Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

Page

Page

Sabbath Question, The-Br. Qrar. Rev....... 548 Steelquill, Mr.Hogg: Instructor....

128
Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe-R. H. Stoddard... 1 Sultan, The City of the....... .....193, 361, 457
Sea-Serpent, A Plea for the Great, London L.

Theodicy-Rev. S. Comfort...

346

Hour.

122

Thoughts for the Twenty-Second of Feb-

Sermon, Characteristics of a Good-Rev. L.

ruary-C. T. Brooks......

152

A. Eddy...

321

Thoughts to Think about........

47

Shade Trees, A Few Words about-Richard

Traffic, A Strange - London L. Hour........... 523

Ringwood..

32

Trip from Bucharest to Constantinople....... 172

Shrubbery and Vines, A Talk about-Robert

St. Petersburgh to Constantinople....... 73

239

Smith, Alexander, as a Poet- Wells Har- Visit to the Highest Habitation in Europe...

37

- London L. Hour.......

grave...

541
Sonneteers, The-Chamberg's Ed. Jour........ 135

Voltaire and his Times- London L. Hour... 260

Southey, The Humor of-Chambers'. Ed. Winter Sleep of Animals, The......... 126

Journal......

370 | Witchcraft, The Last Trial for........

56

Allyn

Page

Page

Henry Rowe Schoolcraft.......

1 | Bunyan's Cottage....

209

House of the Interpreter...................

Zoar Chapel, Southwark...

209

Damsel Innocent.....

7 Interior of Zoar Chapel.......

210

The Man with the Muck-rake.....

8 Bunyan's Tomb...........

211

Lesson from Chickens.....

9

Pulpit, Breachwood...

212

The Garden....

10

Cabinet..

212

Hollow Tree......

11

Knife....

212

Supper at the Interpreter's.......

12 Case of Weights.......

212

The Garden Bath.......

13 Chair.....

212

The Departure with Greatheart.....

14 Syllabub Cup...........

213

Winslow's Chair......

15 Vestry Jug......

213

Old Window-Pane..............

16 | Map of the Regions in which the Lost Tribes

Carver's Chair........

16

originally settled...

214

Peregrine White's Tree......

17 Jane de Montfort......

268

The Fuller Cradle.......

17 David and Jonathan...

269

Brewster's Chair.........

18 Ruth and Naumi....

272

Old Spinning-wheel...

19

Thomas Buchanan Read.

289

Pilgrim Costume........

20 War Scene......

295

Dutch Bible.....

21

The Morning Gathering.

295

Arctic Researches...

24 The Sentinel.

296

Metropolitan Neophyte of Wallachia.. 73

The Camp Fire...

297

Ecclesiastical Costume...

74 The Reveille....

298

Argisch ......

75 The Battle-field..

299

Monastery of Niamzo........

76 The Return......

299

A Sketch of Bunyan—Frontispiece........ 97 The Soldier at Home...

300

Bunyan's Birth-place....

98 Israel and the Pyramids (5 eng.).

301

Killing the Adder...

98 An April Day......

309

Elstow Church......

99 Gate of Salutation.....

361

Elstow Green.............

99 Fountain of Roses.......

366

Game of Cat........

100 Mosque of St. Sophia...

367

Holy Bible.......

100 | Dancing Dervishes.....

368

The Rebuke....

100 Diedrich Knickerbocker.

385

Bunyan Listening to the Christian Women 101 Spring.....

395

Comforted by the Women.....

102 Night in Switzerland..

396

Bunyan at Mr. Gifford's Meeting...

103 Attack and Alarm.....

398

Comforted.

104 Victory and Gratitude..

399

at Meeting..

105

The Sphinx.........

400

Conversing with his Wife.

105

Storing of Corn in Egyptian Granaries 403

- Preaching...

106 Illustrations of Israelitish Bondage......... 405

Arrested

................ 107

View of Port-Royal as it was.......

Bedford Jail....

107 The Baths of Soliman.....

457

Abd-ul-Medjid..

193 Women at the Cemetery.

462

Constantinople..
195 Tomb of the Sultan Mahmoud...

46+

Cafe on the Bosphorus........

200

Isabella of Castile...

481

Turkish Bazaar.

201 Goldsmith's Deserted Village (12 eng.)

A Street in Constantinople..

203 | Map of the Dead Sea.......

494

The Sultan's Autograph....

204 Dead Sea Scenery..

499

Bunyan's Wife before Chief Justice Hale.... 205 Mountains of Engedi......

501

Blind Child........

Tomb of Noah at Nakhtchevan.

503

Chapel....

208 View of the Elbrowz......

506

Bunyan Preaching in the Open Air............ 208 Circassian Mountaineers.........

507

Dell' in Wainwood...

Circassian Costumes...

508

........ 408

[merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][merged small]

H

ENRY ROWE SCHOOLCRAFT the attention of Lieutenant Governor Van

was born in Guilderland, near Albany, Rensselaer, one of his father's friends, and on the twenty-eighth of March, 1793. On through his agency came near being apthe paternal side he is of English descent, prenticed to a portrait painter in Albany; his great-grandfather having come from (it was from his drawings in natural history England during the wars of Queen Anne, that the governor first felt an interest in and settled in what is now Schoharie him ;) but as it was deemed necessary for County, New-York, where he taught the him to begin his career with house-paintfirst English school in the neighborhood, ing, then, perhaps, considered the base of whereby his name, which was originally all high art, the plan was abandoned, and Calcraft, was changed to Schoolcraft. with it his idea of becoming an artist. In The father of our author, Lawrence the mean time he pursued his studies and Schoolcraft, joined the revolutionary army juvenile penmanship, contributing prose when quite a youth, and served under and verse to the newspapers, and teaching Montgomery and Schuyler.

himself natural history, English literature, In his thirteenth year Henry attracted and French, German and Hebrew.

VOL. VI.-1

In 1818-19 he made a geological survey cipal disbursing agent for the same disof Missouri and Arkansas to the spurs of trict. In the same year he published two the Rocky Mountains, published “ A View volumes of " Algic Researches." In of the Lead Mines of Missouri,” and print- | 1842 he visited the continent, traversing ed “ Transallegania,” a mineralogical England, France, Germany, Prussia, and poem. In 1820 appeared his “ Journal of Holland. On his return he made another a Tour in Missouri and Arkansas.” At-journey to the West to examine some of tracting the attention of government by the great mounds; the information which his writings, he was commissioned by John he then collected, whatever it may have C. Calhoun, the then Secretary of War, been, he communicated to the Royal to visit the copper region of Lake Supe- Geographical Society of Denmark, of rior, and to accompany General Cass in which he was an honorary member. He his expedition to the head waters of the also published a collection of his verse Mississippi. His “ Narrative Journal” under the title of “ Alhalla ; or, the Lord of this tour was published in 1821: in the of Talladega : a Tale of the Creek War,” same year he was made secretary to the with other miscellanies of an early date. commission for treating with the Indian In 1844 he commenced in numbers the tribes at Chicago. On the conclusion of publication of “ Onesta; or, the Red Race his labors there he published “ Travels in in America; their History, Traditions, the Central Portions of the Mississippi Customs, Poetry, Picture-Writing, &c." Valley."

In 1845 he delivered an address before His reputation was now pretty general- a society known as" Phoebus, what a ly established as a traveler and a man of name !"—the “Was-ah-Ho-de-no-sonne, science. President Monroe, in 1822, ap- or the new confederacy of the Iroquois ;” pointed him agent for Indian affairs, and published “ Observations on Grave Creek he removed to Saint Mary's on Lake Su- Mound in Western Virginia," in the perior. For the next five or six years he American Ethnological Society; and preoccupied himself with the duties of his sented in a report to the Legislature of his station, attending several important con- native state his “Notes on the Iroquois, vocations of the North-west tribes. In or Contributions to the Statistics of 1831 he was sent on a special embassy to Aboriginal History and General Ethnology conciliate the Sioux and Ojibbewas, who of Western New-York." were then at war with each other; and in The last, and in some respects the most 1832 to the tribes near the head waters important of Schoolcraft's works, for of the Mississippi : he traced the waters which his previous ones are only a prepof the river to their true source in Itasca aration, is the “ Historical and Statistical Lake, which he entered on the thirteenth Information respecting the History, Conof July, the one hundred and forty-ninth dition, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes anniversary of the discovery of the mouth of the United States; collected and preof the river itself. In 1834 he published pared under the Direction of the Bureau his “ Expedition to Itasca Lake." of Indian Affairs, per Act March 3d, 1847.”

From 1827 to 1831 he was member of The first volume of this ponderous work the Legislature of Michigan ; in 1828 he was issued a few years ago. If carried established the Michigan Historical Socie- out according to the author's plan, and ty, and set on foot the Algic Society at with the magnitude and ability which the Detroit. Before the Algic Society he subject demands, it will be one of the inost delivered a course of lectures on the gram- valuable and important books ever issued matical construction of the Indian lan- in this country, and one which will go guages, and read “ The Indian Character," down to posterity with honor to itself and an anniversary poem.

its author. It is still in the course of In 1836 Schoolcraft was appointed a publication, and will doubtless extend to commissioner to treat with the North-west six or seven volumes. tribes for their lands in the regions of the From the evident tendencies of SchoolUpper Lakes, and he effected a cession to craft's mind, as seen in the subject and the United States of some sixteen millions general drift of his books, and from the of acres.

He was also made acting want of incident in his life, in any exsuperintendent of Indian affairs for the cept an official point of view, and that in Northern department, and in 1839 prin- one direction only—Indianism, (if we may

be allowed the term,) it seems to us best much to blame, being by nature stubborn, to select him as the type of that class revengeful, and cruel ; but it has always of our writers, and judge him accordingly, seemed to us that they were unfairly rather than as a general litterateur. And treated from the first, their rights being in so doing, he will, we imagine, fare quite either not recognized or entirely and wanas well, as if we criticised him by himself tonly disregarded, and their wrongs met without any reference to the character of with those of a darker dye. Of a darker his writings. As is the case with most dye because our forefathers were in a writers of scientific books, the man will state of perfect civilization; were eduthen be lost in the work. On Indianism cated, and by nature full of noble qualities ; in general, rather than on Schoolcraft in were nominally Christians, nay, many of particular, we offer a few suggestions. them the choicest spirits of Christianity,

It is now a little over two hundred while the unfortunate red race were exactly years since this continent was first peopled the reverse. by the white races. At the time of its From the body of Puritan settlers, espediscovery, and for a considerable period cially those who dabbled in literature, these afterward, it was inhabited by numerous last were mostly musty and combative tribes of Indians, differing from each other theologians, and mercantile voyagers, they in language and manners, but alike in their had nothing to hope. The only way by various seatures of mind. To the whites, which they could be at all benefited was who were fresh from the worn-out formulas by the utter sacrifice of all their previous of Europe, their radical state of nature, habits of life, their nationality in fact, and both as regards good and evil, the strange- that of all others was the most repugnant ness and grandness of some parts of their to them. Hence the prejudiced and unmythology, and above all the mystery reliable manner in which they are mentionwhich enshrouded them, a mystery which ed by most of our early writers, and the they themselves were incapable of un- scarcity of anything truly genuine and raveling, were a source of wonder and really worth preserving concerning them; curiosity. But, as if anticipating the now the little which has been preserved being settled indifference of the American char-confined more to outward facts, such as acter, the wonder and curiosity were soon their tribal geography and battles, than to over; and instead of speculating and that which distinguished them from the theorizing on the origin of the aborigines, whites, and made them what they were. comparing the accounts of the various And this, by the way, has been the case tribes, and collecting and preserving the with nearly all the inhabitants of America , most authentic memorials of their past, the essential has been overlooked, while our good forefathers had an eye to busi- the non-essential has been carefully preness, and considered how they might use served. The fanaticism of the early their copper-skinned neighbors to advant- Spanish monks destroyed the symbolical age, in a moral and monetary point of view. picture-writing, the historical hieroglyphs One portion of the community were for of ancient Mexico, while the ignorance converting them to Christianity; another and cupidity of the soldiers leveled its for converting them to merchandise. monuments and works of art. Glowing The godly preached to them, the ungodly as is “ Prescott's History," we know next overreached them. The spirit of our to nothing of Mexico, while Marmontel's Puritan ancestry, that fiery intolerance novel, “ The Incas,” is the most popular, and bigotry which led them to persecute if not the most reliable picture of the old Anabaptists, Quakers, and other schis- Peruvians. How, indeed, could it well matics, not to mention the ducking and be otherwise, when so many years have hanging of sundry persons of both sexes, passed since their extinction, and those was fatal to the peace and permanency of who were the cause of their extinction the mass of the Indian tribes. They were were so indifferent to their history? When not looked upon as men—were merely history neglects a nation, they are certain “ bloody savages,” “ heathen dogs," “ wor to be taken up by fiction. shipers of stocks and stones,” whom it There is no lack of books, such as they was quite safe, if not meritorious even, to are, about the Indians, and those of a recent kill for any reasonable provocation. With- date. Ever since we have begun to write, out doubt the Indians themselves were our critics have been insane for an Ameri

can literature, and most of our authors have And dark-eyed maids do braid their hair been just as insane to oblige them, to do

With starry shells, and buds, and leaves; which they found it necessary to “ do” a

And sing wild songs in dreamy bowers,

And dance on dewy evescertain number of Indians, chiefs, squaws,

When daylight melts, and stars are few, and papooses. We cannot now stop to And west winds frame a drowsy time, name the mass of novels, poems and

And all the charmed waters sleep,

Beneath a yellow moon!" plays, prepared after the stereotyped Indian recipe. Cooper, among our novelists, Something like this is the effect which is fresh in the minds of all, most of us a successful Indian literature demands. having at some time or other read some That which we conceive to be the most one of his many admired fictions, while prominent element of Indianism, and which all of us are, more or less, acquainted is the most difficult to be imbodied, is rawith his fame. Without subscribing to the diant in the pages of Schoolcraft's “ Algic intense admiration which most American Researches.” Others may have described critics feel for his writings, we consider the race better, may have shed more light him the most successful, if not the most on their manners and origin, but none truthful of all our prose writers who have approached him in Indian legendary have made the Indians the subject of lore, and the poetry thereto attached.

He has been successful in his It is well to paint the surroundings of treatment of the Indian character, because Indianism—the forests, lakes, and wighe has succeeded in making it poetical wams; better to paint well its mixed and ideal, in fact, almost too poetical and qualities, making them ideal and poetical ; ideal at times, or rather, perhaps, poetical but to give, as Schoolcraft does, its very and ideal in a wrong direction, in the re- life and spirit, as imbodied in tales and gion of the sentimental and melo-dramatic, legends, is the best of all, and what no rather than in that of the simple, the one, save himself, seems to have thought strange, and the mysterious. The absence of doing. Others have either neglected of the simple, the strange, and the myste- the legendary lore as unworthy of being rious in our Indian literature is the cause collected, or have lacked the proper means of its non-success in an art point of view. of collecting it. Our writers deal in Indians who are too One of the first things that strikes us modern; they do not go back far enough in reading the “ Algic Researches,” is the in the twilight of antiquity. They take extreme originality and uniqueness of most Indians of the last year, or the last century, of the tales therein. Given the tales, we in preference to the abstract idea of the could, by a process of reasoning, trace Indian, the poetical savage of the mys- out the peculiar people to whom they beterious world of imagination. Instead of long; analysis would give them only to painting dusk figures on a dusk, but rich the Indians of North America. They background, in the shade of primeval are really, what it is professed they are, forests, in the immensity of pathless prai- the legendary lore of a race of savages. ries, and in the light of sunsets, they draw The impress of the Indian mind, and its them more like incarnate brutes than men, mode of thought, is visible on every page. and contrast them with a superior race, And yet there is enough that is merely and the prominent elements of civilization, general about them to show their affinity besides which they are shockingly imper- to the fairy lore of all nations and times. fect and out of place. To appear to ad- The fairy lore of a nation comes to pervantage to the thoughtful, they should be fection only in a nation's childhood, and surrounded by the wild and magnificent in to that it must always be referred. A nature, should be placed in the golden age semi-barbarous people like the Indians of poetry, and not in any age since the being always in a state of mental childdiscovery and settlement of America. hood, it is not so easy to trace out the

romance.

date of their fairy lore; still there are, “Sometimes the dusky islanders Lie all day long beneath the trees,

even among them, certain periods of And watch the white clouds in the sky, greater or lesser barbarism, to some one And birds upon the azure seas ;

of which a careful analysis is able to refer Sometimes they wrestle on the turf,

it. Proving their originality then in their And chase each other down the sands; And sometimes lie in bloomy groves,

choice of subjects, and their manner of And pluck the fruit with idle hands; treatment, the legends in the Algic

« AnteriorContinuar »