fact, each ray of conimon or white light ing powers in order to support it; but is not one single ray, but seven distinct all his labour and great talents were rays, of seven different colours, all of exhausted in vain.
which may be separated by means of The majority of philosophers, with the prism, and may likewise be again Newton as their leader, considered collected and reunited; in which case light as a substance consisting of small they appear white light as before. particles constantly separating from lu But though light is thus generally minous bodies, moving in straight lines, considered as consisting of seven priand rendering objects visible, by pass- mary colours, there are many who suping from them and entering the eye. posė that these primary colours are This acute observer discovered, that only three ; viz. red, yellow, and blue : when a portion of light was made to and much may certainly be advanced pass through a round hole and fall upon in support of the opinion ; for it is a triangular prism, and then transmit well known that these three colours
are capable of forming all the others. sorbs all the others. A white body Thus the
reflects all the rays, and absorbs none; Red and yellow will produce orange.
while, on the contrary, a black body Red and blue
indigo and violet, ac- absorbs all, and reflects none : and it is cording to the proportions used. And
owing to these circumstances, that Blue and yellow will produce green.
Besides, it is seen by inspecting the when black bodies are exposed to the coloured spectrum, that the different
sun they become sooner heated than parcels of rays are not very distinct at
others, and of course constitute the
And their edges, but appear to be intermin
warmest parts of our clothing.
white bodies, in the same way, being
, so that it is exceedingly difficult to de- least disposed to receive heat, form the termine where one colour ends and the
coolest parts of our dress. other begins.
The coloured rays of light are found I have mentioned that the seven pri- to differ in their power of illuminating
if mary colours may be combined to. . gether so as to produce white light; be made to illuminate a minute object
each of these rays, one after another, this is also the case with the three pri- a printed page for instance, it will not mary colours when mixed in proper be seen distinctly at the same distance proportion. The experiment may be
in each case. tried, in both cases, by means of a
Those rays at the midcommon spioning-top, which, if paint illuminating power, and those at the
dle of the spectrum possess the greatest ed with either the three or the seven colours, and made to spin, these co
extremity the least, and this accounts lours, by this quick motion, will be for the indistinctness of such parts of a blended together, and a whitish colour map as may happen to be coloured will be seen as the product of their
with blue of indigo, or red; and the union, and not the real colours them.
same may be remarked of printed pa
of selves. Were the colours employed ges which are worked off on paper in painting the top quite perfect, and either of these colours. For these facts were they likewise used in their
of the illuminating power of the differ
proper proportions, the combined colour would ent rays, we are indebted to the exbe perfectly white, but in general it ap- periments of the late SirWm.Herschel. pears of a darkish or dusky hue.
Though the primary colours of light, Almost all bodies have the property as specified above, are but few, they of absorbing the light which falls upon are still capable of almost endless com. them. They do not, however, take bination, and of course of similar vaup all the rays indiscriminately. Some riation. The workers in mosaic, in absorb one coloured ray, and others Rome, are said to have 750,000 differanother, while they reflect the rest. ent tints, which the artist can distinThis is the cause of the different co- guish with the greatest ease; and their lours in bodies. A green cloth, for number, no doubt, might be consideraexample, has the property of absorbing bly increased. all the colours except the green, and The different colours of bodies de this colour which it reflects, and which pend upon the affinity of their respecconsequently is seen by us, causes per- tive particles for the particular rays sons to suppose that the cloth itself is which they absorb, and their want of actually green. But this is so far from affinity for the rest. Thus, if a small being the case, that it does not receive quantity of the infusion of blue cabwithin it the green colour, but reflects bage be poured into a wine glass, and or sends it back again ; and it merely a single drop of nitric, or sulphuric appears to us green, because the green acid, be added, the blue colour will be rays come from the body to us. Co- changed into beautiful red. The realour therefore is not inherent in bodies, son of which is, that the new substance but is merely a property of light. formed by the acid and the cabbage in
Green bodies, then, reflect the green fusion, possesses an affinity for another rays, and absorb all the rest : and a set of colouring rays to what it had prered body reflects the red rays, and ab- viously, viz. an affinity for all the rays
of light except the red. These there. ammonia, which is also colourless, the fore are absorbed, and the red rays, mixture will assume a beautiful deep for which the mixture has no affinity, blue colour; the compound in this are let loose. In the same manner, if case also having a different afinity to a drop of the nitrate of copper be let what the substances separately possesfall into a glass, and it be filled with sed, viz. an affinity of all the primary clean water, it will appear colourless; colours excepting the blue, which is of but upon adding to it a drop of liquid course reflected.
(Mon. Mag.) EMPLOYMENT AND ASSOCIATION OF BIRDS. What regal vestments can with them compare ! To see a man six feet high leaning What kings so shining ! or what queens so fair! over a bridge with a rod and line, THE
HE “ fowls of the air' have had twelve hours successively, and merely
many advocates in their praise; get a glorious nibble,' is no enviable artists have lengthened their memory sight to me, more than to behold anoin beautiful hues, poets have pleaded ther man riding his horse to death, to in descriptive language for their preser
drive a hare to its last home. If flogvation, and generous hands have spread ging can be justified in the catalogue of the sweet crumb in winter for them. our laws for crimes, I think a few lashThey have their exits and their en
es for the angler, the horse-racer, the trances;' and, parodying our great animal-hunter, and the voluntarily selfBritish poet, one bird plays many
defence follower, might render the purparts. Though birds have the
suit less frequent and less obnoxious.
range of life betwixt the visible earth and hea. Mr. Martin may be laughed at by the ven, what difficulties they encounter,
cruel for his regard for the brute creahow many enemies they avoid! The tion, and Mrs. Fry receive the unmerit
game-laws, the sporting cockney, the ed disapprobation of recreants for her wary fowler, the lime-twig urchin, the desire to reform the vicious. The acsoothing bell, the night-approaching cumulation of crime, and the immoral clap-net ;* and, lastly, the wire domes example of fashion, call for the virtuous tic cage. Those persons who never to exert their energies in ameliorating indulge in the softer impulses of reflec- those who have neither courage nor tion, are ready to call me a "bird-fan- condition to ameliorate themselves. cier,' one who has more sympathy than But these subjects require more elucidasense. This I deny. But I' reprobate tion than I intend in this paper to prohabitual cruelty in my fellow-creatures, pose. My theme is with birds, not for the want of duly considering the with beasts or fishes. Every lover of use and abuse which lordly man' ex
Milton's purified muse must recollect his ercises to the feathered race.
ardent expressions of birds, especially the nightingale, his sweet bird !'
Chaucer, his predecessor, rehearsed A custom prevailed in the country, some years past, for a party to go into the many of his best pieces to the small woods to take birds in the following man. fowl, and the assembly of fowls, to ser :-One person took a torch, another a the birds that sleep with open eye,' paddle, a third a bell, and a fourth a bag. to the cuckoos, the "falcons, and An inquisitive gentleman of the village the merlins. Dryden was enamourwished to join them, and they persuaded him to carry a grindstone upon his shoul- ed of the chanticleer' in Chaucer, and der, to sharpen the clapper, if necessary. "the lark that at heaven's gate sings.' This he bore most patienty through bog Drayton paints the colours of the ' peaand glen, in darkness and peril, till they all returned home again with twenty dozen + The ancients, heathens, Greeks, and of fieldfares, laughing most heartily at his Romans, revered birds, inasmuch as they unsuspecting credulity. This fact is wor. thought them ominous of life, death, prosthy of preservation with the legends of perity, victory, adversity, and vanquish. Coggeshall's and Gotham's wise men, ment. Vide their History.
cock,' and addresses the plover, and up his abode in the eaves of our dwellthrushes,' in many lovelorn plaints. ing. The owl comes to our ivied habiCowper loved birds, and employed his tations; the wren is protected in our eloquent humanity in their behalf. Mrs. shed; the robin in a private nook in Barbauld has written petitions for «ro- our wall; the swallow takes the airy bins. Keates wrote a sonnet in the part of our chimney ; the martin dabs wood for the birds that had been rob- its ingenious plan together with mortar bed. Kerrick and Marvell rehearsed in a corner of our window; and our
the loves of birds.' Cowley used to fowls accommodate themselves to our admit a bird into his grot, at Chertsey, convenience for sheltering and rusticatfor humble pittance. Watts tamed a ing them. 'O had I the wings of a sparrow at the top of Lady Abney's dove ! exclaims the fugitive, .for then house, where he studied. Elijah was I should be at rest.' Noah trusted to fed by ravens. Bloomfield has spoken a bird for dry land. The beauty of very prettily of birds in his delightful birds is incomparable. Their constan*Farmer's Boy' Shakspeare alludes cy is proverbial. Their instruction to continually to birds in his works. Not their young valuable. The harmony a valentine is offered at Cupid's shrine of birds surpasses all other sounds. without the auspices of the feathered They obtain their livelihood without inchoir,' the warbling quire,' and the jury to mankind. And it is erroneous songsters of the grove. I do firmly be- that they destroy blossoms, and conlieve birds are worshippers of nature sume corn, but in exceptionable inand heaven. I believe they waft their stances ; on the contrary, they resort their offerings to the skies continually. to trees and flowers, and eat the insidiI believe their wakening meetings at ous insect-the worm in the bud that sunrise are spent in gratitude. I be- feeds on the damask cheek.' Birds are lieve the voices which they tune are tractable and imitative. They can be consecrated to divinity. Methinks I taught to draw water, and articulate hear the sluggard complain that he hates like the human voice. All birds are the noise ; and that he is awoke too not even destitute of an approximation soon; that he cannot slumber again: to reason. The seat of happiness canI am otherwise. Twenty birds, at not be more delightfully imagined than least, meet of a morning in a tree be- in the existence of a bird's nest full of fore my bed-room window. Their happy young, and nurtured under the regular devotion awakes my heart and sheltering wing and warm bosom of inspires my love to join in their early their parents. Birds are fond of liberpraise. When an hour has elapsed, ty. Freedom, like air, is their life. these birds separate to their several Thomson is alive to their interest in avocations. Their instinct guides them his paraphrase on the latter part of the to food and industrious habits. • Birds 6th chap. Matth. He says, in their little nests agree,' says
Behold, and look away your low despair ! Washington Irving has shown, in his See the light tenants of the barren air : ( Tales of the Hall, at the rookery,' To them nor stores nor granaries belong, what birds can do, and how tenacious Nought but the woodland and the pleasing song ; they are of propriety and decorum in Yet your kind heavenly father bends his eye all their household discipline. Trees On the least wing that fits along the sky. are the bird's paradise, yet they are
To him they sing when spring renews the plain,
To him they cry in winter's pinching reign, social. Birds are fond of men natural. Nor is their music nor their plaint in vain : ly, but not the instruments of deceit; He hears the gay and the distressful call, they dread men because of the engines And with unsparing bounty fills them all. of destruction. Yet birds in populous I, ceaseless, thus the fowls of heaven he feeds, places seem aware that men cannot be If o'er the fields such lucid robes he spreads,
Will be not care for you, ye faithless! say, their destroyers, by their pert familiar
Is be unwise ? or, are ye less than they? ity and inquisitive intrusions. They
J. R. PRIOR. seem to know, that men dare not shoot them for fear of shooting others of the Islington, March 1, 1824. -winged tribe. The sparrow takes