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A "when the people of Normandy were

ECCLESIASTICAL LIFE IN THE a dream about him at his birth, which, with MIDDLE AGES.

the interpretation of a certain soothsaying monk, she treasured up as a token of her

child's future greatness. He was accordT the close of the eleventh century, ingly sent to the cathedral-school of Cha

tillon-sur-Seine, to receive the rudiments suffering from the quarrels of William of a learned education. Rufus and Prince Louis, and France was For logic Bernard had no great taste. resounding with the preparations for the The kingdom of heaven was not, for him, first Crusade, a lady, called Aletta, the to be unlocked by subtle dialectics. On wife of the Count Tecelin, lived quietly at the other hand, he threw himself with all home in her husband's castle, near Dijon, the enthusiasm of his nature into the study and devoted herself to the care of her of ancient literature. Still, though he children and of the poor who dwelt around mastered Latin so far as to preach extemher. She had a gentle, pious heart, and pore in it with ease, he was never a learned did not find it necessary to travel to Jeru- man, or, rather, his learning was of that salem in search of heaven and duty. Her kind which may be gleaned by an observfavorite pilgrimages were to the cottages ant eye and a watchful heart. The presof her indigent neighbors ; and thither she ent had for him abundant wealth. He saw might often be seen carrying food and med nature for himself, conversed with God for icine, and there she would sit by the bed himself, was learned in the “open secret” side of the sick supplying their wants and of the universe, and the mysteries of his soothing their pains with words of divine own soul; and he had made for himself consolation.

that discovery which wise men in GerAletta reverenced the clergy as the am many have recently proclaimed, that for bassadors of God; and her first care for the comprehension of the highest truth her children was to dedicate them to the man has another faculty than the underservice of God in the way she deemed standing, and other words than syllogisms, most acceptable, and in those days the —that for the spiritual world there is a most acceptable service was believed to be spiritual sensorium,—that logic may weigh the life of the cloister. As she grew the evidences of religion, but that it is not older the strictness of her devotion in- logic which draws near the living God. creased; she divided the day between Six months after his return from Chahousehold duties, almsgiving, prayer, the tillon his mother's health began to fail. festivals of the Church, entirely secluding On the festival of St. Ambrose she had herself from the social amusements of her been wont to make a feast for the neightime, which must, indeed, in their drunken boring clergy, and, weak as she was, she revelry and often bloody encounters, have made the usual preparations. But as the contained enough to repel any Christian day approached, she grew worse ; and heart. How her husband liked all this when the day arrived, she was confined to does not appear, nor what place he held her bed. Still she would not have the in the household ; he was, probably, fre- feast put off, and when the repast was quently absent on some of those petty cam ended, she requested that “ the ministers paigns which characterized that age of of the Lord” would visit her in her room. feuds and feudalism.

They found her dying, and, at her entreaty, Such was the atmosphere which sur recited in chorus the solemn litany of the rounded the childhood of Bernard. The dying. She followed them faintly to the cloistral quiet of the house seems to have words, “ By thy cross and passion, good imparted a thoughtful tone to the whole Lord deliver us ;” and then laying the cross family ; doubtless, however, six brothers on her breast, she sank back and died. and a sister living together in their father's For us the life of Aletta is a stray leaf castle among


sunny corn-fields of Bur- from the chronicles of the middle ages gundy, did not pass a gloomy or a dreamy very touching and very precious. It is childhood, though their seclusion knit them pleasant to think how many such hallowed with peculiarly strong bonds to each other homes and Christian mothers there may and to their mother.

have been in those days when the biograOn Bernard the hopes of his mother phies of good women were only “ printed vere most fondly fixed. She had dreamed for private circulation" in the hearts of

those their love had blessed ;-how many nard, one day, it is said, laid his hand on there are in all ages who, like the poor this brother's side, and said, reproachfully, Scotchwoman, although they “could not “A spear shall pierce thy side.” Gerard speak for Him,” would “ die for Him." did actually, not long afterward, receive

From Bernard the impression of his a lance-wound in his side, and in his sufmother's early teaching never faded away. fering recalled his brother's words and Her image hovered before him constantly; followed his example. The father, Count her blessing was on his head ; her words Tecelin, abandoned, at length, of all his were in his heart, upholding him in the children, rejoined them beneath the roof midst of temptation. At last, one day the of the convent. beloved form imbodied itself so vividly to The fraternity of Citeaux, to which Berhis sense, as he traveled to join his broth- nard had attached himself on account of ers in the camp at Tenchebrai, that he en- its superlative austerity, was guided by tered a church which stood open by the the reformed rules of St. Benedict. roadside, and prostrating himself before There is nothing more striking in the the altar, with tears of gratitude he prom- history of the monastic orders than the ised to devote himself to the service of frequent recurrence of this word “reformhis Redeemer, and to fulfill the vow of his ed.” A spirit of zealous devotion is mother by embracing the religious or mo- awakened, and imbodies itself in some nastic life.

fraternity of recluses, bound by strictest Bernard used frequently to speak of the rules of self-mortification. For the course circumstances of his conversion to his of a century or two all goes on quietly, young friends. “I am not ashamed to when, again, in the midst of this religious confess,” he would say, " that often, and company, some earnest man begins to particularly at the beginning of my con- look about him for the means of genuine version, I experienced great hardness of self-denial, and to his disgust finds the heart and an extreme coldness. I sought rules relaxed, the offerings of charity conafter Him whom my soul would fain love; verted into means of luxurious indulgence, Him in whom my frozen spirit might re- and a life of piety quite as much of a pose and reanimate itself. But none came singularity in the order as the order itself to succor me, and dissolve this strong ice originally was in the world. He becomes which bound up my spiritual senses, and a nucleus for minds similarly aroused ; to revive the sweetness and serenity of and a new order is presently instituted. the spiritual spring. Thus my soul con- Thus the very monastic societies, against tinued feeble and listless, a prey to grief, whose lazy self-indulgence Luther so justly almost to despair; and murmuring inter- protested, had, in their day, been the work nally, 'Who is able to abide His frost ?' of some reformer as sincere and selfThen, on a sudden, and perhaps at the devoted, though not so enlightened, as first word, or at the first sight of a spiritu- Luther himself. Unhappily the same proally-minded person,--sometimes at the cess may be traced in the Reformation bare remembrance of one dead or absent, of Luther itself. Nor can any reformation -the Holy Spirit would begin to breathe, be final. Man can only work for the presand the waters to flow; then would tears ent. Our contribution toward the wants be my meat day and night."

of our age should be given in subscriptions With Bernard piety was an expansive while we live, not bequeathed in legacies. principle. From the moment of that soli- The institution which imbodies the piety tary consecration in the way-side oratory, of to-day may cramp and persecute the he incessantly labored to win others over piety of to-morrow. to the side of God.

The Cistercian order, however, was still Nor was it wonderful that in those days in its perfection of discipline in Bernard's he regarded the monastic vow as the con- time. The day was divided between manclusive test of religious decision. The ual and spiritual labors; and the crucifirst-fruits of his missionary labors was fixion of the flesh, by means of fastings, his uncle, a man of property, rank, and bleedings, &c., was sufficient to satisfy military fame. All his brothers who had the veriest epicure in austerities. reached manhood, one by one, abandoned In spite of this, or as its consequence, the world to join him, save Gerard, the volunteers continued to throng the gates one he seems to have loved the best. Ber. I of Citeaux. New cloisters were built,

filled, and overfilled; and, at length, it was toward the east, the valley ran into a narresolved to occupy a piece of land in the row gorge at the west. The sun shone on diocese of Langres, given to the order it all day, and at evening sank to rest besome years previously by a knight of hind the forest. The clang of diligent Champagne. Bernard, not then twenty- labor, mingled with choral chants and the five, but already distinguished for his sound of church-bells, only broke the cal austerity to himself, his gentleness to to consecrate it. One, who visited the others, and his fervent love of God, was place during Bernard's life, declared," the chosen abbot of the new monastery. The solemn stillness so awed us, that we forenumber of emigrants was, as usual, twelve, bore to speak on any but sacred subjects to typify the College of the Apostles and as long as we were within the precincts the Saviour. After a farewell service, of the valley." the twelve exiles, with Bernard at their Nothing can be more striking than the head, walked quietly out of the church. contrast between the effect of monastic The silence was only broken by irrepress- ideas on Hildebrand and on Bernard. ible sobs and the sound of faltering hymns. Gregory's world is peopled with ideas, and The site of the new settlement was their incarnations in laymen and monks ; called the Valley of Wormwood. It had Bernard's with men and his brethren. His been a refuge of banditti, and was a dreary monasticism is paradoxically social. Monand desolate spot. Never, however, were asteries are for him, not so much islands there more industrious and patient colo- of sanctity in the sea of corruption, as nists. They had much to do and much to companies of Christian men, uniting in endure. The neighboring gentry soon affectionate relationship to serve God ;grew tired of giving alms. They had to not so much segregations as congregawait several months before they could till tions. His first impulse, on receiving the the ground, and then several months more assurance of the love of God, is to combefore the crops appeared. Meantime, municate it; and it is characteristic that they lived on a scanty allowance of the his first converts are among his own famcoarsest bread; and sometimes, not being ily. He commences his life of seclusion able to get even that, on beech-leaves with a society of thirty personal friends. steeped in salt; and while they were build- His family circle is reunited in the cloising the cloisters, they had no shelter ter. His father dies in his arms. His amidst the damp marshes of the valley but brother Gerard is his dearest friend. The some rough mud-huts hastily run up. The abbot of a rival monastery declares that he fragile frame of Bernard suffered so se “would rather pass his life with Bernard verely as to disable him from preaching. than enjoy all the kingdoms of the world ;" His faith, however, retained its exalted and an archbishop of Treves journeys to confidence. One day their salt failed. Rome to entreat the Pope to relieve him Bernard commanded one of the monks to from his charge, that he might spend the saddle an ass and go to the next town to rest of his days at Clairvaux. Constantly buy more. The monk remonstrated that do we hear of his “ angelic countenance," he had no money. “Take faith," was the and of the “ benevolent smile” which hababbot's reply. By his vow of obedience itually lit up his attenuated features. His the podr monk had no resource but to monks loved him as their father; and years obey. In a few hours he returned laden of separation, and the dignity of the Papal with provisions. A priest had met him crown which one of them (Eugenius) aton the way, and hearing of their distress, tained, could not dissolve the tie. Surely, had filled the panniers with food. “Hold to have been so much loved, he must have fast faith, my son,” was Bernard's com- loved much. ment; and it shall be well with thee all It has been said that men of genius have the days of thy life.”

always something feminine in their naAt length, after sufferings of eighteen ture, and this seems to have been the case months, the trial passed. Gifts poured in with Bernard. Gregory VII. might have from every side; the crops were reaped, sprung from Jove's forehead ;-in every and from the completed convent arose the line of Bernard's history we read that he voice of grateful psalmody.

born of woman. His love for his Then followed days of peace. Bounded brother Gerard was almost motherly. by two wooded hills, which sloped gently Gerard became ill. During his illness the



abbot wept, and watched, and supplicated 'Father,' Father,' he turned to me, and his restoration. But Gerard died. Ber- smiling, said, ' 0, how gracious of God to nard folded up his grief in resolute resig- be the Father of men; and what an honor nation, and saw his brother buried without for men to be his children ;' and then, a tear. His monks wondered at his firm- very distinctly, “if children, then heirs.' ness, for hitherto, at the death of any of And so he died, and so dying he well-nigh the brotherhood, his heart had overflowed changed my grief into rejoicing, so comin sorrow. He ascended the pulpit, and pletely did the sight of his happiness overrepeating the text, endeavored calmly to power the recollection of my own misery." continue his exposition of the Canticles, Was there ever a funeral sermon which but recollections rushed thick on his mind came so fresh from the very fountains of and overpowered him. His voice was tenderness, or which goes so direct to the lost in sobs, and for some minutes he was heart? To the man who uttered it Chrisunable to proceed. Then, recovering a tianity could never become stoicism, or little, and feeling the hopelessness of fur- monasticism itself other than a bond of ther restraint, he poured out his grief brotherhood, giving new ties of kindred, “ before his children," and in the most while the old ones continued undissolved. touching words entreated their sympathy. * Who,” he said, “ could ever have loved

EXPRESSION OF HAIR. me as he did ? He was a brother by

F the modern art in the everlasting presence of the Lord Jesus, and hast angels for thy companions; ton chop seems to have suggested the but what have I to fill up the void thou form of the substantial British whisker. hast left? Fain would I know thy feelings Out of this simple design countless varietoward me, my brother, my beloved, if, ties of forms have arisen. How have indeed, it is permitted to one bathing in they arisen? Can any one give an acthe floods of divine radiance to call to count of his own whiskers from their birth mind our misery, to be occupied with our upward ? To our mind there is nothing grief. Yet God is love ; and the more more mysterious than the growth of this closely a soul is united to God the more manly appendage. Did any far-seeing does it abound in love. . . . His nature is youth deliberately design his own whisker? to have mercy and to forgive. Thou must Was there ever known a hobbledehoy who needs then be merciful, since thou art saw “a great future in his silken down, joined to Him who showeth mercy ; and and determined to train it in the way it thy affection, though transformed, is no should go? We think not. British wise diminished. Thou hast laid aside whiskers, in truth, have grown up like all thine infirmities but not thy love, for love the great institutions of the country, noiseabideth ;' and throughout eternity 'thou lessly and persistently—an outward exwilt not forget me.'..... God grant, pression, as the Germans would say, of Gerard, that I may have not lost thee; the inner life of the people; the general but that thou hast preceded me, and I may idea allowing of infinite variety according be with thee where thou art. For of a to the individuality of the wearer. Let surety thou hast rejoined those whom in us take the next half-dozen men passing thy last night below thou didst invite to by the window as we write. The first praise God, when suddenly, to the great has his whiskers tucked into the corners surprise of all, thou, with a serene coun of his mouth, as though he were holding tenance and a cheerful voice, didst com them up with his teeth. The second mence chanting, Praise ye the Lord, whisker that we descry has wandered into from the heavens.' ' Praise him, all his the middle of the cheek, and there stopped angels.' At that moment, O my brother, as though it did not know where to go to, the day had dawned on thee; though it like a youth who has ventured out into the was night to us, the night to thee was all middle of a ball-room with all eyes upon brightness. Just as I reached his him. Yonder bunch of bristles (No. 3) side, I heard him utter aloud those words twists the contrary way under the owner's of Christ, · Father, into thy hands I com ear: he could not for the life of him tell mend my spirit.' Then, repeating the why it retrograded so. That fourth citi. verse over again, and resting on the word


with the vast Pacific of a face, has


little whiskers which seem to have stopped own seaweed. The beautiful flowing short after two inches of voyage, as though locks of Apollo, full and free, represent aghast at the prospect of having to double perpetual youth; and the gentle, vagrant, such a Cape Horn of a chin. We per- bewitching tresses of Venus denote most ceive coming a tremendous pair, running clearly her peculiar characteristics and over the shirt-collar in luxuriant profusion. claims as a divinity of Olympus. What Yet we see, as the colonel or general takes gives the loose and wanton air to the poroff his hat to that lady, that he is quite traits in Charles II.'s "bedchamber at bald—those whiskers are, in fact, nothing Hampton Court? Duchess and Countess but a landslip from the veteran's head! sweep along the canvas with all the dig

Even in Europe, some skins seem to nity that Lely could flatter them with; but have no power of producing hair at all. on the disordered curls and the forehead Dark, thick-complexioned people are fre- fringed with love-locks Cyprian is plainly quently quite destitute of either beard or written. Even Nell Gwyn, retired into whisker, and Nature now and then, as if the deep shade of the alcove, beckons us to restore the balance, produces a hairy with her soft redundance of ringlets. But

A charming example was exhib- too well woman knows the power Venus iting some time since in London. The de- has endowed her with in this silken lasso: scription she gives of herself we will not back, but here it is from the printed bill :

“Fair tresses man's imperial race insnare,

And beauty draws us with a single hair." “ The public is most respectfully informed that Mad. FORTUNNE, one of the most curious In the rougher sex the temper and disphenomenons which ever appeared in Europe, position are more apparent from the set has arrived in London, in the person of a young of the hair than in woman, because, as woman, 21 years of age, whose face, which is of an extraordinary whiteness, is surrounded already observed, they allow it to follow by a beard as black as jet, about four inches in more the arrangement of nature. Curly length. The beard is as thick and bushy as hair bespeaks the sanguine temperament, that of any man. The young lady is a native lank hair the phlegmatic. Poets for the of Geneva, in Switzerland, and has received a most brilliant education. She speaks French most part, we believe, have had curly hair fluently, and will answer all the questions that —though our own age has exhibited some may be addressed to her. Her beard, which notable exceptions to the rule. Physiolreaches from one eye to the other, perfectly ogy has not yet decided upon what the encircles the face, forming the most surprising curl is dependent, but we feel satisfied contrast, but without impairing its beauty. Her bust is most finely formed, and leaves not that it arises from a flattening of one side the least doubt as to her sex. She will approach of the hair more than the other. all the persous who may honor her with their

So well do people understand the charpresence, and give an account of her origin and birth, and explain the motives which induced acter as expressed by the hair and its her to quit her country. Everybody will also management, that it is used as a kind of be allowed to touch her beard, so as to be con- index. Commercial ideas are very exact vinced that it is perfectly natural.”

respecting it. What chance would a The beard was a glorious specimen, and gentleman with a moustache have of getshamed any man's that we have ever seen. ting a situation in a bank? Even too

Of the expression of hair-could we much whisker is looked upon with suspipress for the nonce a quill from Esthonia cion. A clean shave is usually, as the -much might be well and edifyingly said. world goes, expected in persons aspiring The Greeks, with their usual subtilty in to any post of serious trust. We confess reading Nature, and interpreting her in that few montrosities in this line affect us their works of art, have distinguished more dismally than the combination of their gods by the variations of this excres- dandy favoris with the however reduced cence. Thus the hair of the Phidian Jove peruke of Brother Briefless or Brother in the Vatican, which rises in spouts as it Hardup. It is needless to add that anywere from the forehead, and then falls in thing like hirsute luxuriance about a sawavy curls, is like the mane of the lion, cerdotal physiognomy is offensive to every most majestic and imperial in appearance. orthodox admirer of the via mediato all The crisp curls of Hercules again remind the Anglican community, it is probable, us of the short locks between the horns of excepting some inveterate embroideresses the indomitable bull; while the hair of of red and blue altar-cloths and tall curates' Neptune falls down wet and dank like his / slippers.

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