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cealed all that was disgraceful, and told him nothing, but that which was for the Glory of their own Nation. And this Observation may well be applyed to other Instances, besides that, which gave Scalirer the occasion to make It ^ and to other Historians, Desides Herodotus. h Strabo mentions Moses and the ancient Jews with commendation: He fays, that many in Honour to the Divine Majesty went out of *Ægypt with. Moses, rejecting the Worship of the tÆgypians and other Nations, inasmuch as Moses instructed them, that God was not to be worshipped by any Image, and that he would reveal himself only to the Pure and Vertuous. He observes, that Moses had great success in the Establishment of his Government and the Reception of his Laws among the neighbouring Nations, and that his Successors for some Ages pursued the same Methods, being just and truly Religious. Which words ' Isaac Casaubon remarks, deserve to be written in Lettgrs of Gold. æ Diodorm Sicultu names Moses among the chief Law-givers of ancient Times. * Cadmus Milesius and Acusilaus Argivus, the Two ancientest Greek Historians, lived but a while before the Persian Expedition into Greece. And we have but four Greek Historians remaining, who wrote before the Reign of Julins C<esar; and in the first of them, Herodotus, we find Passages relating to the sews} but Thucydides and Xenophon confining themselves to par^ ticular Histories, could have no occasion to take notice of them •, and Polybims History is most of it lost, who, in his ° Sixteenth Book, not only mentioned.the Jews, but said.of Jerusalem, that much was to be spoken of it, especially by reason of the Fame of the Temple, which he deferred to another opportunity. But we see, the next general Historians, Diodorm Siculus,
k Strab. 1. 16. 'Comment-, in Scrab. ib. m Djcdor. Sic. 1.1. "Joseph, contr. App. I. i. sub. inic. . •
* Joseph. Antiq. 1. 12. c. 3.
and Strabo the Geographer, mention them with Honour.
Trogm Pompeius seems to have been one of the first Learned Romans that ever undertook to write a Latin History; for the p Ancient Histories written by Romans even of consular Dignity, concerning Roman Affairs, were in the Greek Tongue •, Trogtts was the first, at least, that attempted an Universal History in the Roman Language, and he lived but in Augustus's, Time. He says so much Truth of the Jews, that his Mistakes are the more excusable, since from an Epitome only, of so great a Work, it cannot be known from whence they might proceed. Heq attributes their prosperous and.flourishing State to a mixture of Justice with Religion in their Government. He gives a very high Character of Joseph,. laying, that being thro' Envy fold by his Brethren to foreign Merchants, who carried him into zAigypt, he soon became very dear to the King , that he was the--.first that understood the Interpretation of Dreams, that he foretold a Famine many Years before it happened, and preserved lÆgypt by advising the King to provide Stores of Corn against. the Time of Famine, and that there had been so much experience of the Tnfth of bis Answers, tha^ they seemed to be given rather by a God than by a Man. r Pliny says, Jerusalem was the most famous Chy, not only of Judea, but of the whole East. * Tacitus himself gives this Testimony of the Jews, That they worshipped the Supreme, Eternal, Immutable Being. 'Dion Cajfius speaking to the same purpose, says, that many had written of the God of the Jews, and of the Worship which they paid him. But above all, Varro, 'the learnedest of the Romans, much approved their way of Worship, as being free from that Idolatry
p Justin. Prsef. Dion.Halicar.l. i. * Justin. 1.26. 0 2. 1 Plin. Nat Hist. 1. 5. c. 14. * Tacit. Hist. I. 15.
'Dio. I.37. r S. Aug. Civic Dei, 1. 4* c. 31.- >
which he could not but dislike in the Heathen Religion. And it is generally agreed by all, that the Religion of the Jews was received all over the World \ and, as * Seneca express'd it, ViUi viSioribus leges dederunt.
II. There have been always remaining divers Memorials and Remembrances of the True Religon amongst the Heathen. The Flood of Noah and the Ark x were generally taken notice of by Heathen Historians ■■, and the Account of the Flood of Deucalion wasy plainly transcribed from that of Noah. Jove is a plain depravation of the word Jehovah ■, andDiodorm Siculm said, 1 that Moses profess'd that he received his Laws from the God 'law, which is another variation from it,, or from Jah, which is a word often used in the Old Testament. But both the Fathers and the Modern Criticks generally derive Jao from the a Tetragrammaton. And this proves the Antiquity of the Heathen Tradition concerning the True God \ since the Jews of latter times would not speak the name themselves, much less communicate it to others. Apollo Clarius being consulted to know who the God Jao was ■-, answered, That he is the Supreme God of all, (as b Macrobius informs us, from Cornelius Labco :) which both shews, that the Heathen had knowledge of the God Jehovah, and that the Oracles themselves were sometimes forced to confess Him to be the Supreme God, though obscurely, and under some disguise, to amuse those to whom their Answers were returned ■, as here Apollo would have him believed to be Bacchus. TheTetragrammaton-, or Jehovah, is likewise supposed to be meant by the "Tetrattys of Pythagoras, and 'exsxeu, a word used in Songs and Acclamations, h3s a plain allusion to Alleluia, especially with the addi
," Ibid. 1.6. c. II. * Joseph* Antiq. I. t. 04. Euscb.
Præp. 1. 9. c. 12. 1 Lucian. de Dea Syr. & in Timon. Plut. dc Solert. Animal. * Diod.Sic. I. 1.
» Vid. Voss.de Idolatr. 1.1. c. 32. Bocharr. Hieroz.Pjrc 1.1. 2. c. 18. Walcon Prolcgom, 8. §.19. b Macrob. Saturn. 1.1. c 18.
tion of is, as iXsXsu is. The Septuagint retain the He brew word tXXaXiV, Sw^j or Hymns-, Judg. ix. 27.
From a learned and large Account of Mr. Seldens c upon that Subject, it appears, that there was a general Observation amongst the Heathen, of one Day in Seven; though length of Time and corruption of Manners had greatly obscured or quite blotted out the remembrance of the Original Institution; or Superstition had by degrees assigned other Reasons for it: and this is sufficient to reconcile Jofephus and other Authors with what he brings, which seems to imply the contrary. Hed likewise holds it probable, that the ancient and most known Example of Abraham gave occasion to the Payment of Tithes by the Greeks, and Romans, and Carthaginians, as well as by the Phœnicians and Arabians. And as to the last, he produces an Instance, which shews, that they must have had this custom from the Hebrews. For * in Arabia Felix all Merchants were obliged to carry their Frankincense to Sabota the Capitol City, and there to offer the Tithe of it to their God Sabas, and they were permitted to sell none till this was done. Sabis, as he observes, was a corruption from Zaboth, an usual Attribute of the true God. It has been proved by several, and is generally agreed by learned Men, that many of ■the Rites among the zÆgyptians and other Nations were the fame with those- appointed by the Law of Moses, or very like them. But some would have it, that Moses took these Rites from those Nations, without any Proof, or possibility of Proof, that I can perceive. For/'how ssiould it be proved, when we have no Writings or Memorials of these Nations so ancient as those of Moses by many Ages? And we read in the Scriptures, that several Laws were enjoin'd the Jews, because they were contrary to the Idolatrous
• Sdd. de Jur. Nat.& Gent. I. 3. c. 15.
* Scld. of fities, c. 3. c i'lin. Hist. I. 12. c. 14.
* Practices Practices of the Heathen, but never find the least intimation that any were given them in imitation of the Gentile Worihip: and it is unreasonable to imagine that they should have Laws appointed in contradiction to the Idolatrous Worshippers, and others at the fame time in compliance with them, when they were by a miraculous Providence separated and distinguished from the Idolatrous Nations, and kept forty Years in the Wilderness, to hinder them from all communication with them, and to cure them of the proneness which they had to imitate them. If it be supposed, that the Jews, who were hated and despised by other Nations, would be very unlikely to be imitated by them: it may be'observed, that they were not always thus despised, nor among all Nations, but they were better esteemed till the latter Ages of their Government , and then the reason of their being ill thought of, was, because they were singular in the principal Points of Worship, and resolute and zealous in the observation of it, and would make no compliances with the Heathen World; for they preserved themselves free from all Idolatry after their Captivity in Babylon. But however hated and contemned they might be-, yet the lame Authors who acquaint us with it, express their own fence, rather than the sence of the rest of Mankind: for at the fame time they tell us, that they gained every where Proselytes. The Greeks were likewise ever despised by the Romans, but ever imitated •, and we have now an Example of a neighbour Nation, which is generally both imitated and spoken against. And there can be no other reasonable account given of the Agreement of so many other Nations with the Jews, in their Rights and Customs, but that these Nations, in the times of Solomon, or some time after, during the flourishing estate of the Kingdoms of Judab and Israel, or perhaps after the Captivity, and since the Dispersion of the Hebrews, had conformed themselves to them. ... H 2 'Numenim