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CHEMICAL ESSAYS. NO. III.
(Sel. Mag. March.) SIMPLE SUPPORTERS OF COMBUSTION.-OXYGEN-CHLORINE-IODINE. WE considered, in our
last number, of 'acids ; . sulphuric and sulphurous the
powers of matter-homoge- acids, malic, malous, &c. The differneous attraction, heterogeneous attrac- ent combinations of the metals with tion, caloric, and electricity. We will oxygen are expressed by prefixing to now proceed to examine some of the the first compound protoxide, the next bodies influenced by these principles. deutoxide, &c. The acids terminat
We must first give a systematic listing in ous produce compounds termiof some of these substances. The first nating in iie. Thus sulphurous acid class we shall notice, is that which com- and potassa form sulphite of potassa ; prises all the simple supporters of com- those terminating in ic produce combustion. They are reinarkable for the pounds ending in ate. Thus nitric great combinations they form with the acid and soda form a nitrate of soda; simple inflammable bodies, and they nitrous acid and soda form nitrite of are all capable of producing acids. soda. When the same acid combines They are considered as endued with with more than one oxide of the same the negative electricity, and are called metal, the first syllable of the Greek acidifying electro-negative supporters word is prefixed to the salt; thus the of combustion. They are three : protosulphate and persulphate of iron 1. OXYGEN. | 2 CHLORINE. | 3. IODINE. signify the combination of sulphuric The second class we must consider
acid with the protoxide and peroxide
of iron. as the simple acidifiable and inflammable substances. These are all electro
The compounds of the simple in
flammable bodies with each other are positive: they for the most part com- commonly designated by the terminabine with the three substances before tion uret'; as phosphuret of_sulphur, enumerated, and some of these com- carburet of phosphorus. pounds form acids. Their number is
Having thus given some account of 1. HYDROGEN. 3. SULPHUR.
the new nomenclature, we will examine 4. PHOSPHORUS. 6. BORON.
the first substance in the class of acidiIn the new nomenclature, several fying principles, OXYGEN. This is a endings of words have been adopted, transparent gas of greater weight than to make more clear and concise the atmospheric air. It may be obtained meaning of phrases which were be by heating the salt called chlorate of fore used. The acidifying principles potash, in a glass retort, to a state of before mentioned enter into two classes
redness If the beak of the retort be of compounds, both with each other,
immersed in water while the bulb is and with the bodies of the second and heated, the gas rises through the water, third class. Those which are not acid sel which is filled with water, and held
and may be collected with a glass vesare commonly distinguished by the termination ide, as oxide of nitrogen, ox
over the beak of the retort; the gas ide of chlorine, chloride of sulphur, displaces the water, and occupies the iodide of iron, &c.: and if more than room it before held. It may be obtainone compound is produced, the termi- ed from the black oxide of manganese, nations ous and ic are used to designate acid is poured on it, and it is heated
in a glass retort, when some sulphuric the relative proportions of the support- considerably.* It may also be obtainers of combustion. Thus nitrogen forms two oxides: that containing the
* The apparatus for collecting gases smallest proportion of oxygen is the generally made use of is of the following nitrous oxide; that containing the lar- kind. It is a japanned iron vessel, contain gest, nitric oxide. The same differ. ing a shelf perforated with holes, through ence is maintained in the designations sels provided to hold it.
which the gas may pass into inverted ves
ed from red oxide of lead, and even sue: the wire will ignite, and burn pitre; though this last substance with the greatest brilliancy; it will does not yield it in any considerable throw out scintillations of the melted purity.
metal. Besides having no colour, and being This is a very beautiful and at the perfectly transparent, oxygen has nei- same time a very safe experiment, in ther taste nor smell. It supports res- which there is no danger to the operapiration and combustion most power- tor, and which requires no expensive fully. Atmospheric air consists of apparatns. It was considered that nitrogen (a gas enumerated in our se- there could be no combustion without cond class) and oxygen. Oxygen is the presence of oxygen ; but recent exthat which readers our atmosphere periments have proved that this is not respirable. But an atmosphere of correct. Chlorine and iodine will supoxygen would be too stimulating for fort combustion, even though oxygen our lungs, and cause them to act too may be absent. Combustion is conrapidly; nitrogen, therefore, tempers sidered to arise from any intense medithis quality and renders the compound cal action. It is now supposed, that more suitable for the purpose of sup- there can be no combustion, when oxyporting life. Here we see the kindest gen, chlorine,and iodine, are all absent. arrangements of the Creator of all
Let us now proceed to our second things, in forming an atmosphere, substance in the first class, CHLORINE. which is neither too invigorating por Chlorine is a permanently elastic gas, too depressing for our system. “O of a yellowish green colour, of a sour that men would therefore praise the and irritating taste and smell. Its speLord for his goodness !” If the dis, cific gravity is very great: taking bycoveries in Chemistry were viewed drogen as 1.00, oxygen is 15.00, chłowith a desire to admire the goodness rine, 33.5. Chlorine is possessed of of the Sovereign of the universe, we the negative electricity. Chlorine will should be constrained each moment support coinbustion : a taper put into to acknowledge, “ that it well be- it, burns in a manner inferior to what comes men to be thankful.”——But to it does in the open air; but some boproceed.
dies, such as phosphorus, &c. take fire A simple experiment will show how immediately and spontaneously. Dutch vividly oxygen supports combustion. leaf, when inflamed by a small piece of Let the operator obtain a glase retort, ignited tinder, burns in a beautiful manand put into it a small quantity (say ner. Chlorine may be obtained by fifteen grains) of chlorate of potash, or heating black oxide of manganese in a black oxide of manganese, made into the glass retort. It is copiously produced; subsistence of a paste with sulphuric and may be collected over hot water, acid. Let him heat the bulb of the as cold water absorbs it rapidly. The retort over a spirit or argand lamp, greatest care should be taken by the and collect the gas in inverted glasses young operator in his attempts on this over water. The best instrument per- gas, as it is extremely pernicious if reshaps to collect it in for this experi- pired, even when noch diluted with mest (to one who is not provided with atmospheric air. It used to be called a glass-stopped bell-glass) would be a by the French chemists, oxymuriatic botile. When the vessel is full of oxy, acid. It is not altered by being expos, gen, let him select a cork which justed to very high temperatures. Chlofills the mouth, and let him fix into rine unites with oxygen in three dethis a piece of thin iron wire, wound grees, forming an oxide and two acids. round a pencil, or any thing of that Oxide of chlorine, euchlorine, is of a sort, into a spiral shape like a cork- very deep colour: it is not so irritable screw. Having fixed this to the cork, or disagreeable in smell as chlorine itlet birn place on the end of it a small self: it detonates when gently heated. pice of ignited tinder, and immerse the It was discovered by Sir Humphrey wire into the vessel containing the Davy. It may be obtained by mixing oxygen. A vivid combustion will én- chlorate of potash and sulphuric acid,
and heating the mixture in a small re- crystallized is of a metallic lustre; at. tort to the temperature of 150°: it con- 80° it rises in fumes; at 130o more sists of two volumes of oxygen united rapidly; at 220° it fuses, and produwith one of chlorine. The acids are ces copious violet-coloured fumes, chloric and perchloric. The salts are which condensc in brilliant plates. called chlorates: the remarkable ones Iodine unites with oxygen and chlo. have long been known under the name rine, and forms two acid compounds, of oxymuriates.
which as they are little known and of Our third substance will be seen by little use we will pass over. a reference to the list to be 10DINE. ration of forming iodine is difficult and It has a bluish black colour; when tedious.
(Lond. Lit. Gaz.)
Oh cast that shadow from thy brow,
My dark-eyed love; be glad awhile: Has Leila's song no music now?
Is there no charm in Leila's smile? There are young roses in my hair,
And morn and spring are on their bloom Yet you have breathed their fragrant air
As some cold vapour from the tomb. There stands the vase of crystal light,
Veined with the red wine's crimson stains, Has the grape lost its spell to-night?
For there the cup untouched remains. I took my lute for one sad song,
I sang it, tho' my beart was wrung,
Yet heard you not, tho' Leila sung.
Tho' it was wet with many tears,
No murmur breathed, to soothe my fears.
Ah, silent still ? then know I all
My fate! And must we part at last?
Only the memory of the past !
Bare purer bosom to the bee,
And gave its sweetest wealth to thee.
Seem'd to grow fairer for thy sake ;
My heart is withered, bid it break!
My flowers will die, my birds will pine ;
With thee changed every thing of mine.
How can bope live when love is o'er ?
I only know-we meet no more! L.EL
TO HIS MISTRESS'S LIPS.*
SWEET thornless rose,
By Love's command
Thy leaves expand
Oh tell me! Flower,
When hour by hour
Why thou the while
Dost only sinile
Does pity give,
That I may live,
Or cruel coy,
Is it but joy
Whate'er it be,
Yet can I well
Thy praises tell,
When waters pass
Through springing grass,
And flowerets rear
Their blossoms near,
When in the wave
The Zephyrs lave
And sands are gay
With glittering spray,
When we behold
A veil of gold
And Phæbus' light
Is broad and bright,
Though Sea and Earth
May smile in mirth,
Yet Earth and Sea
Smile not like thee,
* From the German of Gasriello Chiabrera.
(Lond. Lit. Gaz.)
SKETCHES OF SOCIETY.
A COCKNEY SQUIRE.*
him in the progress of his backing and I HAVE often heard it remarked, bowing. But those were not the days
that the recollections of a long life of foot-stools, ottomans, and work-lawould furnish incidents as singular as bles; no elegant lumber littered his any recorded in the annals of fiction, drawing-room, and the experienced piand delineations of character as gro- lot always reached the port in safety. tesque and absurd as any which can be At the time I remember him, he was a produced on the stage in the broadest little spare creature, hardly five feet farce. My own experience very much bigh, very much resembling Falstaff's inclines me to agree to this opinion ; description of Justice Shallow; pinchand while I was reading your analysis ed in the waist like an hour.glass, and of Percy Mallory, the character of Sir giving the idea of a dried wasp. Over Ferebee de Lacy brought to my re- this anatomy was stretched a skin exmembrance a person well known to actly the colour of a walnut, the effect me in my youth, and of whom I am relieved by a jet black wig curled strongly impelled to relate a few traits: above the ears and tied behind. On After a lapse of forty years, and a bigh days this was exchanged for a wig more extensive knowledge of mankind, with a high-powdered toupét, a bushy the character of this person still ap- frizure at the sides, and a bag. He pears to me singular and amusing. He nerally wore a grass-green suit with a was the Squire of the parish in which I gold edging, and a little triangular was born, and in which I passed my cocked-hat under his arm. At his first earliest and happiest years; a man of ontset as a rural economist his fame large fortune, which he had accumu- quickly spread ; his agricultural expelated in trade. With this he purchas- riments were only rivalled in absurdity ed from a noble but decayed family a by the schemes of the Laputan sages. considerable estate, with a handsome Of these I only recollect two or three : mansion, and removed from St. Mary the first, a plan for fattening pigs on Ase to take possession of it, with a de- cucumbers, which was soon relinquishtermined purpose not only to become a ed. There was a very fine rookery at country gentleman, but a fine gentle a farm close to his park-wall, which man; a pattern of good breeding; became the object of his envy. He the glass in which his neighbours sent for his bailiff, and told him he inmight dress themselves. My father tended to keep rooks as well as his always attributed this last resolution to neighbours; the man informed him bis having once passed an hour in that this did not depend upon his will company with Richardson, (an occur- and pleasure, for though the trees near rence he was fond of relating,) at the the mansion-house were lofty and well time when “Sir Charles Grandison” placed for a rookery, “yet somehow was in bis meridian of glory. In pur. the birds had never seemed to fancy suance of this plan, his manners were them.” “ That (replied the Squire) podctilious to the last degree ; he al- must be the fault of the late proprietor. ways bowed on the hand of every lady I shall build a number of nests to save be addressed with the commonest ci- them the trouble, and you will see what vility; the whole world would not flights will come, and how glad they bave bribed him to turn his back in go- will be to occupy them.” In vain did ing out of a room. I can laugh now the bailiff remonstrate; he was forced at the wicked and eager hope with to procure the church ladder, and to which my brother and I used to watch the infinite amusement of the neighbis exit from the fire place to the door of his forty-five seet long saloon, and this portrait of a real Character, and of manners at
* We are indebted to an esteemedCorrespondent for with what glee we anticipated that most antiquated (though only forty years old.) with same unlucky chance would overthrow department of Sketches of Societs.--Ed.
bourhood, was seen ascending the trees lady; the opposite side was without with a large basket of twigs, and con- springs, and instead of a seat had a structing, as well as he could, about fif- small sort of wooden horse, on which ty nests. But the obstinate rooks were was a saddle. On this he took his blind to the proffered advantage; they place, rising in the stirrups with great came, it is true, and flew round, caw. assiduity, and literally, according to ing loudly, and rejoicing in the maga. the American phrase, taking a ride in zine of materials so bountifully provid. his carriage. There was no congeni. ed near home; and ere a week was ality of spirit between my father and ended, were so basely ungrateful as to the Squire ; but the former, who was remove the whole piecemeal to repair one of the most candid and kind-heartthe breaches made by the storms of ed of men, was ever desirous of looking winter in their old habitations, and to only to the best points of the character construct new ones. Baffled in this of his neighbour, and they lived on hope of establishing a colony, the terms of considerable intimacy. Twice 6 much enduring man" turned his a year the whole of our family received thoughts into another channel, and an invitation to the grand dinners sending again for the bailiff, informed which were given to the neighbourhood, him that he resolved to keep bees. and happy were my brother and I that The man enquired how many stocks these stated banquets occurred during he would have purchased ? and receive the Christmas and Midsummer holied a fierce reprimand for the extrava- days. How anxiously did we, on gance of his proposal, was asked how these occasions, look out for a gloomy he could be so thoughtless as to recom- day or a threatening cloud, for is there mend a purchase of what might as ea was the least apprehension of rain, the sily be procured on the downs ? He coach was sent for us, though the diswas ordered to hire ten women to go tance was not a quarter of a mile. in quest of bees the next morning, and This stately vehicle, as large as the cito prepare hives for receiving the cap- ty stage coach, vever left the coachtives. Early in the next day the de- house without being drawn by four tachment started for the downs, each sleek black horses, with stump tails, furnished with a tin canister to contain such as are now only seen sometimes the spoil; and after running about for in teams of waggon-horses on the weshours, stunning the bees with blows tern roads : it would not have been befrom their straw hats, and encounter, coming the Squire's dignity to have it ing stings without number, secured moved by a pair. How we listened for about thirty prisoners, who were safely its approach, and caught the sound as lodged in the hive; but, as has been it rumbled and rolled heavily on in the fate of many arduous campaigns, time to summon my mother to put on little advantage accrued from all this her white gloves, and take her fan io fatigue and danger. Next morning the her hand, and a last peep in the lookSquire sallied forth to visit his new co- ing-glass! How we stood dancing lony: as he approached, a loud hum- for joy at the door to watch the desteming assured him they were hard at rous old coachman, in his yellow wig work, when, to his infinite disappoint- with its tobacco-pipe curls, his laced ment, it was found that the bees had triangular hat, and his gorgeous livery, all made their escape through a small trotting into the gate, and whirling hole in the hive, leaving bebind them round the little sweep, skirting to an only an unfortunate humble bee, whose inch without damaging my mother's bulk prevented bis squeezing himself flower-borders, or overturning the pots through the aperture, and whose loud of geraniums and carnations on each complaints had been mistaken for the side the door-way! How joyfully ve busy hum of industry. I can perfectly leaped into this ample carriage ! recollect a carriage which this original What a mansion it seemed to us! built, and which he called his foxhun- How we stretched ourselves to our ut. ter: one side was hung on springs, and most height, as we drove along, that had a cushioned seat occupied by his we might be seen as well as see through