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evidence to us, that God would have the more notice taken of it, and has laid the strictest Obligation upon all to observe it. But we find express mention made of the Stranger at the Appointment of the Yearly Feast of Atonement, Lev. xvi. 29. The Stranger was obliged to bring his Sacrifice to the Door of the Tabernacle of the Congregation •, and in the Prohibitions of eating Blood, he is particularly forbidden it, chap. xvii. 8,9, 12, 15. All the Laws relating to Marriage, and concerning unlawful Lust, are squally enjoin'd the Stranger and the Israelite, chap, xviii. 26. he was to be stoned, if he gave any of his Seed unto Moloch, chap. xx. 2. and he was obliged to all the lame Laws concerning Sacrifices, chap. xxii. *8. and was to be stoned for Blasphemy*, and for Murther, Hurt, or Damage, the Law made no Difference between Strangers, and Native Israelites.^ Te jhall have one manner of law, as well for the Stranger, as for one of your own country: for I am the Lord, your God, chap, xxiv. 16,22. The Sabbath was appointed to the Stranger within their Gates, Exod. xx. 10. and xxiii. 12. Lev. xxv. 6. Deut.v.14-. And the Feasts of Pentecost, of Tabernacles, and of Atonement, as well as the Passover, were enjoin'd him, Dent. xvi. 11,14. Lev. xvi. 29. The Feast of Tabernacles is restrains to the Israelites bom, Lev. xxiii. 42. only as to their dwelling in Booths seven days. The Stranger was to hear the Law read in the Solemnity of the Year of Release, chap. xxxi. 12. And the Covenant is expresly made with the Stranger, .chap, xxix, 12. Jojh. viii- 33? 35
And as the Strangers or Proselytes were thus join'd, in the very Design and Institution of the Law, with the Native Israelites themselves, as to all the Acts and Privileges of Religious Worship, when once they had receiv'd Circumcision, tho' they were not oblig'd t0 be circumcised, but were left to their Liberty, under no Obligation, but to worship the True God, and
observe the Precepts of Noah .• so God had a particular regard to them iu their Civil Statutes ahd Or-' dinances, to free them from Oppression, and every thing that might give Strangers any discouragement from living amongst the Israelites, and becoming Partakers of their Religion with them: Thou Jhalt neither vex a stranger nor oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land oftÆgypt, Exod. xxii. 21. Also thou shalt not oppress a stranger y for ye know the heart of a stranger, feeing ye were strangers in the land of tÆgypt-, chap, xxiii. 9. It seems, one reason of their being so long detained in ^ALgypt, was to teach them humanity and compassion to Strangers: Thou shalt not oppress anhiredservant that is poor and needy, whether he lee of thy brethren, or of thy strangers that are in thy land within thy gates, Deut. xxiv. 14. And care is taken of the Stranger, that he be not brought into want, or suffered to perish in his distress; for the Gleanings of the Harvest and of the Vintage were his portion: Thou Jhalt leave them for the poor and the stranger: I am the Lord, Lev. xix. 10. and xxiii. 21. All manner of Kindness and Affection is in most express and ample terms commanded towards all Strangers: And if a stranger sojourn with thee in your land , ye stall not vex him: But the stranger that dwelleth with you stall be unto you at one horn amongst you, and thou fiialt love him at thy self; for ye were fir angers in the land oftAigypt: I am the Lord your God, Lev. xix. 33, 34. And Moses, repeating the peculiar Favours which God had bestowed upon the Children of Israel, put them in mind, that God loveth the stranger, in giving him food and rayment. Love ye therefore the stranger; for ye were str an* gers in the land of vAigypt, Deut. x. 18, iy. The Widow, the Stranger and the Fatherless are usually mentioned together in Scripture, as being jointly the care of God's more peculiar Providence, and he recommends them to the charity of his People; aud to oppress the Stranger, is reckon'd the highest aggrava
tion of Wickedness: They flay the widow and the strand ■ger, and murther the fatherless: yet they fay. The Lord shall not fee i, neither fiall the God of Jacob regard its Psal. xciv. 6i 7. 7he people of the land have used op~ prejsion, and exercised robbery, and have vexed the poor end needy; yea, they have oppressed the stranger wrong1 fully, Ezek. xxii. 29. And to the same purpose, PfaU cxlvi. 9. Jer. vii. 6. and xxii* 3. Zech. viL io.- Mali iii- 5« •
Though their Bond-men and Bond-women we're' not to be of the native Israelites, but of the Heathen that were round about them, and of thQ'Strangers that dwelt amongst them, Lev. xxv. 44. yet an Ifraelitt might sell himself to a Stranger, and become his Servant: but he might be-redeemed again, either by himself, or by his near Kinsman , and was to be released at the Year of Jubilee, ver. 47. The Cities of Refuge were provided for the Stranger and the Sojourner, Num. xxxv. 15. Jtflt. xx. 9. The Judges were particularly commanded to execute righteous and impartial Judgment to the Stranger, Dent. i. idV A caution is given, that neither the Edomites nor the t/Egyptians were to be abhorred by them, but their Children were to be received into the Congregation of the Lord, in the Third Generation; that is, after any Edomite or Egyptian had lived amongst them as a Proselyte of the Gates, their Children of the Third Generation might be capable of Circumcision, and be admitted to the Observation of the whole Law, chap. xxiii- 7- And though the Ammonite and Moabite were for ever, that is, by a perpetual Decree, excludedf even to the Tenth Generation, from the Congregation of the Lord, by reason of their inhumanity to the Israelites, at their coming out of tAgypt, -ver. 3. yets neither were they of the preceding Generations debarred from becoming Proselytes of the Gates, and undertaking the Observation of the Precepts of Noah.
A Promise is made,- that the Stranger fltall .fe)«ice: , ■> & in the good things of the Land., chap, xxv^ii. and the Israelites are threatned, that upon their Disobedience, the Stranger should be more prosperpus than they, chap, xxviii. 43, 44. King Solomon, at the Dedication of the Temple, makes such particular mention of the Stranger, in his Prayer, as shews both the design of building it, and of all the Jewish Worship to be such as that other Nations might share in it, and withal, he foretels what the event should be: Moreover, concerning a fir anger that is not of thy people Israel, but cometh out os a far country,for thy name s fake; (for they JhaU hear of thy great name, and of thy strong hand, and of thy stretched out arm) when he shall come and pray towards this house: Hear thou in heaven thy dwellingflace, and do according to all that the stranger calleth to thee for: that all people of the earth may know thy name, to fear thee, as do thy people Israel, and that they may know that this house which I have built, is called by thy name, i Kings viii. 41, 42,43. 2 Chron.vi. 33. This was the House of Prayer for. all people. Isa. lvi. 7. Mar. xi. 17. And the Prophets, in their Prophecies concerning the return of the Jews out of their Captivity in Babylon, and in their Predictions of the Mejfias, did not omit to insert peculiar Expressions of God's Love and Favour to Strangers and Proselytes, to shew that the Promises did extend to them, as well as to the Native Jews themselves, Isa. lvi. 3. Euecb. xlvii.
From all which, it is evident, that Strangers were equally capable of the Privileges and Advantages in the Jewish Worship, as the Jews themselves were and that they were debarr'd of very little in their Civil Rights: and all Encouragement imaginable was given to Strangers to come and dwell amongst the Jews: The Law joins them together with the Natural Israelite, both* in the Curses it denounces, and in the Blessings it promises it severely threatens all that ihould oppress- or defraud them } it commands the
fame same chij^ty towards them, , as towards the Fatherless and Widow, the greatest: Objects of Humane Compassion, and of the merciful Care and Providence of God: And the Prophets, with the utmost severity, rebuke the Jews for any oppression or abuse of them. The Proselytes were not excluded from their Sacrifices, their Prayers and Sacraments; and if they refused to take upon them the Observation of the whole Law, yet they had free leave and great encouragement to live amongst them, believing only in the True God, and obeying those Precepts which were given to all the Race of Mankind after the Flood: They might; share in all the Rites of their Religious Worship, and were invited to do it, but if they would not submit to this, yet they were not therefore rejected, but might partake of their Civil Privileges, and live under the protection of their Government: And it is observable, that where the fame Laws are repeated in several places of Scripture, the Stranger is no where omitted; but what relates to him, is constantly repeated with the rest, as a necessary and essential part of the Law. So that never any Government had so particular regard for Strangers, or was so peculiarly contrived for their encouragement to live under it. Other Governments, as those of Sparta and China, have been so jealous of Foreigners, that, by their Original Constitution, they have forbid any Dealings with them, and would not suffer them to abide in their Cities. And the Romans1 had some Laws to the fame effect \ which Tally, indeed, fays was an inhumane thing, and it was the cause of the Be Hum Sociale, or the War raised against the Romans by the several States of Italy. The Freedom and Privilege of a Citizen of Rome was purchased at a great Price, AEl. xxii. 28. Of this Dio, as well as St. Luke, informs us, speaking of the Times of Claudius; and* in their Leagues